European Ground Water Geochemistry Using Bottled Water as a Sampling Medium

  • Alecos Demetriades
  • Clemens Reimann
  • Manfred Birke
  • The Eurogeosurveys Geochemistry EGG Team
Conference paper
Part of the NATO Science for Peace and Security Series C: Environmental Security book series (NAPSC)


To obtain a first impression of the geochemistry and quality of European ground water bottled mineral water was used as a sampling medium. In total, 1,785 bottled waters were purchased from supermarkets of 40 European countries, representing 1,247 wells/drill holes/springs at 884 locations. All bottled waters were analysed for 72 parameters at the laboratories of the Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources (BGR) in Germany. The geochemical maps give a first impression of the natural variation in ground water at the European scale. Geology is one of the key factors influencing the observed element concentrations for a significant number of elements. Examples include high values of (i) Cr clearly related to the occurrence of ophiolites; (ii) Li (Be, Cs) associated with areas underlain by Hercynian granites; (iii) F (K, Si) related to the occurrence of alkaline rocks, especially near the volcanic centres in Italy, and (iv) V indicating the presence of active volcanism and basaltic rocks. For some elements, the reported concentrations are influenced by bottle material. In general, glass bottles leach more elements (Ce, Pb, Al, Zr, Ti, Hf, Th, and La) to stored water than PET bottles. However, all values observed during the leaching tests were well below the respective maximum admissible concentrations, as defined for drinking water by European Union legislation.


Mineral Water Inductively Couple Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry Glass Bottle Bottle Water Carbonate Water 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alecos Demetriades
    • 1
  • Clemens Reimann
    • 2
  • Manfred Birke
    • 3
  • The Eurogeosurveys Geochemistry EGG Team
    • 4
  1. 1.Institute of Geology and Mineral ExplorationAthensGreece
  2. 2.Geological Survey of NorwayTrondheimNorway
  3. 3.Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources, BGRHannoverGermany
  4. 4.EuroGeoSurveysBrusselsBelgium

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