Advertisement

Modelling of Heavy Metals: Study of Impacts Due to Climate Change

  • Amela. JeričevićEmail author
  • I. Ilyin
  • S. Vidič
Conference paper
Part of the NATO Science for Peace and Security Series C: Environmental Security book series (NAPSC)

Abstract

Heavy metals are a category of pollutants recognized as dangerous to human health and human exposure occurs through all environmental media. Since metals are naturally occurring chemicals that do not break down in the environment and can accumulate in soils, water and the sediments of lakes and rivers, it is important to evaluate the contribution of natural emission sources in the environment. Owing to climate change, the water content in soil is decreased while evapotranspiration is increased as a consequence the higher resuspension of soil dust particles. In this work, a modelling study of heavy metals was performed in order to assess the levels of heavy metals pollution, particularly lead, in Croatia and to estimate the effects of an increase in lead natural emissions due to climate change.

Heavy metals are emitted into environment mainly as a result of anthropogenic activities, complemented by naturally occurring chemicals in the environment; therefore it is important to evaluate the contribution and patterns of their natural emissions. The main paths for heavy metals through the atmosphere and water are dispersion and deposition processes leading to the accumulation in soils and water sediments, which, consequently, become reservoirs for secondary, semi-natural release of heavy metals back to the atmosphere and other media. Both the strength and spatial patterns of this release naturally depend on climate conditions and change accordingly. A rise in temperature causes soil water content to decrease while evapotranspiration increases, and thus impacts resuspension of soil dust particles. In this study, modelling of heavy metals, particularly lead, was performed in order to assess the influence of climate-sensitive variables and resuspension of heavy metals to the levels and their distribution in Croatia.

Keywords

Heavy metals Climate change Health impacts Resuspension 

References

  1. 1.
    Wilson B, Pyatt FB (2007) Heavy metal dispersion, persistence, and bioaccumulation around an ancient copper mine situated in Anglesey, UK. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 66:224–231CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Järup L (2003) Hazards of heavy metal contamination. Br Med Bull 68:167–182CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Nriagu JO (1996) History of global metal pollution. Science 272:223–224CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Derežić D, Vučetić V (2010) Tendency of increase in average soil temperature in Croatia’, the present-day challenges in meteorology – conference of Croatian meteorological society, Zagreb, Croatia, 8–9 Nov 2010Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Ferina J (2011) The spatial distribution of water balance components in Croatia’, graduation thesis, University of Zagreb, Zagreb, pp 52Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Gusev A, Ilyin I, Mantseva L, Rozovskaya O, Shatalov V, Travnikov O (2006) Progress in further development in MSCE-HM and MSCE-POP models (implementation of the model review recommendations). EMEP/MSC-E Technical Report 4/2006, p 114Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Ilyin I, Rozovskaya O, Travnikov O, Aas W (2007) Heavy metals: transboundary pollution of the environment. EMEP Status Report 2/2007, p 5Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Ilyin I, Travnikov O (2005) Modelling of heavy metal airborne pollution in Europe: evaluation of the model performance. EMEP/MSC-E Technical Report 8/2005, June 2005Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Grell GA, Dudhia J, Stauffer DR (1995) A description of the fifth-generation Penn State/NCAR Mesoscale Model (MM5). NCAR/TN-398  +  STR. NCAR Technical Note. Mesoscale and Microscale Meteorology Division. National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, pp 122Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Gussev A, Ilyin I, Travnikov O, Shatalov V, Rozovskaya O (2008) ‘Atmospheric deposition of selected heavy metals and POPs to the OSPAR maritime area (1990–2005)’, Report to OSPAR Commission, pp 99Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Gomes L, Rajot JL, Alfaro SC, Gaudichet A (2003) Validation of a dust production model from measurements performed in semi-arid agricultural areas of Spain and Niger. Catena 52:257–271CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Zender CS, Bian H, Newman D (2003) Mineral dust entrainment and deposition (DEAD) model: description and 1990s dust climatology. J Geophys Res 108(D14):4416CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Gong SL (2003) A parameterization of sea-salt aerosol source function for sub- and super-micron particles. Global Biogeochem Cycles 17(4):1097CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Halamić J, Miko S (eds) (2009) Geochemical atlas of the republic of the Croatia. Croatian Geological Survey, Zagreb, 87 ppGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Zaninović K, Gajić-Čapka M, Perčec Tadić M et al (2008) Climate atlas of Croatia 1961–1990, 1971–2000. Državni hidrometeorološki zavod, Zagreb, 200 ppGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Meteorological and Hydrological Service of CroatiaZagrebCroatia
  2. 2.Meteorological Synthesizing Centre-EastMoscowRussia

Personalised recommendations