Advertisement

Trace Gases

  • Peter Warneck
  • Jonathan Williams
Chapter

Abstract

Trace gases include all those gaseous components in the atmosphere that – by virtue of their low concentrations – do not affect the bulk composition of air. This makes it convenient to quantify the local abundance of a trace gas by its molar mixing ratio (the chemical amount fraction). If reference is made to dry air, the influence of the variability of water vapor on the bulk composition of air is eliminated, and the molar mixing ratio becomes independent of changes in pressure and temperature. On the other hand, the presence of radicals, such as the ubiquitous hydroxyl radical (OH), are customarily reported in terms of number concentration, although radicals undoubtedly also represent trace gases.

Keywords

Trace Gases Molar Mixing Ratio Emission Database For Global Atmospheric Research (EDGAR) Global Warming Potential (GWP) Peroxyacetyl Nitrate (PAN) 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Clerbaux, C., D.M. Cunnold (Lead Authors), 16 coauthors, Long-lived compounds, Chapter 1, in Scientific Assessment of Ozone Depletion: 2006, Global Ozone Research and Monitoring Project, Report No. 50, 1.1–1.63 (2007)Google Scholar
  2. Daniel, J.S., G.J.M. Velders (Lead Authors), 7 coauthors, Halocarbon scenarios, ozone depletion potentials, and global warming potentials, Chapter 8, in Scientific Assessment of Ozone Depletion: 2006, Global Ozone Research and Monitoring Project, Report No. 50, 8.1–8.63 (2007)Google Scholar
  3. Fabian, P., O.N. Singh (eds.), Reactive Halogen Compounds in the Atmosphere, O. Hutzinger (editor in chief) The Handbook of Environmental Chemistry, vol. 4/E (Springer, Berlin, 1999)Google Scholar
  4. Graedel, T.E., W.C. Keene, Glob. Biogeochem. Cycles 9, 47–77 (1995)Google Scholar
  5. Law, K.S., W.T. Sturges (Lead Authors), 18 coauthors, Halogenated very short-lived substances, Chapter 2, in Scientific Assessment of Ozone Depletion: 2006, Global Ozone Research and Monitoring Project, Report No. 50, 2.1–2.57 (2007)Google Scholar
  6. Singh, H.B., Halogens in the atmospheric environment, in Composition, Chemistry, and Climate of the Atmosphere, ed. by H.B. Singh (Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, 1995), pp. 216–250Google Scholar
  7. Warneck, P., in Encyclopedia of Physical Science and Technology, ed. by R.A. Meyers, vol. 17, 3rd edn. (Academic Press, San Diego, 2002), pp. 153–174Google Scholar
  8. Bey, I., D.J. Jacob, R.M. Yantosca, J.A. Logan, B.D. Field, A.M. Fiore, Q.B. Li, H.G. Liu, L.J. Mickley, M.G. Schultz, J. Geophys. Res. 106, 23073–23095 (2001)Google Scholar
  9. Bolle, H.-J., W. Seiler, B. Bolin, SCOPE 29, 157–203 (1986)Google Scholar
  10. Böttger, A., D.H. Ehhalt, G. Gravenhorst, Atmosphärische Kreisläufe von Stickoxiden und Ammoniak. Report Number 1558, Kernforschungsanlage Jülich, Germany (1978)Google Scholar
  11. Bouwman, A.F., K.W. Van der Hoek, J.G.J. Olivier, J. Geophys. Res. 100, 2785–2800 (1995)Google Scholar
  12. Chin, M., D.J. Jacob, G.M. Gardner, M.S. Foreman-Fowler, P.A. Spiro, D.L. Savoie, J. Geophys. Res. 101, 18667–18690 (1996)Google Scholar
  13. Clerbaux, C., D.M. Cunnold (Lead Authors), 16 co-authors, Long-lived compounds, Chapter 1, in Scientific Assessment of Ozone Depletion: 2006, Global Ozone Research and Monitoring Project, Report No. 50, 1–63 (2007)Google Scholar
  14. Conrad, R., W. Seiler, J. Geophys. Res. 85, 5493–5498 (1980)Google Scholar
  15. Denman, K.L., G. Brasseur, A. Chidthaisong, P. Ciais, P.M. Cox, R.E. Dickinson, D. Hauglustaine, C. Heinze, E. Holland, D. Jacob, U. Lohmann, S. Ramachmandran, P.L. Da Silva Dias, S.C. Wofsy, X. Zhang, in Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis, ed. by S.D. Solomon, D. Qin, M. Manning, Z. Chen, M. Marquis, K.B. Averyt, M. Tignor, H.L. Miller. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Cambridge University Press, New York, 2007), pp. 499–588Google Scholar
  16. Dentener, F.J., P.J. Crutzen, J. Atmos. Chem. 19, 331–369 (1994)Google Scholar
  17. Duncan, B.N., J.A. Logan, I. Bey, I.A. Megretskaia, R.M. Yantosca, P.C. Novelli, N.B. Jones, C.P. Rinsland, J. Geophys. Res. 112, D22301 (2007). doi:10.1029/ 2007JD008459Google Scholar
  18. Ehhalt, D.H., in Global Aspects of Atmospheric Chemistry, ed. by R. Zellner (Steinkopff Verlag, Darmstadt, 1999), pp. 21–109Google Scholar
  19. Ehhalt, D.H., J.W. Drummond, in Chemistry of the Unpolluted and Polluted Troposphere, ed. by H.W. Georgii, W. Jaeschke. NATO ASI Series C 96, 219–251 (1982)Google Scholar
  20. Ehhalt, D.H., F. Rohrer, Tellus B 61, 500–535 (2009)Google Scholar
  21. Feichter, J., E. Kjellstrom, H. Rodhe, F. Dentener, J. Lelieveld, G.-J. Roelofs, Atmos. Environ. 30, 1693–1708 (1996)Google Scholar
  22. Folberth, G.A., D.A. Hauglustaine, J. Lathière, F. Brocheton, Atmos. Chem. Phys. 6, 2273–2319 (2006)Google Scholar
  23. Galbally, I.E., W. Kirstine, J. Atmos. Chem. 43, 195–229 (2002)Google Scholar
  24. Hauglustaine, D.A., F. Hourdin, S. Walters, L. Jourdain, M.-A. Filiberti, J.-F. Lamarque, E.A. Holland, J. Geophys. Res. 109, D04314 (2004). doi:10.1029/2003JD003957Google Scholar
  25. Heikes, B.G., W. Chang, M.E.Q. Pilson, E. Swift, H.B. Singh, A. Guenther, D.J. Jacob, B.D. Field, R. Fall, D. Riemer, L. Brand, Glob. Biogeochem. Cycles 16, 1133 (2002). doi: 10.1029/2002GB001895Google Scholar
  26. Holloway, T., H. Levy II, P. Kasibhatla, J. Geophys. Res. 105, 12123–12147 (2000)Google Scholar
  27. Horowitz, L.W., S. Walters, D.L. Mauzerall, L.K. Emmons, P.J. Rasch, C. Granier, X.X. Tie, J.F. Lamarque, M.G. Schultz, G.S. Tyndall, J.J. Orlando, G.P. Brasseur, J. Geophys. Res. 108, 4784 (2003). doi :10.1029/2002JD002853Google Scholar
  28. Houghton, J.T., Y. Ding, D.J. Griggs, M. Noguer, P.J. van der Linden, X. Dai, K. Maskell, C.A. Johnson (eds.) Climate Change 2001: The Scientific Basis, Third Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) (Cambridge University Press, New York, 2001)Google Scholar
  29. Ito, A., S. Sillman, J.E. Penner, J. Geophys. Res. 112, D06309 (2007). doi: 10.1029/2005JD006556Google Scholar
  30. Jacob, D.J., B.D. Field, E.M. Jin, I. Bey, Q. Li, J.A. Logan, R.M. Yantosca, J. Geophys. Res. 107, D4100 (2002). doi:10.1029/2001JD000694Google Scholar
  31. Jacob, D.J., B.D. Field, Q. Li, D.R. Blake, J. de Gouw, C. Warneke, A. Hansel, A. Wisthaler, H.B. Singh, A. Guenther, J. Geophys. Res. 110, D08303 (2005). doi:10.1029/2004JD005172Google Scholar
  32. Keppler, F., D.B. Harper, T. Röckmann, R.M. Moore, J.T.G. Hamilton, Atmos. Chem. Phys. 5, 2403–2411 (2005)Google Scholar
  33. Khalil, M.A.K., R.A. Rasmussen, Chemosphere 20, 227–242 (1990)Google Scholar
  34. Khalil, M.A.K., R.A. Rasmussen, J. Geophys. Res. 97, 14651–14660 (1992)Google Scholar
  35. Khalil, M.A.K., M.J. Shearer, R.A. Rasmussen, in Atmospheric Methane: Sources, Sinks, and Role in Global Change, ed. by M.A.K. Khalil. NATO ASI Series, vol. I 13 (Springer, Berlin, 1993), pp. 168–179, 180–198Google Scholar
  36. Langner, J., H. Rodhe, J. Atmos. Chem. 13, 225–263 (1991)Google Scholar
  37. Lee, D.S., I. Köhler, E. Grobler, F. Rohrer, R. Sausen, L. Gallardo-Klenner, J.G.J. Oliver, F.J. Dentener, A.F. Bouwman, Atmos. Environ. 31, 1735–1749 (1997)Google Scholar
  38. Lee-Taylor, J., G. Brasseur, Y. Yokouchi, J. Geophys. Res. 106, 34221–34233 (2001)Google Scholar
  39. Lelieveld, J., F.J. Dentener, J. Geophys. Res. 105, 3531 (2000). doi:10.1029/1999JD901011Google Scholar
  40. Logan, J.A., J. Geophys. Res. 88, 10785–10807 (1983)Google Scholar
  41. Marandino, C.A., W.J. De Bruyn, S.D. Miller, M.J. Prather, E.S. Saltzman, Geophys. Res. Lett. 32, L15806 (2005). doi:10.1029/2005GL023285Google Scholar
  42. Mikaloff-Fletcher, S.E., P.P. Tans, L.M. Bruhwiler, J.B. Miller, M. Heimann, Glob. Biogeochem. Cycles 18, GB4005 (2004)Google Scholar
  43. Millet, D.B., D.J. Jacob, T.G. Custer, J.A. de Gouw, A.H. Goldstein, T. Karl, H.B. Singh, B.C. Sive, R.W. Talbot, C. Warneke, J. Williams, Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8, 6887–6905 (2008)Google Scholar
  44. Millet, D.B., A. Guenther, D.A. Siegel, N.B. Nelson, H.B. Singh, J.A. de Gouw, C. Warneke, J. Williams, G. Eerdekens, V. Sinha, T. Karl, F. Flocke, E. Apel, D.D. Riemer, P.I. Palmer, M. Barkley, Atmos. Chem. Phys. 10, 3405–3425 (2010)Google Scholar
  45. Müller J.-F, T. Stavrakou, Atmos. Chem. Phys. 5, 1157–1186 (2005)Google Scholar
  46. Novelli, P.C., P.M. Lang, K.A. Masari, D.F. Hurst, R. Myers, J.W. Elkins, J. Geophys. Res. 104, 30427–30444 (1999)Google Scholar
  47. Pacyna, J.M., T.E. Graedel, Annu. Rev. Energy Environ. 20, 265–300 (1995)Google Scholar
  48. Paulot, F., D. Wunch, J.D. Crounse, G.C. Toon, D.B. Millet, P.F. DeCarlo, C. Vigouroux, N.M. Deutscher, G. González Abad, J. Notholt, T. Warneke, J.W. Hannigan, C. Warneke, J.A. de Gouw, E.J. Dunlea, M. De Mazière, D.W.T. Griffith, P. Bernath, J.L. Jimenez, P.O. Wennberg, Atmos. Chem. Phys. 11, 1989–2013 (2011)Google Scholar
  49. Pham, M., J.-F. Müller, G.P. Brasseur, C. Granier, G. Mégie, Atmos. Environ. 30, 1815–1822 (1996)Google Scholar
  50. Rhee, T.S., C.A.M. Brenninkmeijer, T. Röckmann, Atmos. Chem. Phys. 6, 1611–1625 (2006)Google Scholar
  51. Schlesinger, W.H., A.E. Hartley, Biogeochemistry 15, 191–211 (1992)Google Scholar
  52. Seiler, W., R. Conrad, in Geophysiology of Amazonia, ed. by R. Dickinson (Wiley, New York, 1987), pp. 133–162Google Scholar
  53. Singh, H.B., L.J. Salas, R.B. Chatfield, E. Czech, A. Fried, J. Walega, M.J. Evans, B.D. Field, D.J. Jacob, D. Blake, B. Heikes, R. Talbot, G. Sachse, J.H. Crawford, M.A. Avery, S. Sandholm, H. Fuelberg, J. Geophys. Res. 109, D15S07 (2004). doi:10.1029/2003JD003883Google Scholar
  54. Stedman, D.H., R.E. Shetter, in Trace Atmospheric Constituents, Properties, Transformations and Fates, ed. by S.E. Schwartz (Wiley, New York, 1983), pp. 411–454Google Scholar
  55. Stevenson, D.S. (39 coauthors), J. Geophys. Res. 111, D08301 (2006). doi:10.1029/2005JD006338Google Scholar
  56. Stevenson, D.S., R.M. Doherty, M.G. Sanderson, W.J. Collins, C.E. Johnson, R.G. Derwent, Faraday Discuss. 130, 41–57 (2004)Google Scholar
  57. Sudo, K., M. Takahashi, H. Akimoto, Geophys. Res. Lett. 30, 2256 (2003). doi:1029/2003GL018526Google Scholar
  58. von Kuhlmann, R., M.G. Lawrence, P.J. Crutzen, P.J. Rasch, J. Geophys. Res. 108, 4294 (2003). doi:10.1029/2002JD002893; 4729, doi:10.1029/2002JD003348Google Scholar
  59. Warneck, P., Chemistry of the Natural Atmosphere (Academic Press, San Diego, 1988)Google Scholar
  60. Warneck, P., Chemistry of the Natural Atmosphere, 2nd edn. (Academic Press, San Diego, 2000), Copyright Elsevier.Google Scholar
  61. Wild, O., J.K. Sunder, M.J. Prather, I.S.A. Isaksen, H. Akimoto, E.V. Browell, S.J. Oltmans, J. Geophys. Res. 108, 8826 (2003). doi:10.1029/2002JD003285Google Scholar
  62. Wuebbles D.J., K. Hayhoe, Earth-Sci. Rev. 57, 3–4, 177–210 (2002)Google Scholar
  63. Yoshida, Y., Y. Wang, T. Zeng, R. Yantosca, J. Geophys. Res. 109, D24309 (2004). doi:10.1029/2004JD004951Google Scholar
  64. Andreae, M.O., P. Merlet, Glob. Biogeochem. Cycles 15, 955–966 (2001)Google Scholar
  65. Butler, T.M., M.G. Lawrence, B.R. Gurjar, J. van Aardenne, M. Schultz, J. Lelieveld, Atmos. Environ. 42, 703–719 (2008)Google Scholar
  66. Dentener, F., D. Stevenson, J. Cofala, R. Mechler, M. Amann, P. Bergamaschi, F. Raes, R. Derwent, Atmos. Chem. Phys. 5, 1731–1755 (2005)Google Scholar
  67. Guenther, A., C.N. Hewitt, D. Erickson, R. Fall, C. Geron, T. Graedel, P. Hartley, L. Klinger, M. Lerdau, A. McKay, T. Pierce, B. Scholes, R. Steinbrecher, R. Tallamraju, J. Taylor, P. Zimmerman, J. Geophys. Res. 100, 8873–8892 (1995)Google Scholar
  68. Guenther, A., T. Karl, P. Harley, C. Wiedinmyer, P.I. Palmer, C. Geron, Atmos. Chem. Phys. 6, 3181–3210 (2006)Google Scholar
  69. Olivier, J.G.J., J.J.M. Berdowski, Global emissions, sources and sinks, in The Climate System, ed. by J. Berdowski, R. Guicherit, B.J. Heij (A. A. Balkema Publishers/Swets & Zeitlinger Publishers, Lisse, 2001), pp. 33–78Google Scholar
  70. Olivier, J.G.J., J.A. van Aardenne, F. Dentener, L. Ganzeveld, J.A.H.W. Peters, Environ. Sci. 2, 81–99 (2005)Google Scholar
  71. Pulles, T., M. ven het Bolscher, R. Brand, A. Visschedijk, Assessment of Global Emissions from Fuel Combustion in the Final Decades of the 20th Century; Application of the Emission Inventory Model TEAM, Technical Report A-R0132B. Netherlands Organisation for Applied Research (TNO), Apeldoorn, The Netherlands (2007)Google Scholar
  72. Warneck, P., Chemistry of the Natural Atmosphere, 2nd edn. (Academic Press, San Diego, 2000), Copyright ElsevierGoogle Scholar
  73. Yokelson, R.J., T.J. Christian, T.G. Karl, A. Guenther, Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8, 3509–3527 (2008)Google Scholar
  74. Aldener, M., S.S. Brown, H. Stark, E.J. Williams, B.M. Lerner, W.C. Kuster, P.D. Goldan, P.K. Quinn, T.S. Bates, F.C. Fehsenfeld, A.R. Ravishankara, J. Geophys. Res. 111, D23, D23S73 (2006). doi:10.1029/2006JD007252Google Scholar
  75. Aliwell, S.R., R.L. Jones, J. Geophys. Res. 103, 5719–5727 (1998)Google Scholar
  76. Allan, B.J., N. Carslaw, H. Coe, R.A. Burgess, J.M.C. Plane, J. Atmos. Chem. 33, 129–154 (1999)Google Scholar
  77. Allan, B., G. McFiggans, J.M.C. Plane, H. Coe, G. McFadyen, J. Geophys. Res. 105, 24191–24204 (2000)Google Scholar
  78. Allan, B.J., J.M.C. Plane, H. Coe, J. Shillito, J. Geophys. Res. 107, 4588 (2002). doi:10.1029/2002JD002112Google Scholar
  79. Ambrose, J.L., H. Mao, H.R. Mayne, J. Stutz, R. Talbot, B.C. Sive, J. Geophys. Res. 112, D21, D21302 (2007). doi:10.1029/2007JD008756Google Scholar
  80. Apodaca, R.L., D.M. Huff, W.R. Simpson, Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8, 7451–7463 (2008)Google Scholar
  81. Asaf, D., E. Tas, D. Pederesen, M. Peleg, M. Luria, Environ. Sci. Technol. 44(15), 5901–5907 (2010)Google Scholar
  82. Ayers, J.D., W.R. Simpson, J. Geophys. Res. 111, D14, D14309 (2006). doi:10.1029/2006JD007070Google Scholar
  83. Benton, A.K., J.M. Landridge, S.M. Ball, W.J. Bloss, M. Dall’Osto, E. Nemitz, R.M. Harrison, R.L. Jones, Atmos. Chem. Phys. 10, 9781–9795 (2010)Google Scholar
  84. Brown, S.S., H. Stark, S.J. Ciciora, A.R. Ravishankara, Geophys. Res. Lett. 28, 3227–3230 (2001)Google Scholar
  85. Brown, S.S., H. Stark, T.B. Ryerson, E.J. Williams, D.K. Nicks, M. Trainer, F.C. Fehsenfeld, A.R. Ravishankara, J. Geophys. Res. 108, 4299 (2003). doi:10.1029/2002JD002917Google Scholar
  86. Brown, S.S., H.D. Osthoff, H. Stark, W.P. Dubé, T.B. Ryerson, C. Warneke, J.A. de Gouw, A.G. Wollny, D.D. Parrish, F.C. Fehsenfeld, A.R. Ravishankara, J. Photochem. Photobiol. A 176(1–3), 270–278 (2005)Google Scholar
  87. Brown, S.S., T.B. Ryerson, A.G. Wollny, C.A. Brock, R. Peltier, A.P. Sullivan, R.J. Weber, W.P. Dubé, M. Trainer, J.F. Meagher, F.C. Fehsenfeld, A.R. Ravishankara, Science 311, 67–70 (2006)Google Scholar
  88. Brown, S.S., W.P. Dubé, H.D. Osthoff, D.E. Wolfe, W.M. Angevine, A.R. Ravishankara, Atmos. Chem. Phys. 7, 139–149 (2007)Google Scholar
  89. Brown, S.S., W.P. Dubé, H. Fuchs, T.B. Ryerson, A.G. Wollny, C.A. Brock, R. Bahreini, A.M. Middlebrook, A.J. Neuman, E. Atlas, J.M. Roberts, H.D. Osthoff, M. Trainer, F.C. Fehsenfeld, A.R. Ravishankara, J. Geophys. Res. 114, D00F10 (2009). doi:10.1029/2008JD011679Google Scholar
  90. Carslaw, N., J.M.C. Plane, H. Coe, E. Cuevas, J. Geophys. Res. 102, 10613–10622 (1997)Google Scholar
  91. Carslaw, N., L.J. Carpenter, J.M.C. Plane, B.J. Allan, R.A. Burgess, K.C. Clemitshaw, H. Coe, S.A. Penkett, J. Geophys. Res. 102, 18917–18933 (1997)Google Scholar
  92. Chen, C.M., R.P. Cageao, L. Lawrence, J. Stutz, R.J. Salawitch, L. Jourdain, Q. Li, S.P. Sander, Atmos. Chem. Phys. 11, 963–978 (2011)Google Scholar
  93. Committee on Extension of US Standard Atmosphere (COESA) US Standard Atmosphere 1976, (Washington, DC, 1976)Google Scholar
  94. Crowley, J.N., G. Schuster, N. Pouvesle, U. Parchatka, H. Fischer, B. Bonn, H. Bingemer, J. Lelieveld, Atmos. Chem. Phys. 10, 2795–2812 (2010)Google Scholar
  95. Dubé, W.P., S.S. Brown, H.D. Osthoff, M.R. Nunley, S.J. Ciciora, M.W. Paris, R.J. McLaughlin, A.R. Ravishankara, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 034101 (2006)Google Scholar
  96. Fortuin, P.J.F., H. Kelder, J. Geophys. Res. 103, 31709–31734 (1998)Google Scholar
  97. Geyer, A., R. Ackermann, R. Dubois, B. Lohrmann, R. Müller, U. Platt, Atmos. Environ. 35, 3619–3631 (2001)Google Scholar
  98. Geyer, A., B. Alicke, S. Konrad, T. Schmitz, J. Stutz, U. Platt, J. Geophys. Res. 106, 8013–8025 (2001)Google Scholar
  99. Geyer, A., B. Alicke, R. Ackermann, M. Martinez, H. Harder, W. Brune, P. di Carlo, E. Williams, T. Jobson, S. Hall, R. Shetter, J. Stutz, J. Geophys. Res. 108, 4368 (2003). doi:10.1029/2002JD002967Google Scholar
  100. Heintz, F., U. Platt, H. Flentje, R. Dubois, J. Geophys. Res. 101, 22891–22910 (1996)Google Scholar
  101. Huff, D.M., P.L. Joyce, G.J. Fochesatto, W.R. Simpson, Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss. 10, 25329–25354 (2010)Google Scholar
  102. Kercher, J.P., T.P. Riedel, J.A. Thornton, Atmos. Meas. Tech. 2, 193–204 (2009)Google Scholar
  103. Kern, C., S. Trick, B. Rippel, U. Platt, Appl. Opt. 45, 2077–2088 (2006)Google Scholar
  104. Mahajan A.S., H. Oetjen, A. Saiz-Lopez, J.D. Lee, G.B. McFiggans, J.M.C. Plane, Geophys. Res. Lett. 36, L16803 (2009). doi:10.1029/2009GL038018Google Scholar
  105. Martinez, M., D. Perner, E.M. Hackenthal, S. Kulzer, L. Schutz, J. Geophys. Res. 105, 22685–22695 (2000)Google Scholar
  106. Matsumoto, J., H. Imai, N. Kosugi, Y. Kaji, Atmos. Environ. 39, 6802–6811 (2005)Google Scholar
  107. Matsumoto, J., K. Imagawa, H. Imai, N. Kosugi, M. Ideguchi, S. Kato, Y. Kajii, Atmos. Environ. 40, 6294–6302 (2006)Google Scholar
  108. McLaren, R., R.A. Salmon, J. Liggio, K.L. Hayden, K.G. Anlauf, W.R. Leaitch, Atmos. Environ. 38, 5837–5848 (2004)Google Scholar
  109. McLaren, R., P. Wojtal, D. Majonis, J. McCourt, J.D. Halla, J. Brook, Atmos. Chem. Phys. 10, 4187–4206 (2010)Google Scholar
  110. Mihelcic, D., D. Klemp, P. Musgen, H.W. Patz, A. Volzthomas, J. Atmos. Chem. 16, 313–335 (1993)Google Scholar
  111. Nakayama, T., T. Ide, F. Taketani, M. Kawai, K. Takahashi, Y. Matsumi, Atmos. Environ. 42, 1995–2006 (2008)Google Scholar
  112. Noxon, J.F., J. Geophys. Res. 88, 11017–11021 (1983)Google Scholar
  113. Noxon, J.F., R.B. Norton, E. Marovich, Geophys. Res. Lett. 7, 125–128 (1980)Google Scholar
  114. Osthoff, H.D., R. Sommariva, T. Baynard, A. Pettersson, E.J. Williams, B.M. Lerner, J.M. Roberts, H. Stark, P.D. Goldan, W.C. Kuster, T.S. Bates, D. Coffman, A.R. Ravishankara, S.S. Brown, J. Geophys. Res. 111, D23S14 (2006). doi:10.1029/2006JD007593Google Scholar
  115. Osthoff, H.D., J.M. Roberts, A.R. Ravishankara, E.J. Williams, B.M. Lerner, R. Sommariva, T.S. Bates, D. Coffman, P.K. Quinn, J.E. Dibb, H. Stark, J.B. Burkholder, R.K. Talukdar, J. Meagher, F.C. Fehsenfeld, S.S. Brown, Nat. Geosci. 1, 324–328 (2008)Google Scholar
  116. Perner, D., A. Schmeltekopf, R.H. Winkler, H.S. Johnston, J.G. Calvert, C.A. Cantrell, W.R. Stockwell, J. Geophys. Res. 90, 3807–3812 (1985)Google Scholar
  117. Platt, U., D. Perner, A.M. Winer, G.W. Harris, J.N. Pitts Jr., Geophys. Res. Lett. 7, 89–92 (1980)Google Scholar
  118. Platt, U., D. Perner, J. Schröder, C. Kessler, A. Toennissen, J. Geophys. Res. 86, 11965–11970 (1981)Google Scholar
  119. Pitts Jr., J.N., H.W. Biermann, R. Atkinson, A.M. Winer, Geophys. Res. Lett. 11, 557–560 (1984)Google Scholar
  120. Saiz-Lopez, A., J.A. Shillito, H. Coe, J.M.C. Plane, Atmos. Chem. Phys. 6, 1513–1528 (2006)Google Scholar
  121. Simpson, W.R., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 3442–3452 (2003)Google Scholar
  122. Slusher, D.L., L.G. Huey, D.J. Tanner, F.M. Flocke, J.M. Roberts, J. Geophys. Res. 109, D19, D19315 (2004). doi:10.1029/2004JD004670Google Scholar
  123. Smith, N., J.M.C. Plane, C.F. Nien, P.A. Solomon, Atmos. Environ. 29, 2887–2897 (1995)Google Scholar
  124. Sommariva, R., H.D. Osthoff, S.S. Brown, T.S. Bates, T. Baynard, D. Coffman, J.A. de Gouw, P.D. Goldan, W.C. Kuster, B.M. Lerner, H. Stark, C. Warneke, E.J. Williams, F.C. Fehsenfeld, A.R. Ravishankara, M. Trainer, Atmos. Chem. Phys. 9, 3075–3093 (2009)Google Scholar
  125. Spivakovsky, C.M., J.A. Logan, S.A. Montzka, Y.J. Balkanski, M. Foreman-Fowler, D.B.A. Jones, L.W. Horowitz, A.C. Fusco, C.A.M. Brenninkmeijer, M.J. Prather, S.C. Wofsy, M.B. McElroy, J. Geophys. Res. 105, 8931–8980 (2000)Google Scholar
  126. Stutz, J., B. Alicke, R. Ackermann, A. Geyer, A. White, E. Williams, J. Geophys. Res. 109, D12306 (2004). doi:10.1029/2003JD004209Google Scholar
  127. Stutz, J., K.W. Wong, L. Lawrence, L. Ziemba, J.H. Flynn, B. Rappenglück, B. Lefer, Atmos. Environ. 44(33), 4099–4106 (2010)Google Scholar
  128. Thornton, J.A., J.P. Kercher, T.P. Riedel, N.L. Wagner, J. Cozic, J.S. Holloway, W.P. Dubé, G.M. Wolfe, P.K. Quinn, A.M. Middlebrook, B. Alexander, S.S. Brown, Nature 464, 271–274 (2010)Google Scholar
  129. von Friedeburg, C., T. Wagner, A. Geyer, N. Kaiser, B. Vogel, H. Vogel, U. Platt, J. Geophys. Res. 107, D13, 4168 (2002). doi:10.1029/2001JD000481Google Scholar
  130. Vrekoussis, M., M. Kanakidou, N. Mihalopoulos, P.J. Crutzen, J. Lelieveld, D. Perner, H. Berresheim, E. Baboukas, Atmos. Chem. Phys. 4, 169–182 (2004)Google Scholar
  131. Vrekoussis, M., E. Liakakou, N. Mihalopoulos, M. Kanakidou, P.J. Crutzen, J. Lelieveld, Geophys. Res. Lett. 33, L05811 (2006). doi:10.1029/2005GL025069Google Scholar
  132. Wang, S., R. Ackermann, J. Stutz, Atmos. Chem. Phys. 6, 2671–2693 (2006)Google Scholar
  133. Weaver, A., S. Solomon, R.W. Sanders, K. Arpag, H.L. Miller, J. Geophys. Res. 101, 18605–18612 (1996)Google Scholar
  134. Wood, E.C., T.H. Bertram, P.J. Wooldridge, R.C. Cohen, Atmos. Chem. Phys. 5, 483–491 (2005)Google Scholar
  135. Yvon, S.A., J.M.C. Plane, C.F. Nien, D.J. Cooper, E.S. Saltzman, J. Geophys. Res. 101, 1379–1386 (1996)Google Scholar
  136. Zheng, J., R. Zhang, E.C. Fortner, R.M. Volkamer, L. Molina, A.C. Aiken, J.L. Jimenez, K. Gaeggeler, J. Dommen, S. Dusanter, P.S. Stevens, X. Tie, Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8, 6823–6838 (2008)Google Scholar
  137. Bovensmann, H., J.P. Burrows, M. Buchwitz, J. Frerick, S. Nöel, V.V. Rozanov, K.V. Chance, A.P.H. Goede, J. Atmos. Sci. 56, 127–150 (1999)Google Scholar
  138. Gettelman, A. (37 coauthors), J. Geophys. Res. 115, D00M08 (2010). doi:10.1029/2009JD013638Google Scholar
  139. Jöckel, P., R. Sander, A. Kerkweg, H. Tost, J. Lelieveld, Atmos. Chem. Phys. 5, 433–444 (2005)Google Scholar
  140. Jöckel, P., A. Kerkweg, A. Pozzer, R. Sander, H. Tost, H. Riede, A. Baumgärtner, S. Gromov, B. Kem, Technical note: Development cycle 2 of the Modular Earth Submodel System (MESSy2). Geosci. Model Dev. 3, 717–752 (2010)Google Scholar
  141. Keating, G.M., M.C. Pitts, D.F. Young, in: Middle Atmosphere Program, Handbook for MAP, ed. by G.M. Keating, Reference Models of Trace Species, vol. 31 (International Council of Scientific Unions, Paris, 1989), pp. 1–36Google Scholar
  142. Kühl, S., J. Pukite, T. Deutschmann, U. Platt, T. Wagner, Adv. Space Res. 42, 1747–1764 (2008)Google Scholar
  143. Pukite, J., S. Kühl, T. Deutschmann, S. Dörner, P. Jöckel, U. Platt, T. Wagner, Atmos. Meas. Tech. 3, 1155–1174 (2010)Google Scholar
  144. Röckner, E., R. Brokopf, M. Esch, M. Giorgetta, S. Hagemann, L. Kornblueh, E. Manzini, U. Schlese, U. Schulzweida, J. Clim. 19, 3771–3791 (2006)Google Scholar
  145. Rozanov, A., H. Bovensmann, A. Bracher, S. Hrechanyy, V. Rozanov, M. Sinnhuber, F. Stroh, J.P. Burrows, Adv. Space Res. 36, 846–854 (2005)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Peter Warneck
    • 1
  • Jonathan Williams
    • 1
  1. 1.Max Planck Institute for ChemistryMainzGermany

Personalised recommendations