Remediation of Metal Ion-Contaminated Groundwater and Soil Using Nanocarbon-Polymer Composition

  • Rashid A. Khaydarov
  • Renat R. Khaydarov
  • Olga Gapurova
  • Radek Malish
Conference paper
Part of the NATO Science for Peace and Security Series C: Environmental Security book series (NAPSC)


The presence of different organic and heavy metal contaminants in groundwater and soil has a large environmental, public health and economic impact. The paper deals with a novel method of groundwater and soil remediation using nanocarbon-polymer composition (NCPC). The process of NCPC synthesis and its chemical characteristics have been described. Nano-carbon colloids (NCC) and polyethylenimine (PEI) are used to synthesis of NCPC. Metal ions interact with NCPC via ion exchange and complexation mechanism. The ability to remove metal ions from water against pH, ratio of NCC and PEI in NCPC, speed of coagulation of NCPC and size of NCC has been investigated. NCPC has a high bonding capacity of 4.0–5.7 mmol/g at pH 6 for most divalent metal ions. The percent of sorption of Zn (II), Cd (II), Cu (II), Hg (II), Ni (II) and Cr (VI) ions is higher than 99%, and distribution coefficients are 101–103. The lifetime of NCPC before coagulation in the treated water and soil is 1 s to 1,000 min and depends on the ratio of polymeric molecules and carbon nanoparticle concentrations. Accordingly, the depth of penetration of NCPC in a soil or depth of remediation of soil can change from 1 to 100 cm, and distance of moving the NCPC with groundwater or remediation zone of ground can change from 1 to 100 m. Thus NCPC can be used for effective removal of metal ions from contaminated water and remediation of soil. The results of field tests of the method have been also described.


Carbon Nanoparticles Nitrate Hexahydrate Removal Ratio Sodium Polystyrene Sulfonate Bonding Capacity 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. 1.
    Abderrahim O, Amine Didi M, Moreau B, Villemin D (2006) A new sorbent for selective separation of metal: polyethylenimine methylenephosphonic acid. Solvent Extr Ion Exc 24(6):943–955CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Chen C, Wang X (2006) Adsorption of Ni (II) from aqueous solution using oxidized multiwall carbon nanotubes. Ind Eng Chem Res 45:9144–9149CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Hsu WK, Terrones M, Hare JP, Terrones H, Kroto HW, Walton D (1996) Electrolytic formation of carbon nanostructures. Chem Phys Lett 262:161–166CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Hudson MJ, Hunter-Fujita FR, Pecketta JW, Smithb PM (1997) Electrochemically prepared colloidal, oxidised graphite. J Mater Chem 7(2):301–305CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Juang RS, Chiou CH (2000) Ultra filtration rejection of dissolved ions using various weakly basic water-soluble polymers. J Membr Sci 177:207–214CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Juang RS, Chiou CH (2001) Feasibility of the use of polymerassisted membrane filtration for brackish water softening. J Membr Sci 187:119–127CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Juang RS, Shiau RC (2000) Metal removal from aqueous solutions using chitosan-enhanced membrane filtration. J Membr Sci 165:159–167CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Khaydarov RR, Khaydarov RA, Gapurova O (2009) Remediation of contaminated groundwater using nano-carbon colloids, nanomaterials: Risk and benefits, NATO science for peace and security series C: environmental security. Springer, Dordrecht, pp 219–224Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Khaydarov RA, Khaydarov RR, Gapurova O (2010) Water purification from metal ions using carbon nanoparticle-conjugated polymer nanocomposites. Water Res 44:1927–1933CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Kim D, Hwang Y, Cheong SI, Lee JK, Hong D, Moon S, Lee JE, Kim SH Production and characterization of carbon nano colloid via one-step electrochemical method. J Nanopart Res. doi:10.1007/s11051-008-9359-2Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Li YH, Di Z, Ding J, Wu D, Luan Z, Zhu Y (2005) Adsorption thermodynamic, kinetic and desorption studies of Pb2+ on carbon nanotubes. Water Res 39:605–609CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Li YH, Ding J, Luan Z, Di Z, Zhu Y, Xu C, Wu D, Wei B (2003) Competitive adsorption of Pb2+, Cu2+ and Cd2+ ions from aqueous solutions by multi-walled carbon nanotubes. Carbon 41:2787–2792CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Li YH, Wang S, Luan Z, Ding J, Xu C, Wu D (2003) Adsorption of cadmium (II) from aqueous solution by surface oxidized carbon nanotubes. Carbon 41:1057–1062CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Li YH, Wang S, Wei J, Zhang X, Xu C, Luan Z, Wu D, Wei B (2002) Lead adsorption on carbon nanotubes. Chem Phys Lett 357:263–266CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Li YH, Zhu Y, Zhao Y, Wu D, Luan Z (2006) Different morphologies of carbon nanotubes effect on the lead removal from aqueous solution. Diamond Relat Mater 15:90–94CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Liang P, Liu Y, Guo L, Zeng J (2004) Multi-walled carbon nanotubes as solid-phase extraction adsorbent for the pre-concentration of trace metal ions and their determination by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry. J Anal At Spectrum 19:1489–1492CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Lu C, Chiu H (2006) Adsorption of zinc (II) from water with purified carbon nanotubes. Chem Eng Sci 61:1138–1145CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Lu C, Chiu H, Bai H (2007) Comparisons of adsorbent cost for the removal zinc (II) from aqueous solution by carbon nanotubes and activated carbon. J Nanosci Nanotechnol 7:1647–1652CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Lu C, Chiu H, Liu C (2006) Removal of zinc (II) from aqueous solution by purified carbon nanotubes: kinetics and equilibrium studies. Ind Eng Chem Res 45:2850–2855CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Lu C, Liu C (2006) Removal of nickel (II) from aqueous solution by carbon nanotubes. J Chem Technol Biotechnol 81:1932–1940CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Molinari R, Gallo S, Pietro Argurio P (2004) Metal ions removal from wastewater or washing water from contaminated soil by ultra filtration–complexation. Water Res 38:593–600CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Peckett JW, Trens P, Gougeon RD, Poppl A, Harris RK, Hudson MJ (2000) Electrochemically oxidised graphite.Characterization and some ion exchange properties. Carbon 38:345–353CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Rao GP, Lu C, Su F (2007) Sorption of divalent metal ions from aqueous solution by carbon nanotubes. A rev Sep Purif Technol 58:224–231CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Rumeau M, Persin F, Sciers V, Persin M, Sarrazin J (1992) Separation by coupling ultrafiltration and complexation of metallic species with industrial water soluble polymers. Application for removal or concentration of metallic cations. J Membr Sci 73:313–322CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Steenkamp GC, Keizer K, Neomagus H, Krieg H (2002) Copper (II) removal from polluted water with alumina/chitosan composite membranes. J Membr Sci 197:147–156CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Vieira M, Tavares CR, Bergamasco R, Petrus JCC (2001) Application of ultra filtration-complexation process for metal removal from pulp and paper industry wastewater. J Membr Sci 194:273–276CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rashid A. Khaydarov
    • 1
  • Renat R. Khaydarov
    • 1
  • Olga Gapurova
    • 1
  • Radek Malish
    • 2
  1. 1.Institute of Nuclear PhysicsTashkentUzbekistan
  2. 2.Institute of Tropics and SubtropicsPragueCzech Republic

Personalised recommendations