European Ground Water Geochemistry Using Bottled Water as a Sampling Medium

  • Alecos Demetriades
  • Clemens Reimann
  • Manfred Birke
  • The Eurogeosurveys Geochemistry EGG Team
Conference paper
Part of the NATO Science for Peace and Security Series C: Environmental Security book series (NAPSC)

Abstract

To obtain a first impression of the geochemistry and quality of European ground water bottled mineral water was used as a sampling medium. In total, 1,785 bottled waters were purchased from supermarkets of 40 European countries, representing 1,247 wells/drill holes/springs at 884 locations. All bottled waters were analysed for 72 parameters at the laboratories of the Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources (BGR) in Germany. The geochemical maps give a first impression of the natural variation in ground water at the European scale. Geology is one of the key factors influencing the observed element concentrations for a significant number of elements. Examples include high values of (i) Cr clearly related to the occurrence of ophiolites; (ii) Li (Be, Cs) associated with areas underlain by Hercynian granites; (iii) F (K, Si) related to the occurrence of alkaline rocks, especially near the volcanic centres in Italy, and (iv) V indicating the presence of active volcanism and basaltic rocks. For some elements, the reported concentrations are influenced by bottle material. In general, glass bottles leach more elements (Ce, Pb, Al, Zr, Ti, Hf, Th, and La) to stored water than PET bottles. However, all values observed during the leaching tests were well below the respective maximum admissible concentrations, as defined for drinking water by European Union legislation.

Keywords

Mineral Water Inductively Couple Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry Glass Bottle Bottle Water Carbonate Water 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. 1.
    Aitchison J (1986) The statistical analysis of compositional data. Blackburn Press, Caldwell, 416 ppGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Birke M, Demetriades A, De Vivo B (eds) (2010a) Mineral waters of Europe. Special Issue, J Geochem Exploration 107(3):217–422Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Birke M, Reimann C, Demetriades A, Rauch U, Lorenz H, Harazim B, Glatte W (2010b) Determination of major and trace elements in European bottled mineral water—analytical methods. In: Birke M, Demetriades A, De Vivo B (eds) Mineral waters of Europe. Special Issue, J Geochem Exploration 107(3):217–226Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Björklund A, Gustavsson N (1987) Visualization of geochemical data on maps: New options. J Geochem Explor 29:89–103CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Bradford GR (1963) Lithium survey of California’s water resources. Soil Sci 96:77–81CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Demetriades A (2009) Quality control procedures in applied geochemical surveys. Open File Report. Institute of Geology and Mineral Exploration, Hellas, Athens, In Greek with an English summaryGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Demetriades A (2010) Use of measurement uncertainty in a probabilistic scheme to assess compliance of bottled water with drinking water standards. In: Birke M, Demetriades A, De Vivo B (Guest eds) Mineral waters of Europe. Special Issue, J Geochem Exploration 107(3):410–422Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Demetriades A (2011) Understanding the quality of chemical data from the urban environment – Part 2: Measurement uncertainty in the decision-making process. In: Johnson CC, Demetriades A, Locutura J, Ottesen RT (eds) Mapping the chemical environment of urban areas. Wiley-Blackwell, Chichester, pp 77–98CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Demetriades A, Karamanos E (2003) Quality assurance and quality control (QA/QC) for in-situ geochemical methods, estimation of measurement uncertainty and construction of probability risk assessment maps. Network oriented risk assessment by In-situ screening of contaminated sites (NORISC), European Commission co-financed project, EVK4-CT-2000-00026 NORISC consortium report, Cologne, 20 ppGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    De Vos W, Tarvainen T (Chief eds), Salminen R, Reeder S, De Vivo B, Demetriades A, Pirc S, Batista MJ, Marsina K, Ottesen RT, O’Connor PJ, Bidovec M, Lima A, Siewers U, Smith B, Taylor H, Shaw R, Salpeteur I, Gregorauskiene V, Halamic J, Slaninka I, Lax K, Gravesen P, Birke M, Breward N, Ander EL, Jordan G, Duris M, Klein P, Locutura J, Bel-lan A, Pasieczna A, Lis J, Mazreku A, Gilucis A, Heitzmann P, Klaver G, and Petersell V (2006) Geochemical atlas of Europe. Part 2 – Interpretation of geochemical maps, Additional tables, figures, maps and related publications. Geological Survey of Finland, Espoo, Finland, 692 pp. Available online at: http://www.gtk.fi/publ/foregsatlas/. Accessed on 17 April 2011
  11. 11.
    De Vivo B, Birke M, Cicchella D, Giaccio L, Dinelli E, Lima A, Albanese S, Valera P (2010) Acqua di casa nostra. Le Scienze 508:76–85Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Edmunds WM, Smedley P (2005) Fluoride in natural waters. In: Selinus O, Alloway B, Centeno JA, Finkelman RB, Fuge R, Lindh U, Smedley P (eds), Essentials of Medical Geology. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 301–329Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    EU directive 98/83/EC of 3rd Nov 1998 on the quality of water intended for human consumption. Official Journal of the European Communties, 05/12/1998, L330/32–54Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    EU directive 2003/40/EC/16-5-2003/ establishing the list, concentration limits and labelling requirements for the constituents of natural mineral waters and the conditions for using ozone-enriched air for the treatment of natural mineral waters and spring waters. Official Journal of the European Union, 22/5/2003, L126/34–39Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    FAO (1997) Codex standard for natural mineral waters. Codes Stan 108–1981, 5 ppGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Filzmoser P, Hron K, Reimann C (2009) Univariate statistical analysis of environmental (compositional) data – Problems and possibilities. Sci Total Environ 407:6100–6108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Gustavsson N, Lampio E, Tarvainen T (1997) Visualization of geochemical data on maps at the Geological Survey of Finland. J Geochem Explor 59:197–207CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Hall GEM (1998) Relative contamination levels observed in different types of bottles used to collect water samples. Explore 101(1):3–7Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Keresztes S, Tatar E, Mihucz VG, Virag I, Majdik C, Zaray G (2009) Leaching of antimony from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles into mineral water. Sci Total Environ 407:4731–4735CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Krachler M, Shotyk W (2009) Trace and ultra trace metals in bottled waters: Survey of sources worldwide and comparison with refillable metal bottles. Sci Total Environ 407:1089–1096CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Lima A, Cicchella D, Giaccio L, Dinelli E, Albanese S, Valera P, De Vivo B (2010) Che acqua beviamo. Le Scienze 501:68–77Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Lloyd JW, Heathcote JA (1985) Natural inorganic hydrochemistry in relation to groundwater. Oxford Scientific Publications, Oxford University Press, 296 ppGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Misund A, Frengstad B, Siewers U, Reimann C (1999) Natural variation of 66 elements in European mineral waters. Sci Total Environ 243(244):21–41Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Nriagu JO, Lawson G, Wong HKT, Azcue JM (1993) A protocol for minimizing contamination in the analysis of trace metals in Great Lakes waters. J Great Lakes Res 19:175–182CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Reimann C, Birke M (eds) (2010) Geochemistry of European bottled water. Borntraeger Science Publishers, Stuttgart, 268 pp. Available online at: http://www.schweizerbart.de/publications/detail/artno/001201002. Accessed on 17 Apr 2011
  26. 26.
    Reimann C, Garrett RG (2005) Geochemical background – concept and reality. Sci Total Environ 350:12–27CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Reimann C, Wurzer F (1986) Monitoring accuracy and precision – improvements by introducing robust and resistant statistics. Mikrochimic Acta II, 1–6:31–42Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Reimann C, Birke M, Filzmoser P (2010) Bottled drinking water: Water contamination from bottle materials (glass, hard PET, soft PET), the influence of colour and acidification. Appl Geochem 25(7):1030–1046CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Reimann C, Birke M, Filzmoser P (2010) Reply to the comment “Bottled drinking water: Water contamination from bottle materials (glass, hard PET, soft PET), the influence of colour and acidification” by Hayo Müller-Simon. Appl Geochem 25(9):1464–1465CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Reimann C, Filzmoser P, Garrett RG, Dutter R (2008) Statistical data analysis explained – applied environmental statistics with R. Wiley, Chichester, 343 ppCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Reimann C, Grimstvedt A, Frengstad B, Finne TE (2007) White HDPE bottles as a source of serious contamination of water samples with Ba and Zn. Sci Total Environ 374:292–296CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Ross HB (1984) Methodology for the collection and analysis of trace metals in atmospheric precipitation. University of Stockholm, Department of Meteorology Report CM-67Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Salminen R (Chief-ed), Batista MJ, Bidovec M Demetriades A, De Vivo B, De Vos W, Duris M, Gilucis A, Gregorauskiene V, Halamic J, Heitzmann P, Lima A, Jordan G, Klaver G, Klein P, Lis J, Locutura J, Marsina K, Mazreku A, O’Connor PJ, Olsson SÅ, Ottesen RT, Petersell V, Plant JA, Reeder S, Salpeteur I, Sandström H, Siewers U, Steenfelt A and Tarvainen T (2005) Geochemical atlas of Europe. Part 1 – Background information, methodology and maps. Geological Survey of Finland, Espoo, Finland, 526 pp. Available online at: http://www.gtk.fi/publ/foregsatlas/. Accessed on 17 Apr 2011
  34. 34.
    Shotyk W, Krachler M (2007) Contamination of bottled waters with antimony leaching from polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) increases upon storage. Environ Sci Technol 41:1560–1563CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Shotyk W, Krachler M (2007) Lead in bottled water: contamination from glass and comparison with pristine groundwater. Environ Sci Technol 41:3508–3513CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Shotyk W, Krachler M, Chen B (2006) Contamination of Canadian and European bottled waters with antimony leaching from PET containers. J Environ Monitor 8:288–292CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Smedley PL, Kinniburgh DG (2002) A review of the source, behaviour and distribution of arsenic in natural waters. Appl Geochem 17:517–568CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Tukey JW (1977) Exploratory data analysis. Addison Wesley, Reading, 688 ppGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Westerhoff P, Prapaipong P, Shock E, Hillaireau A (2008) Antimony leaching from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) plastic used for bottled drinking water. Water Res 42:551–556CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    WHO (2008) Drinking-water quality, 3rd edn incorporating the 1st and 2nd addenda. vol 1: Recommendations. World Health Organisation, Geneva, 668 pp. Available online at: http://www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/dwq/guidelines/en. Accessed on 17 Apr 2011

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alecos Demetriades
    • 1
  • Clemens Reimann
    • 2
  • Manfred Birke
    • 3
  • The Eurogeosurveys Geochemistry EGG Team
    • 4
  1. 1.Institute of Geology and Mineral ExplorationAthensGreece
  2. 2.Geological Survey of NorwayTrondheimNorway
  3. 3.Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources, BGRHannoverGermany
  4. 4.EuroGeoSurveysBrusselsBelgium

Personalised recommendations