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Epigenome Changes During Development

  • Gavin KelseyEmail author
Chapter

Abstract

Epigenetic modifications accomplish the functional compartmentalisation of our genome. They ensure a high level of compaction of our DNA in a manner that nonetheless allows genes vital to given cell types to be expressed appropriately whilst sequestering away silent genes. The stability of epigenetic modifications provides long term memory in phenomena such as X-chromosome inactivation in females and genomic imprinting, but epigenetic states must also be dynamic as they are intimately involved in establishing the gene expression programmes that define cell lineage and are required to register changes in the environment. In this chapter, I shall describe the major epigenomic events that occur during mammalian development, from the specification of germ cells, to how the epigenome differences of the gametes are resolved at fertilisation, and how epigenomic events contribute to and reinforce lineage determination events. The advent of genome-wide profiling technologies is providing us with an unprecedented opportunity to investigate the scale of epigenomic changes during development and differentiation and how epigenomes are altered in disease.

Keywords

Germ Cell Histone Modification Imprint Gene Gene Expression Programme Inner Cell Mass 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Abbreviations

Avy

agouti viable yellow allele

Bi-Seq

bisulphite whole genome sequencing

BMP4

bone morphogenic protein 4

c-Kit

v-kit Hardy-Zuckerman 4 feline sarcoma viral oncogene homolog

CARM1

co-activator associated arginine methyltransferase 1

Cdx2

caudal type homeobox 2

Cfp1

CXXC finger protein 1

ChIP-Seq

chromatin immunopreciptation combined with next generation sequencing

Dnmt1

DNA methyltransferase 1

Dnmt3a

DNA methyltransferase 3a

Dnmt3b

DNA methyltransferase 3b

Dnmt3L

DNA methyltransferase 3-like

DMR

differentially methylated region (of an imprinted gene)

EHMT2

euchromatic histone methyltransferase 2

ELF5

ETS-related family transcription factor 5

EOMES

eomesodermin

ES

embryonic stem

Ezh2

Enhancer of zeste homologue 2

GCs

germ cells

H1T2

histone 1 variant T2

H1LS1

histone 1 variant LS1

H2

histone H2

H2A.Z

histone 2a variant Z

H2AR3me2

di-methylated H2A arginine 3

H3

histone H3

H3.3

histone 3 variant 3

H3K4

H3 lysine 4

H3K4me1/2/3

mono-/di- or tri-methylated H3 lysine 4

H3K9ac

acetylated H3 lysine 9

H3K9me1/2/3

mono-/di- or tri-methylated H3 lysine 9

H3K18ac

acetylated H3 lysine 18

H3K27me3

tri-methylated H3 lysine 37

H3K36me3

tri-methylated H3 lysine 36

H4K20me3

tri-methylated H4 lysine 20

H4

histone H4

H4R3me2

di-methylated H4 arginine 3

IAP

intracisternal A particle

ICM

inner cell mass

ICR

imprinting control region

Igf2

insulin-like growth factor 2 gene

iPSCs

induced pluripotential stem cells

KAP1

KRAB (Krüppel-associated box)-associated protein 1

KDM1B

lysine (K)-specific demethyase 1B

KDM2A

lysine (K)-specific demethyase 2A

Klf2

Krüppel-like factor 2

LTR

long terminal repeat

MeDIP-chip

methylcytosine immunoprecipitation combined with microarray hybridisation

NIH

National Institutes of Health

NLRP2

NLR family Pyrin domain containing protein 2

NLRP7

NLR family Pyrin domain containing protein 7

PcG

Polycomb group

PGCs

primordial germ cells

Pparα

peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha

PRC2

Polycomb group (PcG) repressor complex 2

Prdm1(Blimp1)

PR domain containing 1

PRDM9

PR domain containing protein 9

Prdm14

PR domain containing protein 14

Prmt5

protein arginine methyltransferase 5

RdDM

RNA-directed DNA methylation

Sox2

SRY (sex determining region Y)-box 2

Suv39h1/2

suppressor of variegation 3-9 homolog 1 & 2

TE

trophoectoderm

Tet1

ten-eleven translocation 5mc-hydrolase 1

Tet3

ten-eleven translocation 5mc-hydrolase 3

TNP1 & 2

transition protein 1 & 2

Uhrf1

ubiquitin-like containing PHD and RING finger domains 1

ZFP57

zinc-finger protein 57

5mC

5-methylcytosine

5hmC

5-hydroxymethylcytosine

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Epigenetics ProgrammeThe Babraham InstituteCambridgeUK
  2. 2.Centre for Trophoblast ResearchUniversity of CambridgeCambridgeUK

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