Limitations and Challenges of Wastewater Reuse in Israel
Israel is a water-scarce country situated in a sensitive hydrological area. This has mandated a careful water resources management that integrates water resource augmentation and pollution control. Desalination of seawater and brackish groundwater, together with reclamation and reuse of municipal wastewater, has become a vital component of this concept. It is planned that by 2020, practically all municipal wastewater will be reused, mainly for agricultural irrigation. In this regard, water quality problems related to the presence of emerging trace substances, such as endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs), may require a quaternary treatment stage that combines activated carbon adsorption, advanced oxidation processes, and desalination. The need for effluent desalination may also be required, due to salination of soil and groundwater caused by long-term irrigation with reclaimed wastewater. Since by 2020, almost 80% of Israel’s fresh water supplies to the urban sector will consist of desalinated water, it will change considerably the composition of the water in use in general and consequently, that of the resulting wastewater.
KeywordsMunicipal Wastewater Advanced Oxidation Process Agricultural Irrigation Desalinate Water Activate Carbon Adsorption
- 4.Ternes TA, Joss A (2006) Human pharmaceuticals, hormones and fragrances: the challenge of micropollutants in urban water management. IWA, LondonGoogle Scholar
- 5.Weber B, Juanico M (2004) Salt reduction in municipal sewage allocated for reuse: the outcome of a new policy in Israel. Water Sci Technol 50(2):17–22Google Scholar