• Dominique François
  • André Pineau
  • André Zaoui
Part of the Solid Mechanics and Its Applications book series (SMIA, volume 180)


General considerations specify the nature of materials, and their importance, in particular regarding their mechanical properties. The main classes of materials derive from the atomic bonds types, which determine their overall mechanical properties. The various mechanical behaviours and modes of failure are described. This helps in the choice of a material for a particular application. A description is given of the main instruments for the observation of microstructures at various scales. A number of typical microstructures are displayed. Mechanical testing machines are described. The way to perform tensile tests in particular, as well as other usual tests, is briefly detailed in keeping with international standards. Indications are given on the measurement of elastic properties. The various mechanical behaviours determine the main classes of constitutive equations. They must fulfil several conditions, which are detailed. The stages followed in the treatment of heterogeneous materials are explained and illustrated by examples. Indications are given about anisotropy and its consequence on the constitutive equations.


Fatigue Crack Constitutive Equation Digital Image Correlation Representative Volume Element Test Piece 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Dominique François
    • 1
  • André Pineau
    • 2
    • 3
  • André Zaoui
    • 3
    • 4
  1. 1.École Centrale de ParisParisFrance
  2. 2.École des Mines de Paris ParisTech Centre des Matériaux UMR CNRSEvry CedexFrance
  3. 3.Academy of EngineeringParisFrance
  4. 4.Académie des SciencesParisFrance

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