Introduction

Chapter

Abstract

Local therapies have continued to evolve with advances in surgical and radiation therapy techniques. This has contributed to improvements in survivorships in early stage disease. However, survival rates for metastatic disease remain poor. There has been increasing evidence that local therapy directly influences metastatic growth and overall survival. Both clinical and laboratory evidence support this hypothesis and an increasing understanding of the role of circulating tumor cells has further galvanized the idea of crosstalk between distant sites and the local disease. The current clinical arena is ripe for new innovations and the scientific advancements described in the remainder of this text set the stage upon which such progress will occur.

Keywords

Circulate Tumor Cell Stereotactic Body Radiation Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma Distant Metastasis Free Survival Cytoreductive Nephrectomy 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. 1.
    Jemal A, Siegel R, Xu J, Ward E (2010) Cancer statistics, 2010. CA Cancer J Clin 60(5):277–300PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Quirke P, Steele R, Monson J, Grieve R, Khanna S, Couture J, O’Callaghan C, Myint AS, Bessell E, Thompson LC, Parmar M, Stephens RJ, Sebag-Montefiore D (2009) Effect of the plane of surgery achieved on local recurrence in patients with operable rectal cancer: a prospective study using data from the MRC CR07 and NCIC-CTG CO16 randomised clinical trial. Lancet 373(9666):821–828PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Kao J, Lavaf A, Teng MS, Huang D, Genden EM (2008) Adjuvant radiotherapy and survival for patients with node-positive head and neck cancer: an analysis by primary site and nodal stage. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 71(2):362–370PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Bernier J, Cooper JS, Pajak TF, van Glabbeke M, Bourhis J, Forastiere A, Ozsahin EM, Jacobs JR, Jassem J, Ang KK, Lefebvre JL (2005) Defining risk levels in locally advanced head and neck cancers: a comparative analysis of concurrent postoperative radiation plus chemotherapy trials of the EORTC (#22931) and RTOG (# 9501). Head NeckOct 27(10):843–850CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Pignatti F, van den Bent M, Curran D, Debruyne C, Sylvester R, Therasse P, Afra D, Cornu P, Bolla M, Vecht C, Karim AB (2002) Prognostic factors for survival in adult patients with cerebral low-grade glioma. J Clin Oncol 20(8):2076–2084PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Palta JR, Deye JA, Ibbott GS, Purdy JA, Urie MM (2004) Credentialing of institutions for IMRT in clinical trials. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 59(4):1257–1259; author reply 9–61PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Apisarnthanarax S, Chao KS (2005) Current imaging paradigms in radiation oncology. Radiat Res 163(1):1–25PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Dearnaley DP, Sydes MR, Graham JD, Aird EG, Bottomley D, Cowan RA, Huddart RA, Jose CC, Matthews JH, Millar J, Moore AR, Morgan RC, Russell JM, Scrase CD, Stephens RJ, Syndikus I, Parmar MK (2007) Escalated-dose versus standard-dose conformal radiotherapy in prostate cancer: first results from the MRC RT01 randomised controlled trial. Lancet Oncol 8(6):475–487PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Hoskin PJ, Motohashi K, Bownes P, Bryant L, Ostler P (2007) High dose rate brachytherapy in combination with external beam radiotherapy in the radical treatment of prostate cancer: initial results of a randomised phase three trial. Radiother Oncol 84(2):114–120PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Peeters ST, Heemsbergen WD, Koper PC, van Putten WL, Slot A, Dielwart MF, Bonfrer JM, Incrocci L, Lebesque JV (2006) Dose-response in radiotherapy for localized prostate cancer: results of the Dutch multicenter randomized phase III trial comparing 68Gy of radiotherapy with 78Gy. J Clin Oncol 24(13):1990–1996PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Zietman AL, DeSilvio ML, Slater JD, Rossi CJ Jr, Miller DW, Adams JA, Shipley WU (2005) Comparison of conventional-dose vs. high-dose conformal radiation therapy in clinically localized adenocarcinoma of the prostate: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA 294(10):1233–1239PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Zietman AL, Bae K, Slater JD, Shipley WU, Efstathiou JA, Coen JJ, Bush DA, Lunt M, Spiegel DY, Skowronski R, Jabola BR, Rossi CJ (2010) Randomized trial comparing conventional-dose with high-dose conformal radiation therapy in early-stage adenocarcinoma of the ­prostate: long-term results from proton radiation oncology group/american college of radiology 95–09. J Clin Oncol 28(7):1106–1111PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Pollack A, Zagars GK, Starkschall G, Antolak JA, Lee JJ, Huang E, von Eschenbach AC, Kuban DA, Rosen I (2002) Prostate cancer radiation dose response: results of the M. D. Anderson phase III randomized trial. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 53(5):1097–1105PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Kuban DA, Tucker SL, Dong L, Starkschall G, Huang EH, Cheung MR, Lee AK, Pollack A (2008) Long-term results of the M. D. Anderson randomized dose-escalation trial for prostate cancer. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 70(1):67–74PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Sathya JR, Davis IR, Julian JA, Guo Q, Daya D, Dayes IS, Lukka HR, Levine M (2005) Randomized trial comparing iridium implant plus external-beam radiation therapy with external-beam radiation therapy alone in node-negative locally advanced cancer of the prostate. J Clin Oncol 23(6):1192–1199PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Dearnaley DP, Sydes MR, Langley RE, Graham JD, Huddart RA, Syndikus I, Matthews JH, Scrase CD, Jose CC, Logue J, Stephens RJ (2007) The early toxicity of escalated versus standard dose conformal radiotherapy with neo-adjuvant androgen suppression for patients with localised prostate cancer: results from the MRC RT01 trial (ISRCTN47772397). Radiother Oncol 83(1):31–41PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Beckendorf V, Guerif S, Le Prise E, Cosset JM, Lefloch O, Chauvet B, Salem N, Chapet O, Bourdin S, Bachaud JM, Maingon P, Lagrange JL, Malissard L, Simon JM, Pommier P, Hay MH, Dubray B, Luporsi E, Bey P (2004) The GETUG 70Gy vs. 80Gy randomized trial for localized prostate cancer: feasibility and acute toxicity. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 60(4):1056–1065PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Peeters ST, Heemsbergen WD, van Putten WL, Slot A, Tabak H, Mens JW, Lebesque JV, Koper PC (2005) Acute and late complications after radiotherapy for prostate cancer: results of a multicenter randomized trial comparing 68Gy to 78Gy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 61(4):1019–1034PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    van der Wielen GJ, van Putten WL, Incrocci L (2007) Sexual function after three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy for prostate cancer: results from a dose-escalation trial. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 68(2):479–484PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Talcott JA, Rossi C, Shipley WU, Clark JA, Slater JD, Niemierko A, Zietman AL (2010) Patient-reported long-term outcomes after conventional and high-dose combined proton and photon radiation for early prostate cancer. JAMA 303(11):1046–1053PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Storey MR, Pollack A, Zagars G, Smith L, Antolak J, Rosen I (2000) Complications from radiotherapy dose escalation in prostate cancer: preliminary results of a randomized trial. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 48(3):635–642PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Zelefsky MJ, Reuter VE, Fuks Z, Scardino P, Shippy A (2008) Influence of local tumor control on distant metastases and cancer related mortality after external beam radiotherapy for prostate cancer. J Urol 179(4):1368–1373; discussion 73PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Viani GA, Stefano EJ, Afonso SL (2009) Higher-than-conventional radiation doses in localized prostate cancer treatment: a meta-analysis of randomized, controlled trials. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 74(5):1405–1418PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Denham JW, Steigler A, Wilcox C, Lamb DS, Joseph D, Atkinson C, Matthews J, Tai KH, Spry NA, Christie D, Gleeson PS, Greer PB, D’Este C (2008) Time to biochemical failure and prostate-specific antigen doubling time as surrogates for prostate cancer-specific mortality: evidence from the TROG 96.01 randomised controlled trial. Lancet Oncol 9(11):1058–1068PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Denham JW, Steigler A, Lamb DS, Joseph D, Mameghan H, Turner S, Matthews J, Franklin I, Atkinson C, North J, Poulsen M, Christie D, Spry NA, Tai KH, Wynne C, Duchesne G, Kovacev O, D’Este C (2005) Short-term androgen deprivation and radiotherapy for locally advanced prostate cancer: results from the Trans-Tasman Radiation Oncology Group 96.01 randomised controlled trial. Lancet Oncol 6(11):841–850PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    D’Amico AV, Manola J, Loffredo M, Renshaw AA, DellaCroce A, Kantoff PW (2004) 6-month androgen suppression plus radiation therapy vs. radiation therapy alone for patients with clinically localized prostate cancer: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA 292(7):821–827PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    D’Amico AV, Chen MH, Renshaw AA, Loffredo M, Kantoff PW (2008) Androgen suppression and radiation vs. radiation alone for prostate cancer: a randomized trial. JAMA 299(3):289–295PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Laverdiere J, Gomez JL, Cusan L, Suburu ER, Diamond P, Lemay M, Candas B, Fortin A, Labrie F (1997) Beneficial effect of combination hormonal therapy administered prior and following external beam radiation therapy in localized prostate cancer. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 37(2):247–252PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Laverdiere J, Nabid A, De Bedoya LD, Ebacher A, Fortin A, Wang CS, Harel F (2004) The efficacy and sequencing of a short course of androgen suppression on freedom from ­biochemical failure when administered with radiation therapy for T2–T3 prostate cancer. J Urol 171(3):1137–1140PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Pilepich MV, Krall JM, al-Sarraf M, John MJ, Doggett RL, Sause WT, Lawton CA, Abrams RA, Rotman M, Rubin P et al (1995) Androgen deprivation with radiation therapy compared with radiation therapy alone for locally advanced prostatic carcinoma: a randomized comparative trial of the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group. Urology 45(4):616–623PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Pilepich MV, Winter K, John MJ, Mesic JB, Sause W, Rubin P, Lawton C, Machtay M, Grignon D (2001) Phase III radiation therapy oncology group (RTOG) trial 86–10 of androgen deprivation adjuvant to definitive radiotherapy in locally advanced carcinoma of the prostate. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 50(5):1243–1252PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Roach M 3rd, Bae K, Speight J, Wolkov HB, Rubin P, Lee RJ, Lawton C, Valicenti R, Grignon D, Pilepich MV (2008) Short-term neoadjuvant androgen deprivation therapy and external-beam radiotherapy for locally advanced prostate cancer: long-term results of RTOG 8610. J Clin Oncol 26(4):585–591PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Pilepich MV, Winter K, Lawton CA, Krisch RE, Wolkov HB, Movsas B, Hug EB, Asbell SO, Grignon D (2005) Androgen suppression adjuvant to definitive radiotherapy in prostate carcinoma–long-term results of phase III RTOG 85–31. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 61(5):1285–1290PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Bolla M, de Reijke TM, Van Tienhoven G, Van den Bergh AC, Oddens J, Poortmans PM, Gez E, Kil P, Akdas A, Soete G, Kariakine O, van der Steen-Banasik EM, Musat E, Pierart M, Mauer ME, Collette L (2009) Duration of androgen suppression in the treatment of prostate cancer. N Engl J Med 360(24):2516–2527PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Bolla M, Gonzalez D, Warde P, Dubois JB, Mirimanoff RO, Storme G, Bernier J, Kuten A, Sternberg C, Gil T, Collette L, Pierart M (1997) Improved survival in patients with locally advanced prostate cancer treated with radiotherapy and goserelin. N Engl J Med 337(5):295–300PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Bolla M, Collette L, Blank L, Warde P, Dubois JB, Mirimanoff RO, Storme G, Bernier J, Kuten A, Sternberg C, Mattelaer J, Lopez Torecilla J, Pfeffer JR, Lino Cutajar C, Zurlo A, Pierart M (2002) Long-term results with immediate androgen suppression and external ­irradiation in patients with locally advanced prostate cancer (an EORTC study): a phase III randomised trial. Lancet 360(9327):103–106PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Hanks GE, Pajak TF, Porter A, Grignon D, Brereton H, Venkatesan V, Horwitz EM, Lawton C, Rosenthal SA, Sandler HM, Shipley WU (2003) Phase III trial of long-term adjuvant ­androgen deprivation after neoadjuvant hormonal cytoreduction and radiotherapy in locally advanced carcinoma of the prostate: the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Protocol 92–02. J Clin Oncol 21(21):3972–3978PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Horwitz EM, Bae K, Hanks GE, Porter A, Grignon DJ, Brereton HD, Venkatesan V, Lawton CA, Rosenthal SA, Sandler HM, Shipley WU (2008) Ten-year follow-up of radiation therapy oncology group protocol 92–02: a phase III trial of the duration of elective androgen deprivation in locally advanced prostate cancer. J Clin Oncol 26(15):2497–2504PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Romestaing P, Lehingue Y, Carrie C, Coquard R, Montbarbon X, Ardiet JM, Mamelle N, Gerard JP (1997) Role of a 10-Gy boost in the conservative treatment of early breast cancer: results of a randomized clinical trial in Lyon, France. J Clin Oncol 15(3):963–968PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Bartelink H, Horiot JC, Poortmans PM, Struikmans H, Van den Bogaert W, Fourquet A, Jager JJ, Hoogenraad WJ, Oei SB, Warlam-Rodenhuis CC, Pierart M, Collette L (2007) Impact of a higher radiation dose on local control and survival in breast-conserving therapy of early breast cancer: 10-year results of the randomized boost versus no boost EORTC 22881–10882 trial. J Clin Oncol 25(22):3259–3265PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Polgar C, Fodor J, Orosz Z, Major T, Takacsi-Nagy Z, Mangel LC, Sulyok Z, Somogyi A, Kasler M, Nemeth G (2002) Electron and high-dose-rate brachytherapy boost in the ­conservative treatment of stage I-II breast cancer first results of the randomized Budapest boost trial. Strahlenther Onkol 178(11):615–623PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Fisher B, Bryant J, Dignam JJ, Wickerham DL, Mamounas EP, Fisher ER, Margolese RG, Nesbitt L, Paik S, Pisansky TM, Wolmark N (2002) Tamoxifen, radiation therapy, or both for prevention of ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence after lumpectomy in women with invasive breast cancers of one centimeter or less. J Clin Oncol 20(20):4141–4149PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Potter R, Gnant M, Kwasny W, Tausch C, Handl-Zeller L, Pakisch B, Taucher S, Hammer J, Luschin-Ebengreuth G, Schmid M, Sedlmayer F, Stierer M, Reiner G, Kapp K, Hofbauer F, Rottenfusser A, Postlberger S, Haider K, Draxler W, Jakesz R (2007) Lumpectomy plus tamoxifen or anastrozole with or without whole breast irradiation in women with favorable early breast cancer. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 68(2):334–340PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Hughes KS, Schnaper LA, Berry D, Cirrincione C, McCormick B, Shank B, Wheeler J, Champion LA, Smith TJ, Smith BL, Shapiro C, Muss HB, Winer E, Hudis C, Wood W, Sugarbaker D, Henderson IC, Norton L (2004) Lumpectomy plus tamoxifen with or without irradiation in women 70 years of age or older with early breast cancer. N Engl J Med 351(10):971–977PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Fyles AW, McCready DR, Manchul LA, Trudeau ME, Merante P, Pintilie M, Weir LM, Olivotto IA (2004) Tamoxifen with or without breast irradiation in women 50 years of age or older with early breast cancer. N Engl J Med 351(10):963–970PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Clarke M, Collins R, Darby S, Davies C, Elphinstone P, Evans E, Godwin J, Gray R, Hicks C, James S, MacKinnon E, McGale P, McHugh T, Peto R, Taylor C, Wang Y (2005) Effects of radiotherapy and of differences in the extent of surgery for early breast cancer on local recurrence and 15-year survival: an overview of the randomised trials. Lancet 366(9503):2087–2106PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Overgaard J, Hansen HS, Specht L, Overgaard M, Grau C, Andersen E, Bentzen J, Bastholt L, Hansen O, Johansen J, Andersen L, Evensen JF (2003) Five compared with six fractions per week of conventional radiotherapy of squamous-cell carcinoma of head and neck: DAHANCA 6 and 7 randomised controlled trial. Lancet 362(9388):933–940PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Fu KK, Pajak TF, Trotti A, Jones CU, Spencer SA, Phillips TL, Garden AS, Ridge JA, Cooper JS, Ang KK (2000) A Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) phase III randomized study to compare hyperfractionation and two variants of accelerated fractionation to standard fractionation radiotherapy for head and neck squamous cell carcinomas: first report of RTOG 9003. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 48(1):7–16PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Horiot JC, Le Fur R, N’Guyen T, Chenal C, Schraub S, Alfonsi S, Gardani G, Van Den Bogaert W, Danczak S, Bolla M et al (1992) Hyperfractionation versus conventional fractionation in oropharyngeal carcinoma: final analysis of a randomized trial of the EORTC cooperative group of radiotherapy. Radiother Oncol 25(4):231–241PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Calais G, Alfonsi M, Bardet E, Sire C, Germain T, Bergerot P, Rhein B, Tortochaux J, Oudinot P, Bertrand P (1999) Randomized trial of radiation therapy versus concomitant chemotherapy and radiation therapy for advanced-stage oropharynx carcinoma. J Natl Cancer Inst 91(24):2081–2086PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Forastiere AA, Goepfert H, Maor M, Pajak TF, Weber R, Morrison W, Glisson B, Trotti A, Ridge JA, Chao C, Peters G, Lee DJ, Leaf A, Ensley J, Cooper J (2003) Concurrent chemotherapy and radiotherapy for organ preservation in advanced laryngeal cancer. N Engl J Med 349(22):2091–2098PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Chua DT, Ma J, Sham JS, Mai HQ, Choy DT, Hong MH, Lu TX, Min HQ (2005) Long-term survival after cisplatin-based induction chemotherapy and radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma: a pooled data analysis of two phase III trials. J Clin Oncol 23(6):1118–1124PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Al-Sarraf M, LeBlanc M, Giri PG, Fu KK, Cooper J, Vuong T, Forastiere AA, Adams G, Sakr WA, Schuller DE, Ensley JF (1998) Chemoradiotherapy versus radiotherapy in patients with advanced nasopharyngeal cancer: phase III randomized Intergroup study 0099. J Clin Oncol 16(4):1310–1317PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Bonner JA, Harari PM, Giralt J, Azarnia N, Shin DM, Cohen RB, Jones CU, Sur R, Raben D, Jassem J, Ove R, Kies MS, Baselga J, Youssoufian H, Amellal N, Rowinsky EK, Ang KK (2006) Radiotherapy plus cetuximab for squamous-cell carcinoma of the head and neck. N Engl J Med 354(6):567–578PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Widmark A, Klepp O, Solberg A, Damber JE, Angelsen A, Fransson P, Lund JA, Tasdemir I, Hoyer M, Wiklund F, Fossa SD (2009) Endocrine treatment, with or without radiotherapy, in locally advanced prostate cancer (SPCG-7/SFUO-3): an open randomised phase III trial. Lancet 373(9660):301–308PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Warde PR, Mason MD, Sydes MR, Gospodarowicz MK, Swanson GP, Kirkbride P, Kostashuk E, Hetherington J, Ding K, Parulekar W (2010) Intergroup randomized phase III study of androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) plus radiation therapy (RT) in locally advanced prostate cancer (CaP) (NCIC-CTG, SWOG, MRC-UK, INT: T94–0110; NCT00002633). ASCO annual meeting, 2010: Journal of Clinical Oncology, 2010, p 18sGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Fransson P, Lund JA, Damber JE, Klepp O, Wiklund F, Fossa S, Widmark A (2009) Quality of life in patients with locally advanced prostate cancer given endocrine treatment with or without radiotherapy: 4-year follow-up of SPCG-7/SFUO-3, an open-label, randomised, phase III trial. Lancet Oncol 10(4):370–380PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Thompson IM, Tangen C, Basler J, Crawford ED (2002) Impact of previous local treatment for prostate cancer on subsequent metastatic disease. J Urol 168(3):1008–1012PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Carducci MA, Saad F, Abrahamsson PA, Dearnaley DP, Schulman CC, North SA, Sleep DJ, Isaacson JD, Nelson JB (2007) A phase 3 randomized controlled trial of the efficacy and safety of atrasentan in men with metastatic hormone-refractory prostate cancer. Cancer 110(9):1959–1966PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Flanigan RC, Salmon SE, Blumenstein BA, Bearman SI, Roy V, McGrath PC, Caton JR Jr, Munshi N, Crawford ED (2001) Nephrectomy followed by interferon alfa-2b compared with interferon alfa-2b alone for metastatic renal-cell cancer. N Engl J Med 345(23):1655–1659PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Mickisch GH, Garin A, van Poppel H, de Prijck L, Sylvester R (2001) Radical nephrectomy plus interferon-alfa-based immunotherapy compared with interferon alfa alone in metastatic renal-cell carcinoma: a randomised trial. Lancet 358(9286):966–970PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Flanigan RC, Mickisch G, Sylvester R, Tangen C, Van Poppel H, Crawford ED (2004) Cytoreductive nephrectomy in patients with metastatic renal cancer: a combined analysis. J Urol 171(3):1071–1076PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Choueiri TK, Xie W, Kollmannsberger C, North S, Knox JJ, Lampard JG, McDermott DF, Rini BI, Heng DY (2011) The impact of cytoreductive nephrectomy on survival of patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma receiving vascular endothelial growth factor targeted therapy. J Urol 185(1):60–66PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Thompson IM, Tangen CM, Paradelo J, Lucia MS, Miller G, Troyer D, Messing E, Forman J, Chin J, Swanson G, Canby-Hagino E, Crawford ED (2009) Adjuvant radiotherapy for pathological T3N0M0 prostate cancer significantly reduces risk of metastases and improves ­survival: long-term follow up of a randomized clinical trial. J Urol 181(3):956–962PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Coen JJ, Zietman AL, Thakral H, Shipley WU (2002) Radical radiation for localized prostate cancer: local persistence of disease results in a late wave of metastases. J Clin Oncol 20(15):3199–3205PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Kim MY, Oskarsson T, Acharyya S, Nguyen DX, Zhang XH, Norton L, Massague J (2009) Tumor self-seeding by circulating cancer cells. Cell 139(7):1315–1326PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Norton L, Massague J (2006) Is cancer a disease of self-seeding? Nat Med 8:875–878CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Macdermed DM, Weichselbaum RR, Salama JK (2008) A rationale for the targeted treatment of oligometastases with radiotherapy. J Surg Oncol 98(3):202–206PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Kao J, Packer S, Vu HL, Schwartz ME, Sung MW, Stock RG, Lo YC, Huang D, Chen SH, Cesaretti JA (2009) Phase 1 study of concurrent sunitinib and image-guided radiotherapy ­followed by maintenance sunitinib for patients with oligometastases: acute toxicity and preliminary response. Cancer 115(15):3571–3580PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Rajeswaran A, Trojan A, Burnand B, Giannelli M (2008) Efficacy and side effects of cisplatin- and carboplatin-based doublet chemotherapeutic regimens versus non-platinum-based doublet chemotherapeutic regimens as first line treatment of metastatic non-small cell lung carcinoma: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials. Lung Cancer 59(1):1–11PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Maemondo M, Inoue A, Kobayashi K, Sugawara S, Oizumi S, Isobe H, Gemma A, Harada M, Yoshizawa H, Kinoshita I, Fujita Y, Okinaga S, Hirano H, Yoshimori K, Harada T, Ogura T, Ando M, Miyazawa H, Tanaka T, Saijo Y, Hagiwara K, Morita S, Nukiwa T (2010) Gefitinib or chemotherapy for non-small-cell lung cancer with mutated EGFR. N Engl J Med 362(25):2380–2388PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Kim ES, Herbst RS, Lee JJ, Blumenschein G, Tsao A, Wistuba I, Alden C, Gupta S, Stewart D, Hong WK (2009) Phase II randomized study of biomarker directed treatment for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC): The BATTLE (Biomarker-Integrated Approaches of Targeted Therapy for Lung Cancer Elimination) clinical trial program. ASCO annual meeting: Journal of Clinical Oncology, 2009Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Kim ES, Herbst RS, Blumenschein GR, Tsao A, Alden CM, Tang X, Liu S, Stewart DJ, Heymach JV, Tran HT, Hicks ME, Erasmus J, Gupta S, Powis G, Lippman SM, Wistuba II, Hong WK (2010) The BATTLE trial (Biomarker-integrated Approaches of Targeted Therapy for Lung Cancer Elimination): personalizing therapy for lung cancer. AACR 101st annual meeting, 2010Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Radiation Oncology and Cancer BiologyKimmel Cancer Center, Jefferson Medical College of Thomas Jefferson UniversityPhiladelphiaUSA
  2. 2.Department of Radiation OncologyKimmel Cancer Center, Jefferson Medical College of Thomas Jefferson UniversityPhiladelphiaUSA

Personalised recommendations