Defining Twenty-First Century Skills

  • Marilyn Binkley
  • Ola Erstad
  • Joan Herman
  • Senta Raizen
  • Martin Ripley
  • May Miller-Ricci
  • Mike Rumble


As the previous chapter indicates, there has been a significant shift in advanced economies from manufacturing to information and knowledge services. Knowledge itself is growing ever more specialized and expanding exponentially. Information and communication technology is transforming the nature of how work is conducted and the meaning of social relationships. Decentralized decision making, information sharing, teamwork, and innovation are key in today’s enterprises. No longer can students look forward to middle class success in the conduct of manual labor or use of routine skills – work that can be accomplished by machines. Rather, whether a technician or a professional person, success lies in being able to communicate, share, and use information to solve complex problems, in being able to adapt and innovate in response to new demands and changing circumstances, in being able to marshal and expand the power of technology to create new knowledge, and in expanding human capacity and productivity.


Critical Thinking Assessment Task Information Literacy Critical Thinking Skill Civic Knowledge 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Marilyn Binkley
    • 1
  • Ola Erstad
    • 2
  • Joan Herman
    • 3
  • Senta Raizen
  • Martin Ripley
    • 4
  • May Miller-Ricci
    • 5
  • Mike Rumble
    • 4
  1. 1.University of LuxembourgLuxembourgLuxembourg
  2. 2.University of OsloOsloNorway
  3. 3.University of CaliforniaBerkeleyUSA
  4. 4.World Class Arena LimitedLondonUK
  5. 5.WestEdSan FranciscoUSA

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