Androgen Receptor Regulation of Prostate Cancer Progression and Metastasis

  • R. S. Schrecengost
  • M. A. Augello
  • Karen E. Knudsen


Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most commonly diagnosed non-cutaneous malignancy and the second most lethal cancer in men amongst the United States. Localized tumors are effectively treated via radical prostatectomy and/or radiation therapy, however disseminated disease contributes greatly to patient morbidity. At present, therapeutic intervention for metastatic disease capitalizes on the addiction of these tumors to the androgen receptor (AR). The AR signaling axis regulates cell growth, proliferation, and migration of cancer cells, which makes understanding the contribution of AR toward these signaling pathways integral for PCa eradication. Several key signaling molecules are currently known to be controlled by AR and promote migration and invasion in castrate-resistant PCa (CRPC). This concept will be explored with regard to the interplay between AR and chemokine receptors, chromosomal fusions, oncogenes, and microRNAs. Additionally, current and preclinical AR-directed therapeutics used for treatment of metastatic PCa, which impinge on these pathways, and overall AR activity, will be discussed.


Androgen Receptor Androgen Receptor Expression Abiraterone Acetate Androgen Receptor Signaling Ezrin Expression 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



Abiraterone acetate


Androgen deprivation therapy


Androgen receptor


Bicalutamide (Casodex)


Cyclin-dependent kinases


Chronic myelogenous leukemia


Castration resistant prostate cancer


Circulating tumor cells




Enhancer box


Erythroblast transformation specific transcription factor


Focal adhesion kinase


Florescence in-situ hybridization




Gonadotropin releasing hormone


Histone acetyltransferases


Heat shock proteins




Kruppel-like-factor 5


Ligand binding domain


Matrix metalloproteinases






Nuclear Co-Repressor 1


Prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia




Prostate cancer


Prostate specific antigen


Stromal cell-derived factor 1


Macrophage inflammatory protein


Steroid receptor coactivator


Transgenic adenocarcinoma of the mouse prostate


Transmembrane protease serine 2


Vertebral-Cancer of the Prostate



We would like to thank all the members of the K. Knudsen lab, especially M. Schiewer, for insightful feedback and critical reading of this chapter.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. S. Schrecengost
    • 1
    • 2
  • M. A. Augello
    • 1
    • 2
  • Karen E. Knudsen
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Cancer BiologyThomas Jefferson UniversityPhiladelphiaUSA
  2. 2.Kimmel Cancer Center, Thomas Jefferson UniversityPhiladelphiaUSA
  3. 3.Department of UrologyThomas Jefferson UniversityPhiladelphiaUSA
  4. 4.Department of Radiation OncologyThomas Jefferson UniversityPhiladelphiaUSA

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