Limitations and Challenges of Wastewater Reuse in Israel

  • Asher Brenner
Conference paper
Part of the NATO Science for Peace and Security Series C: Environmental Security book series (NAPSC)


Israel is a water-scarce country situated in a sensitive hydrological area. This has mandated a careful water resources management that integrates water resource augmentation and pollution control. Desalination of seawater and brackish groundwater, together with reclamation and reuse of municipal wastewater, has become a vital component of this concept. It is planned that by 2020, practically all municipal wastewater will be reused, mainly for agricultural irrigation. In this regard, water quality problems related to the presence of emerging trace substances, such as endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs), may require a quaternary treatment stage that combines activated carbon adsorption, advanced oxidation processes, and desalination. The need for effluent desalination may also be required, due to salination of soil and groundwater caused by long-term irrigation with reclaimed wastewater. Since by 2020, almost 80% of Israel’s fresh water supplies to the urban sector will consist of desalinated water, it will change considerably the composition of the water in use in general and consequently, that of the resulting wastewater.


Municipal Wastewater Advanced Oxidation Process Agricultural Irrigation Desalinate Water Activate Carbon Adsorption 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Unit of Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering SciencesBen-Gurion University of the NegevBe’er-ShevaIsrael

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