Plant Response and Tolerance to Abiotic Oxidative Stress: Antioxidant Defense Is a Key Factor

  • Mirza Hasanuzzaman
  • Mohammad Anwar Hossain
  • Jaime A. Teixeira da Silva
  • Masayuki Fujita


In a persistently changing environment, plants are constantly challenged by various abiotic stresses such as salinity, drought, temperature extremes, heavy metal toxicity, high-light intensity, nutrient deficiency, UV-B radiation, ozone, etc. which cause substantial losses in the yield and quality of a crop. A key sign of such stresses at the molecular level is the accelerated production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as singlet oxygen (1O2), superoxide (O2•−), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and hydroxyl radicals (OH•). ROS are extremely reactive in nature because they can interact with a number of cellular molecules and metabolites, thereby leading to irreparable metabolic dysfunction and death. Plants have well-developed enzymatic and non-enzymatic scavenging pathways or detoxification systems to counter the deleterious effects of ROS that include the enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDHAR), dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione S-transferase (GST), glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and peroxidases (POX) as well as non-enzymatic compounds such as ascorbate (AsA), glutathione (GSH), carotenoids and tocopherols. In plant cells, specific ROS-producing and scavenging systems are found in different organelles and the ROS-scavenging pathways from different cellular compartments are coordinated. Recent studies in plants have shown that relatively low levels of ROS act as signaling molecules that induce abiotic stress tolerance by regulating the expression of defense genes. Additionally, numerous results have shown that plants with higher levels of antioxidants, whether constitutive or induced, showed greater resistance to different types of environmental stresses. In this chapter we attempt to summarize recent researches on the mechanisms and possible regulatory roles of ROS in abiotic stress tolerance. Further, we discuss the progress made during the last few decades in improving the oxidative stress tolerance of plants through genetic engineering by different components of ROS detoxification systems in plants.



abscisic acid


ascorbate peroxidase


ascorbic acid


adenosine triphosphate






dehydroascorbate reductase


electron transport chain




glycolate oxidase


glutathione peroxidase


glutathione reductase


reduced glutathione


oxidized glutathione


glutathione S-transferase


heavy metal


lipid hydroperoxides






monodehydroascorbate reductase


nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate


NADPH oxidases


nitric oxide




programmed cell death


polyethylene glycol




organic hydroperoxides


reactive oxygen species


ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase




sodium nitroprusside


total glutathione


xanthine oxidase


  1. Abedi T, Pakniyat H (2010) Antioxidant enzyme changes in response to drought stress in ten cultivars of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.). Czech J Genet Plant Breed 46:27–34Google Scholar
  2. Abogadallah GM (2010) Antioxidative defense under salt stress. Plant Signal Behav 5:369–374PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Acquaah G (2007) Principles of plant genetics and breeding. Blackwell, Oxford, p 385Google Scholar
  4. Agrawal SB, Rathore D (2007) Changes in oxidative stress defense in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and mung bean (Vigna radiata L.) cultivars grown with or without mineral nutrients and irradiated by supplemental ultraviolet-B. Environ Exp Bot 59:21–33Google Scholar
  5. Agrawal SB, Singh S, Agrawal M (2009) Ultraviolet-B induced changes in gene expression and antioxidants in plants. Adv Bot Res 52:48–86Google Scholar
  6. Ahmed A, Hasnain A, Akhtar S, Hussain A, Abaid-ullah YG, Wahid A, Mahmood S (2010) Antioxidant enzymes as bio-markers for copper tolerance in safflower (Carthamus tinctoriusL.). Afr J Biotechnol 9:5441–5444Google Scholar
  7. Ahsan N, Lee DG, Lee SH, Kang KY, Lee JJ, Kim PJ, Yoon HS, Kim JS, Lee BH (2007) Excess copper induced physiological and proteomic changes in germinating rice seeds. Chemosphere 67:1182–1193Google Scholar
  8. Ali AA, Alqurainy F (2006) Activities of antioxidants in plants under environmental stress. In: Motohashi N (ed) The lutein-prevention and treatment for diseases. Transworld Research Network, Trivandrum, pp 187–256Google Scholar
  9. Almeselmani M, Deshmukh PS, Sairam RK, Kushwaha SR, Singh TP (2006) Protective role of antioxidant enzymes under high temperature stress. Plant Sci 171:382–388Google Scholar
  10. Almeselmani M, Deshmukh PS, Sairam RK (2009) High temperature stress tolerance in wheat genotypes: role of antioxidant defence enzymes. Acta Agron Hung 57:1–14Google Scholar
  11. Amako K, Ushimaru T (2009) Dehydroascorbate reductase and salt stress. CAB Rev Perspect Agric Vet Sci Nutr Nat Resour 4:1–7Google Scholar
  12. Angelone M, Bini C (1992) Trace elements concentrations in soils and plants of Western Europe. In: Adriano DC (ed) Biogeochemistry of trace metals. Lewis Publishers, Boca Raton, pp 19–60Google Scholar
  13. Anjum NA, Umar S, Iqbal M, Khan NA (2011) Cadmium causes oxidative stress in mung bean by affecting the antioxidant enzyme system and Ascorbate–Glutathione cycle metabolism. Russ J Plant Physiol 58:92–99Google Scholar
  14. Apel K, Hirt H (2004) Reactive oxygen species: metabolism, oxidative stress and signal transduction. Annu Rev Plant Biol 55:373–399PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Arbona V, Hossain Z, López-Climent MF, Pérez-Clemente RM, Gómez-Cadenas A (2008) Antioxidant enzymatic activity is linked to waterlogging stress tolerance in citrus. Physiol Plant 132:452–466PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Artlip TS, Wisniewski ME, Macarisin D, Norelli JL (2009) Ectopic expression of a spinach SOD gene in young apple trees enhances abiotic stress resistance. Acta Hort 839:645–650Google Scholar
  17. Asada K (1992) Ascorbate peroxidase – a hydrogen peroxide-scavenging enzyme in plants. Physiol Plant 85:235–241Google Scholar
  18. Asada K (1994) Production and action of active oxygen species in photosynthetic tissues. In: Foyer CH, Mullineaux PM (eds) Causes of photooxidative stress and amelioration of defence systems in plants. CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp 77–104Google Scholar
  19. Asada K (2006) Production and scavenging of reactive oxygen species in chloroplasts and their functions. Plant Physiol 141:391–396PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Asada K, Takahashi M (1987) Production and scavenging of active oxygen in chloroplasts. In: Kyle DJ, Osmond CB, Arntzen CJ (eds) Photoinhibition: topics in photosynthesis, vol 9. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 227–287Google Scholar
  21. Ashmore MR (2005) Assessing the future global impacts of ozone on vegetation. Plant Cell Environ 28:949–964Google Scholar
  22. Ashraf M (2009) Biotechnological approach of improving plant salt tolerance using antioxidants as markers. Biotechnol Adv 27:84–93PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Ashraf M, Harris PJC (2004) Potential biochemical indicators of salinity tolerance in plants. Plant Sci 166:3–16Google Scholar
  24. Ashraf M, Athar HR, Harris PJC, Kwon TR (2008) Some prospective strategies for improving crop salt tolerance. Adv Agron 97:45–110Google Scholar
  25. Azooz MM, Ismail AM, Elhamd MFA (2009) Growth, lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzyme activities as a selection criterion for the salt tolerance of three maize cultivars grown under salinity stress. Int J Agric Biol 11:21–26Google Scholar
  26. Babu NR, Devraj VR (2008) High temperature and salt stress response in French bean (Phaseolus vulgaris). Aust J Crop Sci 2:40–48Google Scholar
  27. Badawi GH, Tahir ISA, Nakata N, Tanaka K (2007) Induction of some antioxidant enzymes in selected wheat genotypes. Afr Crop Sci Conf Proc 8:841–848Google Scholar
  28. Balla K, Bencze S, Janda T, Veisz O (2009) Analysis of heat stress tolerance in winter wheat. Acta Agron Hung 57:437–444Google Scholar
  29. Bandurska H, Borowiak K, Miara M (2009) Effect of two different ambient ozone concentrations on antioxidative enzymes in leaves of two tobacco cultivars with contrasting ozone sensitivity. Acta Biol Cracov Bot 51:37–44Google Scholar
  30. Bartels D, Sunkar R (2005) Drought and salt tolerance in plants. Crit Rev Plant Sci 24:23–58Google Scholar
  31. Bar-Tsur A, Rudich J, Bravdo B (1985) High temperature effects on CO2 gas exchange in heat-tolerant and sensitive tomatoes. J Am Soc Hort Sci 110:582–586Google Scholar
  32. Bhatnagar-Mathur P, Valdez V, Sharma KK (2008) Transgenic approaches for abiotic stress tolerance in plants: retrospect and prospects. Plant Cell Rep 27:411–424PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Bhowmik PC, Shetty K, Sarkar D (2008) Cold-stress response of cool-season turfgrass: antioxidant mechanism. In: Pessarakli M (ed) Handbook of turfgrass management and physiology. CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp 507–530Google Scholar
  34. Bin T, Xu SZ, Zou XL, Zheng YL, Qiu FZ (2010) Changes of antioxidative enzymes and lipid peroxidation in leaves and roots of waterlogging-tolerant and waterlogging-sensitive maize genotypes at seedling stage. Agric Sci China 9:651–661Google Scholar
  35. Blokhnia O, Virolainen E, Fagerstedt V (2003) Antioxidants, oxidative damage and oxygen deprivation stress: a review. Ann Bot 91:179–194Google Scholar
  36. Bornman JF, Vogelmann TC (1991) Effect of UV-B radiation on leaf optical properties measured with fiber optics. J Exp Bot 42:547–554Google Scholar
  37. Borowiak K, Rucińska-Sobkowiak R, Rymer K, Gwóźdź EA, Zbierska J (2009) Biochemical markers of tropospheric ozone: experimentation with test-plants. Pol J Ecol 57:3–14Google Scholar
  38. Burkey KO, Wei CM, Eason G, Ghosh P, Fenner GP (2000) Antioxidant metabolite levels in ozone-sensitive and tolerant genotypes of snap bean. Physiol Plant 110:195–200Google Scholar
  39. Cai Y, Cao F, Cheng W, Zhang G, Wu F (2010) Modulation of exogenous glutathione in phytochelatins and photosynthetic performance against Cd stress in the two rice genotypes differing in Cd tolerance. Biol Trace Elem Res. doi:10.1007/s12011-010-8929-1
  40. Chakraborty U, Pradhan D (2011) High temperature-induced oxidative stress in Lens culinaris, role of antioxidants and amelioration of stress by chemical pre-treatments. J Plant Interact 6:43–52Google Scholar
  41. Chalapathi Rao ASV, Reddy AR (2008) Glutathione reductase: a putative redox regulatory system in plant cells. In: Khan NA, Singh S, Umar S (eds) Sulfur assimilation and abiotic stresses in plants. Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg, pp 111–147Google Scholar
  42. Chauhan S (2005) Physiological and molecular basis of heat tolerance with emphasis on oxidative stress metabolism in wheat. PhD thesis, HNB Garhwal University, SrinagarGoogle Scholar
  43. Chen Z, Young TE, Ling J, Chang SC, Gallie DR (2003) Increasing vitamin C content of plants through enhanced ascorbate recycling. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 100:3525–3530PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Conklin PL, Williams EH, Last RL (1996) Environmental stress sensitivity of an ascorbic acid-deficient Arabidopsis mutant. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 93:9970–9974PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Correia CM, Pereira JMM, Coutinho JF, Bjorn LO, Torres-Pereira JMG (2005) Ultraviolet-B radiation and nitrogen affect the photosynthesis of maize: a Mediterranean field study. Eur J Agron 22:337–347Google Scholar
  46. Costa H, Gallego SM, Tomaro ML (2002) Effect of UV-B radiation on antioxidant defense system in sunflower cotyledons. Plant Sci 162:939–945Google Scholar
  47. Dai F, Huang Y, Zhou M, Zhang G (2009a) The influence of cold acclimation on antioxidant enzymes and antioxidants in sensitive and tolerant barley cultivars. Biol Plant 53:257–262Google Scholar
  48. Dai QL, Chen C, Feng B, Liu TT, Tian X, Gong YY, Sun YK, Wang J, Du SZ (2009b) Effects of NaCl treatment on the antioxidant enzymes of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) seedlings. Afr J Biotechnol 8:5400–5405Google Scholar
  49. Damanik RI, Maziah M, Ismail MR, Ahmad S, Zain AM (2010) Responses of the antioxidative enzymes in Malaysian rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivars under submergence condition. Acta Physiol Plant 32:739–747Google Scholar
  50. de Carvalho MHC (2008) Drought stress and reactive oxygen species. Plant Signal Behav 3:156–165Google Scholar
  51. De Tullio MC (2004) How does ascorbic acid prevent scurvy? A survey of the nonantioxidant functions of vitamin C. In: Asard H (ed) Vitamin C: its function and biochemistry in animals and plants. Garland Science/BIOS Scientific Publishers, London/New York, pp 176–190Google Scholar
  52. del Río LA, Sandalio LM, Corpas FJ, Palma JM, Barroso JB (2006) Reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species in peroxisomes. Production, scavenging, and role in cell signaling. Plant Physiol 141:330–335PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Demiral T, Turkan I (2005) Comparative lipid peroxidation, antioxidant defense systems and proline content in roots of two rice cultivars differing in salt tolerance. Environ Exp Bot 53:247–257Google Scholar
  54. Didyk NP, Blum OB (2011) Natural antioxidants of plant origin against ozone damage of sensitive crops. Acta Physiol Plant 33:25–34Google Scholar
  55. Din J, Khan SU, Ali I, Gurmani AR (2011) Physiological and agronomic response of canola varieties to drought stress. J Anim Plant Sci 21:78–82Google Scholar
  56. Dixon DP, Skipsey M, Edwards R (2010) Roles for glutathione transferases in plant secondary metabolism. Phytochemistry 71:338–350PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Domínguez DM, García FC, Raya AC, Santiago RT (2010) Cadmium-induced oxidative stress and the response of the antioxidative defense system in Spartina densiflora. Physiol Plant 139:289–302Google Scholar
  58. Du H, Liang Y, Pei K, Ma K (2011) UV radiation-responsive proteins in rice leaves: a proteomic analysis. Plant Cell Physiol 52:306–316PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Dubey RS (2011) Metal toxicity, oxidative stress and antioxidative defense system in plants. In: Gupta SD (ed) Reactive oxygen species and antioxidants in higher plants. CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp 177–203Google Scholar
  60. Edwards R, Dixon DP, Walbot V (2000) Plant glutathione S-transferases: enzymes with multiple functions in sickness and in health. Trends Plant Sci 5:193–198PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Egli DB, Tekrony DM, Heitholt JJ, Rupe J (2005) Air temperature during seed filling and soybean seed germination and vigor. Crop Sci 45:1329–1335Google Scholar
  62. Einset J, Winge P, Bones A (2007) ROS signaling pathways in chilling stress. Plant Signal Behav 2:365–367PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. El-Bastawisy ZM (2010) Variation in antioxidants among three wheat cultivars varying in tolerance to NaCl. Gen Appl Plant Physiol 36:189–203Google Scholar
  64. El-Beltagi HS, Mohamed AA, Rashed MM (2010) Response of antioxidative enzymes to cadmium stress in leaves and roots of radish (Raphanus sativus L.). Not Sci Biol 2:76–82Google Scholar
  65. El-Shintinawy F, Ebrahim MKH, Sewelam N, El-Shourbagy MN (2004) Activity of photosystem 2, lipid peroxidation, and the enzymatic antioxidant protective system in heat shocked barley seedlings. Photosynthetica 42:15–21Google Scholar
  66. Eltayeb AE, Kawano N, Badawi GH, Kaminaka H, Sanekata T, Morishima I (2006) Enhanced tolerance to ozone and drought in transgenic tobacco overexpressing dehydroascorbate reductase in cytosol. Physiol Plant 127:57–65Google Scholar
  67. Eltayeb AE, Kawano N, Badawi GH, Kaminaka H, Sanekata T, Shibahara T, Inanaga S, Tanaka K (2007) Overexpression of monodehydroascorbate reductase in transgenic tobacco confers enhanced tolerance to ozone, salt and polyethylene glycol stresses. Planta 225:1255–1264PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Ercoli L, Mariotti M, Masoni A, Arduini I (2004) Growth responses of sorghum plants to chilling temperature and duration of exposure. Eur J Agron 21:93–103Google Scholar
  69. Faize M, Burgos L, Faize L, Piqueras A, Nicolas E, Barba-Espin G, Clemente-Moreno MJ, Alcobendas R, Artlip T, Hernández JA (2011) Involvement of cytosolic ascorbate peroxidase and Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase for improved tolerance against drought stress. J Exp Bot. doi:10.1093/jxb/erq432
  70. Farooq M, Aziz T, Wahid A, Lee DJ, Siddique KHM (2009) Chilling tolerance in maize: agronomic and physiological approaches. Crop Pasture Sci 60:501–516Google Scholar
  71. Feng Z, Pang J, Kobayashi K, Zhu ZN, Ort DR (2011) Differential responses in two varieties of winter wheat to elevated ozone concentration under fully open-air field conditions. Global Change Biol 17:580–591Google Scholar
  72. Filippou P, Antoniou C, Fotopoulos V (2011) Effect of drought and rewatering on the cellular status and antioxidant response of Medicago truncatula plants. Plant Signal Behav 6:1–8Google Scholar
  73. Fiscus EL, Booker FL, Burkey KO (2005) Crop responses to ozone: uptake, modes of action, carbon assimilation and partitioning. Plant Cell Envrion 28:997–1011Google Scholar
  74. Fodor F (2002) Physiological responses of vascular plants to heavy metals. In: Prasad MNV, Strzalka K (eds) Physiology and biochemistry of metal toxicity and tolerance in plants. Kluwer, Dordrecht, pp 149–177Google Scholar
  75. Foyer CH, Halliwell B (1976) The presence of glutathione and glutathione reductase in chloroplasts: a proposed role in ascorbic acid metabolism. Planta 133:21–25Google Scholar
  76. Foyer C, Noctor G (2000) Oxygen processing in photosynthesis: regulation and signaling. New Phytol 146:359–388Google Scholar
  77. Fryer MJ (1992) The antioxidant effects of thylakoid vitamin E (α-tocopherol). Plant Cell Environ 15:381–392Google Scholar
  78. Galinski EA, Truper HG (1994) Microbial behavior in salt stressed ecosystems. FEMS Microbiol Rev 15:95–108Google Scholar
  79. Galloway JN, Thornton JD, Norton SA, Volcho HL, McLean RA (1982) Trace metals in atmospheric deposition: a review and assessment. Atmos Environ 16:1677–1700Google Scholar
  80. Gapper C, Dolan L (2006) Control of plant development by reactive oxygen species. Plant Physiol 141:341–345PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. García-Sánchez F, Syvertsen JP, Gimeno V, Botia P, Pérez-Pérez JG (2007) Responses to flooding and drought stress by two citrus rootstock seedlings with different water-use efficiency. Physiol Plant 130:532–542Google Scholar
  82. Garg N, Manchanda G (2009) ROS generation in plants: boon or bane? Plant Biosyst 143:81–96Google Scholar
  83. Gechev T, Willekens H, Montagu MV, Inzé D, Camp WV, Toneva V, Minkov I (2010) Different responses of tobacco antioxidant enzymes to light and chilling stress. J Plant Physiol 160:509–515Google Scholar
  84. Ghosh N, Adak MK, Ghosh PD, Gupta S, Sen Gupta DN, Mandal C (2011) Differential responses of two rice varieties to salt stress. Plant Biotechnol Rep 5:89–103Google Scholar
  85. Gibbs J, Greenway H (2003) Mechanisms of anoxia tolerance in plants. I. Growth, survival and anaerobic catabolism. Funct Plant Biol 30:1–47Google Scholar
  86. Gill SS, Tuteja N (2010) Reactive oxygen species and antioxidant machinery in abiotic stress tolerance in crop plants. Plant Physiol Biochem 48:909–930PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Gill SS, Tuteja N (2011) Cadmium stress tolerance in crop plants: probing the role of sulfur. Plant Signal Behav 6:215–222PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Gill SS, Khan NA, Anjum NA, Tuteja N (2011a) Amelioration of cadmium stress in crop plants by nutrient management: morphological, physiological and biochemical aspects. Plant Stress 5:1–23Google Scholar
  89. Gill SS, Khan NA, Anjum NA, Tuteja N (2011b) Differential cadmium stress tolerance in five Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L.) cultivars: an evaluation of the role of antioxidant machinery. Plant Signal Behav 6:293–300PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Gillespie KM, Rogers A, Ainsworth EA (2011) Growth at elevated ozone or elevated carbon dioxide concentration alters antioxidant capacity and response to acute oxidative stress in soybean (Glycine max). J Exp Bot. doi:10.1093/jxb/erq435
  91. Gossett DR, Banks SW, Millhollon EP, Lucas MC (1996) Antioxidant response to NaCl stress in a control and a NaCl-tolerant cotton cell line grown in the presence of paraquat, buthionine sulfoximine and exogenous glutathione. Plant Physiol 112:803–809PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Guan ZQ, Chai TY, Zhang YX, Xu J, Wei W (2009) Enhancement of Cd tolerance in transgenic tobacco plants overexpressing a Cd-induced catalase cDNA. Chemosphere 76:623–630PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Guilioni L, Wery J, Tardieu F (1997) Heat stress-induced abortion of buds and flowers in pea: is sensitivity linked to organ age or to relations between reproductive organs? Ann Bot 80:159–168Google Scholar
  94. Guilioni L, Wery J, Lecoeur J (2003) High temperature and water deficit may reduce seed number in field pea purely by decreasing plant growth rate. Funct Plant Biol 30:1151–1164Google Scholar
  95. Gullner G, Komives T (2001) The role of glutathione and glutathione-related enzymes in plant–pathogen interactions. In: Grill D, Tausz M, Kok L (eds) Significance of glutathione in plant adaptation to the environment. Kluwer, Dordrecht, pp 207–239Google Scholar
  96. Guo A, He K, Liu D, Bai S, Gu X, Wei L, Luo JD (2005) A database of Arabidopsis transcription factors. Bioinformatics 21:2568–2569PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Guo Z, Ou W, Lu S, Zhong Q (2006) Differential responses of antioxidant system to chilling and drought in four rice cultivars differing in sensitivity. Plant Physiol Biochem 44:828–836PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Gupta M, Sharma P, Sarin NB, Sinha AK (2009) Differential response of arsenic stress in two varieties of Brassica juncea L. Chemosphere 74:1201–1208PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Hall AE (1992) Breeding for heat tolerance. Plant Breed Rev 10:129–168Google Scholar
  100. Halliwell B (2006) Reactive species and antioxidants, redox biology is fundamental theme of aerobic life. Plant Physiol 141:312–322PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Hamada AM, Al-Hakimi AM (2009) Exogenous ascorbic acid or thiamine increases the resistance of sunflower and maize plants to salt stress. Acta Agrona Hung 57:335–347Google Scholar
  102. Harb A, Krishnan A, Ambavaram MMR, Pereira A (2010) Molecular and physiological analysis of drought stress in Arabidopsis reveals early responses leading to acclimation in plant growth. Plant Physiol 154:1254–1271PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Hasanuzzaman M, Fujita M (2011) Selenium pretreatment upregulates the antioxidant defense and methylglyoxal detoxification system and confers enhanced tolerance to drought stress in rapeseed seedlings. Biol Trace Elem Res. doi:10.1007/s12011-011-8998-9
  104. Hasanuzzaman M, Fujita M, Islam MN, Ahamed KU, Nahar K (2009) Performance of four irrigated rice varieties under different levels of salinity stress. Int J Integr Biol 6:85–90Google Scholar
  105. Hasanuzzaman M, Hossain MA, Fujita M (2011a) Selenium-induced up-regulation of the antioxidant defense and methylglyoxal detoxification system reduces salinity-induced damage in rapeseed seedlings. Biol Trace Elem Res. doi:10.1007/s12011-011-8958-4
  106. Hasanuzzaman M, Hossain MA, Fujita M (2011b) Nitric oxide modulates antioxidant defense and the methylglyoxal detoxification system and reduces salinity-induced damage of wheat seedlings. Plant Biotechnol Rep. doi:10.1007/s11816-011-0189-9
  107. He DL, Wong CH, He YH (2003) The effect of reduction of ultraviolet–B radiance on the content of flavonoid in leaves of wheat. Chin J Agromet 24:32Google Scholar
  108. Heckathorn SA, Mueller JK, La Guidice S, Zhu B, Barrett T, Blair B, Dong Y (2004) Chloroplast small heat-shock proteins protect photosynthesis during heavy metal stress. Am J Bot 91:1312–1318PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Heidari M (2009) Antioxidant activity and osmolyte concentration of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) and wheat (Triticum aestivum) genotypes under salinity stress. Asian J Plant Sci 8:240–244Google Scholar
  110. Hemavathi UCP, Akula N, Young KE, Chun SC, Kim DH, Park SW (2010) Enhanced ascorbic acid accumulation in transgenic potato confers tolerance to various abiotic stresses. Biotechnol Lett 32:321–330PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Herbette S, de Labrouhe DT, Drevet JR, Roeckel-Drevet P (2011) Transgenic tomatoes showing higher glutathione peroxydase antioxidant activity are more resistant to an abiotic stress but more susceptible to biotic stresses. Plant Sci 180:548–553PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Hossain MA, Fujita M (2009) Exogenous glycinebetaine and proline modulate antioxidant defense and methylglyoxal detoxification systems and reduce drought-induced damage in mung bean seedlings (Vigna radiata L.). In: Proceedings of the 3rd international conference on integrated approaches to improve crop production under drought-prone environments, 11–16 Oct 2009, Shanghai, China, pp 138Google Scholar
  113. Hossain MA, Fujita M (2010) Evidence for a role of exogenous glycinebetaine and proline in antioxidant defense and methylglyoxal detoxification systems in mung bean seedlings under salt stress. Physiol Mol Biol Plants 16:19–29Google Scholar
  114. Hossain MZ, Teixeira da Silva JA, Fujita M (2006) Differential roles of glutathionine S-transferases in oxidative stress modulation. In: Teixeira da Silva JA (ed) Floriculture, ornamental and plant biotechnology: advances and topical issues, Vol. 3, 1st edn. Global Science Books, Isleworth, pp 108–116Google Scholar
  115. Hossain Z, López-Climent MF, Arbona V, Pérez-Clemente RM, Gómez-Cadenas A (2009) Modulation of the antioxidant system in citrus under waterlogging and subsequent drainage. J Plant Physiol 166:1391–1404PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. Hossain MA, Hasanuzzaman M, Fujita M (2010) Up-regulation of antioxidant and glyoxalase systems by exogenous glycinebetaine and proline in mung bean confer tolerance to cadmium stress. Physiol Mol Biol Plants 16:259–272Google Scholar
  117. Hossain MA, Hasanuzzaman M, Fujita M (2011) Coordinate induction of antioxidant defense and glyoxalase system by exogenous proline and glycinebetaine is correlated with salt tolerance in mung bean. Front Agric China 5:1–14Google Scholar
  118. Howarth CJ (2005) Genetic improvements of tolerance to high temperature. In: Ashraf M, Harris PJC (eds) Abiotic stresses: plant resistance through breeding and molecular approaches. Howarth Press Inc., New York, pp 277–300Google Scholar
  119. Hsu YT, Kao CH (2004) Cadmium toxicity is reduced by nitric oxide in rice leaves. Plant Growth Regul 42:227–238Google Scholar
  120. Hu WH, Song XS, Shi K, Xia XJ, Zhou YH, Yu JQ (2008) Changes in electron transport, superoxide dismutase and ascorbate peroxidase isoenzymes in chloroplasts and mitochondria of cucumber leaves as influenced by chilling. Photosynthetica 46:581–588Google Scholar
  121. Huang M, Guo Z (2005) Responses of antioxidant system to chilling stress in two rice cultivars differing in sensitivity. Biol Plant 49:81–84Google Scholar
  122. Huang C, He W, Guo J, Chang X, Su P, Zhang L (2005) Increased sensitivity to salt stress in an ascorbate-deficient Arabidopsis mutant. J Exp Bot 56:3041–3049PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. Hussain TM, Chandrasekhar T, Hazara M, Sultan Z, Saleh BZ, Gopal GR (2008) Recent advances in salt stress biology – a review. Biotechnol Mol Biol Rev 3:8–13Google Scholar
  124. Irfan M, Hayat S, Hayat O, Afroz S, Ahmad A (2010) Physiological and biochemical changes in plants under waterlogging. Protoplasma 241:3–17PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. Ismail AM, Hall AE (1999) Reproductive-stage, heat tolerance, leaf membrane thermostability and plant morphology in cowpea. Crop Sci 39:1762–1768Google Scholar
  126. Jackson MB, Armstrong W (1999) Formation of aerenchyma and the processes of plant ventilation in relation to soil flooding and submergence. Plant Biol 1:274–287Google Scholar
  127. Jackson MB, Colmer TD (2005) Response and adaptation by plants to flooding stress. Ann Bot 96:501–505PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. Jain K, Kataria S, Guruprasad KN (2003) Changes in antioxidant defenses of cucumber cotyledons in response to UV-B and to the free radicals generating compound AAPH. Plant Sci 165:551–557Google Scholar
  129. Jaleel CA, Gopi R, Panneerselvam R (2008a) Growth and photosynthetic pigments responses of two varieties of Catharanthus roseusto triadimefon treatment. C R Biol 331:272–277PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. Jaleel CA, Gopi R, Sankar B, Gomathinayagam M, Panneerselvam R (2008b) Differential responses in water use efficiency in two varieties of Catharanthus roseus under drought stress. C R Biol 331:42–47PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. Jaleel CA, Manivannan P, Lakshmanan GMA, Gomathinayagam M, Panneerselvam R (2008c) Alterations in morphological parameters and photosynthetic pigment responses of Catharanthus roseus under soil water deficits. Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces 61:298–303PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. Jaleel CA, Manivannan P, Wahid A, Farooq M, Somasundaram R, Panneerselvam R (2009) Drought stress in plants: a review on morphological characteristics and pigments composition. Int J Agric Biol 11:100–105Google Scholar
  133. Jha B, Sharma A, Mishra A (2011) Expression of SbGSTU (tau class glutathione S-transferase) gene isolated from Salicornia brachiata in tobacco for salt tolerance. Mol Biol Rep. 38:4823–4832Google Scholar
  134. Kachout SS, Mansoura AB, Leclerc JC, Mechergui R, Rejeb MN, Ouerghi Z (2009) Effects of heavy metals on antioxidant activities of Atriplex hortensis and A. rosea. J Food Agric Environ 7:938–945Google Scholar
  135. Kang HM, Saltveit ME (2002) Reduced chilling tolerance in elongating cucumber seedling radicles is related to their reduced antioxidant enzyme and DPPH-radical scavenging activity. Physiol Plant 115:244–250PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. Kesselmeier J, Staudt M (1999) Biogenic volatile organic compounds (VOC): an overview on emission, physiology and ecology. J Atmos Chem 33:23–88Google Scholar
  137. Kiani SP, Maury P, Sarrafi A, Grieu P (2008) QTL analysis of chlorophyll fluorescence parameters in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) under well-watered and water-stressed conditions. Plant Sci 175:565–573Google Scholar
  138. Kim K, Portis J (2004) Oxygen-dependent H2O2 production by Rubisco. FEBS Lett 571:124–128PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. Kocsy G, Szalai G, Vágújfalvi A, Stéhli L, Orosz G, Galiba G (2000) Genetic study of glutathione accumulation during cold hardening in wheat. Planta 210:295–301PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. Kocsy G, Galiba G, Brunold C (2001) Role of glutathione in adaptation and signalling during chilling and cold acclimation in plants. Physiol Plant 113:158–164PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. Kocsy G, Szalai G, Galiba G (2002) Induction of glutathione synthesis and glutathione reductase activity by abiotic stresses in maize and wheat. Sci World J 2:1699–1705Google Scholar
  142. Kozlowski TT (1997) Responses of woody plants to flooding and salinity. Tree Physiol Monogr 1:1–29Google Scholar
  143. Kühn H, Borchert A (2002) Regulation of enzymatic lipid peroxidation: the interplay of peroxidizing and peroxide reducing enzymes. Free Radic Biol Med 33:154–172PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. Kumar B, Singla-Pareek SL, Sopory SK, Govindjee (2010) Glutathione homeostasis: crucial role for abiotic stress tolerance in plants. In: Pareek A, Sopory SK, Bohnert HJ (eds) Abiotic stress adaptation in plants: physiological, molecular and genomic foundation. Springer, Berlin, pp 263–282Google Scholar
  145. Kumari R, Singh S, Agrawal SB (2010) Response of ultraviolet-B induced antioxidant defense system in a medicinal plant, Acorus calamus. J Environ Biol 31:907–911PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. Kumutha D, Ezhilmathi K, Sairam RK, Srivastava GC, Deshmukh PS, Meena RC (2009) Water-logging induced oxidative stress and antioxidant activity in pigeon pea genotypes. Biol Plant 53:75–84Google Scholar
  147. Larcher W (2001) Physiological plant ecology, 4th edn. Springer, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  148. Lawlor DW, Cornic G (2002) Photosynthetic carbon assimilation and associated metabolism in relation to water deficits in higher plants. Plant Cell Environ 25:275–294PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. Lee YP, Kim SH, Bang JW, Lee HS, Kwak SS, Kwon SY (2007) Enhanced tolerance to oxidative stress in transgenic tobacco plants expressing three antioxidant enzymes in chloroplasts. Plant Cell Rep 26:591–598PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. Lee SC, Kwon SY, Kim SR (2009) Ectopic expression of a chilling-responsive CuZn superoxide dismutase gene, SodCc1, in transgenic rice (Oryza sativa L.). J Plant Biol 52:154–160Google Scholar
  151. Leisner CP, Cousins AB, Offermann S, Okita TW, Edwards GE (2010) The effects of salinity on photosynthesis and growth of the single-cell C4 species Bienertia sinuspersici (Chenopodiaceae). Photosynth Res 106:201–214PubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. Lelieveld J, Crutzen PJ (1990) Influences of cloud photochemical processes on tropospheric ozone. Nature 343:227–232Google Scholar
  153. Li JM, Jin H (2007) Regulation of brassinosteroid signaling. Trends Plant Sci 12:37–41PubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. Li CX, Feng SL, Shao Y, Jiang LN, Lu XY, Hou XL (2007) Effects of arsenic on seed germination and physiological activities of wheat seedlings. J Environ Sci 19:725–732Google Scholar
  155. Li CH, Li Y, Wuyun TN, Wu GL, Jiang GM (2010a) Effects of high concentration ozone on soybean growth and grain yield. Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao 21:2347–2352PubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. Li L, Zhao J, Tang X (2010b) Ultraviolet irradiation induced oxidative stress and response of antioxidant system in an intertidal macroalgae Corallina officinalis L. J Environ Sci 22:716–722Google Scholar
  157. Li X, Shen X, Li J, Eneji AE, Li Z, Tian X, Duan L (2010c) Coronatine alleviates water deficiency stress on winter wheat seedlings. J Integr Plant Biol 52:616–625PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. Li C, Jiang D, Wollenweber B, Li Y, Dai T, Cao W (2011) Waterlogging pretreatment during vegetative growth improves tolerance to waterlogging after anthesis in wheat. Plant Sci 180:672–678PubMedGoogle Scholar
  159. Liang B, Huang X, Zhang G, Zhou Q (2006) Effect of Lanthanum on plant under supplementary ultraviolet-B radiation: effect of Lanthanum on flavonoid contents on soybean seedling exposed to supplementary ultraviolet-B radiation. J Rare Earth 24:613–616Google Scholar
  160. Lima PL, Benassi JC, Pedrosa RC, dal Magro J, Oliveira TB, Wilhelm-Filho D (2006) Time course variations of DNA damage and biomarkers of oxidativestress in tilapia (Orechromis niloticus) exposed to effluents from a swine industry. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 50:23–30PubMedGoogle Scholar
  161. Liu X, Hua X, Guo J, Qi D, Wang L, Liu Z, Jin Z, Chen S, Liu G (2008) Enhanced tolerance to drought stress in transgenic tobacco plants overexpressing VTE1 for increased tocopherol production from Arabidopsis thaliana. Biotechnol Lett 30:1275–1280PubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. Llamas A, Ullrich CI, Sanz A (2000) Cd2+ effects on transmembrane electrical potential difference, respiration and membrane permeability of rice (Oryza sativa L.) roots. Plant Soil 219:21–28Google Scholar
  163. Logan B (2005) Reactive oxygen species and photosynthesis. In: Smrinoff N (ed) Antioxidants and reactive oxygen species in plants. Blackwell, Oxford, pp 250–267Google Scholar
  164. Loggini B, Scartazza A, Brugnoli E, Navari-Izzo F (1999) Antioxidative defense system, pigment composition, and photosynthetic efficiency in two wheat cultivars subjected to drought. Plant Physiol 119:1091–1099PubMedGoogle Scholar
  165. Lu P, Sang WG, Ma KP (2008) Differential responses of the activities of antioxidant enzymes to thermal stresses between two invasive Eupatorium species in China. J Integr Plant Biol 50:393–401PubMedGoogle Scholar
  166. Lu YY, Deng XP, Kwak SS (2010) Over expression of CuZn superoxide dismutase (CuZn SOD) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) in transgenic sweet potato enhances tolerance and recovery from drought stress. Afr J Biotech 9:8378–8391Google Scholar
  167. Mackerness AHS, Fred JC, Jordan B, Thomas B (2001) Early signaling components in ultraviolet-B responses: distinct roles for different reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide. FEBS Lett 489:237–242Google Scholar
  168. Maeda H, Sakuragi Y, Bryant DA, DellaPenna D (2005) Tocopherols protect Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803 from lipid peroxidation. Plant Physiol 138:1422–1435PubMedGoogle Scholar
  169. Mahajan S, Tuteja N (2005) Cold, salinity and drought stresses: an overview. Arch Biochem Biophys 444:139–158PubMedGoogle Scholar
  170. Maheshwari R, Dubey RS (2009) Nickel-induced oxidative stress and the role of antioxidant defence in rice seedlings. Plant Growth Regul 59:37–49Google Scholar
  171. Malik AI, Colmer TD, Lambers H, Setter TL, Schortemeyer M (2002) Short-term waterlogging has long-term effects on the growth and physiology of wheat. New Phytol 153:225–236Google Scholar
  172. Mandhania S, Madan S, Sawhney V (2006) Antioxidant defense mechanism under salt stress in wheat seedlings. Biol Plant 50:227–231Google Scholar
  173. Marrs KA (1996) The functions and regulation of glutathione S-transferases in plants. Annu Rev Plant Physiol Plant Mol Biol 47:127–158PubMedGoogle Scholar
  174. Martínez JP, Araya H (2010) Ascorbate–glutathione cycle: enzymatic and non-enzymatic integrated mechanisms and its biomolecular regulation. In: Anjum NA, Chan MT, Umar S (eds) Ascorbate-glutathione pathway and stress tolerance in plants. Springer, Dordrecht, pp 303–322Google Scholar
  175. Martret BL, Poage M, Shiel K, Nugent GD, Dix PJ (2011) Tobacco chloroplast transformants expressing genes encoding dehydroascorbate reductase, glutathione reductase, and glutathione-S-transferase, exhibit altered anti-oxidant metabolism and improved abiotic stress tolerance. Plant Biotechnol J 9:661–673Google Scholar
  176. Meehl GA, Stocker TF, Collins WD, Friedlingstein P, Gaye AT, Gregory JM, Kitoh A, Knutti R, Murphy JM, Noda A, Raper SCB, Watterson IG, Weaver AJ, Zhao ZC (2007) Global climate projections. In: Solomon S, Qin D, Manning M, Chen Z, Marquis M, Averyt KB, Tignor M, Miller HL (eds) Climate change 2007: the physical science basis. Contribution of working group I to the fourth assessment report of the intergovernmental panel on climate change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge/New York, pp 749–845Google Scholar
  177. Mhamdi A, Queval G, Chaouch S, Vanderauwera S, Van Breusegem F, Noctor G (2010) Catalase function in plants: a focus on Arabidopsis mutants as stress-mimic models. J Exp Bot 61:4197–4220PubMedGoogle Scholar
  178. Miao Y, Lv D, Wang P, Wang XC, Chen J, Miao C, Song CP (2006) An Arabidopsis glutathione peroxidase functions as both a redox transducer and a scavenger in abscisic acid and drought stress responses. Plant Cell 18:2749–2766PubMedGoogle Scholar
  179. Miller G, Suzuki N, Rizhsky L, Hegie A, Koussevitzky S, Mittler R (2007) Double mutants deficient in cytosolic and thylakoid ascorbate peroxidase reveal a complex mode of interaction between reactive oxygen species, plant development and response to abiotic stresses. Plant Physiol 14:1777–1785Google Scholar
  180. Mingchi L, Xiangli L, Jing H, Lihong G (2010) Effect of simulated drought stress on plant growth, yield and fruit properties of tomato. Acta Hort 856:193–202Google Scholar
  181. Mittler R (2002) Oxidative stress, antioxidants and stress tolerance. Trends Plant Sci 7:405–410PubMedGoogle Scholar
  182. Mittler R, Blumwald E (2010) Genetic engineering for modern agriculture: challenges and perspectives. Annu Rev Plant Biol 61:443–462PubMedGoogle Scholar
  183. Mittler R, Vanderauwera S, Gollery M, Van Breusegem F (2004) Reactive oxygen gene network of plants. Trends Plant Sci 9:490–498PubMedGoogle Scholar
  184. Mittova V, Volokita M, Guy M, Tal M (2000) Activities of SOD and the ascorbate-glutathione cycle enzymes in subcellular compartments in leaves and roots of the cultivated tomato and its wild salt-tolerant relative Lycopersicon pennellii. Physiol Plant 110:42–51Google Scholar
  185. Mittova V, Guy M, Tal M, Volokita M (2002) Response of the cultivated tomato and its wild salt-tolerant relative Lycopersicon pennellii to salt-dependent oxidative stress: increased activities of antioxidant enzymes in root plastids. Free Radic Res 36:195–202PubMedGoogle Scholar
  186. Mittova V, Guy M, Tal M, Volokita M (2004) Salinity up-regulates the antioxidative system in root mitochondria and peroxisomes of the wild salt-tolerant tomato species Lycopersicon pennellii. J Exp Bot 55:1105–1113Google Scholar
  187. Mittova V, Tal M, Volokita M, Guy M (2003) Up-regulation of the leaf mitochondrial and peroxisomal antioxidative systems in response to salt-induced oxidative stress in the wild salt-tolerant tomato species Lycopersicon pennellii. Plant Cell Environ 26:845–856PubMedGoogle Scholar
  188. Mo Y, Liang G, Shi W, Xie J (2010) Metabolic responses of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) leaves to low and high temperature induced stresses. Afr J Biotechnol 10:1117–1124Google Scholar
  189. Mobin M, Khan NA (2007) Photosynthetic activity, pigment composition and antioxidative response of two mustard (Brassica juncea) cultivars differing in photosynthetic capacity subjected to cadmium stress. J Plant Physiol 164:601–610PubMedGoogle Scholar
  190. Mohammadkhani N, Heidari R (2007) Effects of drought stress on protective enzyme activities and lipid peroxidation in two maize cultivars. Pak J Biol Sci 10:3835–3840PubMedGoogle Scholar
  191. Moldau H (1999) Ozone detoxification in the mesophyll cell wall during a simulated oxidative burst. Free Radic Res 31:19–24Google Scholar
  192. Møller IM (2001) Plant mitochondria and oxidative stress: electron transport, NADPH turnover, and metabolism of reactive oxygen species. Annu Rev Plant Physiol Plant Mol Biol 52:561–591PubMedGoogle Scholar
  193. Monjardino P, Smith AG, Jones RJ (2005) Heat stress effects on protein accumulation of maize endosperm. Crop Sci 45:1203–1210Google Scholar
  194. Montillet JL, Cacas JL, Garnier L, Montané MH, Douki T, Bessoule JL, Polkowska-Kowalczyk L, Maciejewska U, Agnel JP, Vial A, Triantaphylidès C (2004) The upstream oxylipin profile of Arabidopsis thaliana: a tool to scan for oxidative stress. Plant J 40:439–451PubMedGoogle Scholar
  195. Moriwaki T, Yamamoto Y, Aida T, Funahashi T, Shishido T, Asada M, Prodhan SH, Komamine A, Motohashi T (2008) Overexpression of the Escherichia coli CAT gene, katE, enhances tolerance to salinity stress in the transgenic indica rice cultivar, BR5. Plant Biotechnol Rep 2:41–46Google Scholar
  196. Mpoloka SW (2008) Effects of prolonged UV-B exposure in plants. Afr J Biotechnol 7:4874–4883Google Scholar
  197. Munné-Bosch S (2007) α-Tocopherol: a multifaceted molecule in plants. Vitam Horm 76:375–392PubMedGoogle Scholar
  198. Munne-Bosch S, Alegre L (2003) Drought-induced changes in the redox state of α-tocopherol, ascorbate and the diterpene cornosic acid in chloroplasts of Labiatae species differing in carnosic acid contents. Plant Physiol 131:1816–1825PubMedGoogle Scholar
  199. Munné-Bosch S, Falara V, Pateraki I, Lopez-Carbonell M, Cela J, Kanellis AK (2009) Physiological and molecular responses of the isoprenoid biosynthetic pathway in a drought-resistant Mediterranean shrub, Cistus creticus exposed to water deficit. J Plant Physiol 166:136–145PubMedGoogle Scholar
  200. Nagamiya K, Motohashi T, Nakao K, Prodhan SH, Hattori E (2007) Enhancement of salt tolerance in transgenic rice expressing an Escherichia coli catalase gene, Kat E. Plant Biotechnol Rep 1:49–55Google Scholar
  201. Nahar K, Biswas JK, Shamsuzzaman AMM, Hasanuzzaman M, Barman HN (2009) Screening of indica rice (Oryza sativa L.) genotypes against low temperature stress. Bot Res Int 2:295–303Google Scholar
  202. Nies DH (1999) Microbial heavy-metal resistance. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 51:730–750PubMedGoogle Scholar
  203. Noctor G, Foyer CH (1998) Ascorbate and glutathione: keeping active oxygen under control. Annu Rev Plant Physiol Plant Mol Biol 49:249–279PubMedGoogle Scholar
  204. Noctor G, Gomez L, Vanacker H, Foyer CH (2002a) Interactions between biosynthesis, compartmentation and transport in the control of glutathione homeostasis and signalling. J Exp Bot 53:1283–1304PubMedGoogle Scholar
  205. Noctor G, Veljovic-Jovanovic S, Driscoll S, Novitskaya L, Foyer C (2002b) Drought and oxidative load in the leaves of C3 plants: a predominant role for photorespiration? Ann Bot 89:841–850PubMedGoogle Scholar
  206. Pandey HC, Baig MJ, Chandra A, Bhatt RK (2010) Drought stress induced changes in lipid peroxidation and antioxidant system in genus Avena. J Environ Biol 31:435–440PubMedGoogle Scholar
  207. Pang CH, Wang BS (2010) Role of ascorbate peroxidase and glutathione reductase in Ascorbate–Glutathione cycle and stress tolerance in plants. In: Anjum NA, Chan MT, Umar S (eds) Ascorbate-Glutathione pathway and stress tolerance in plants. Springer, Dordrecht, pp 91–112Google Scholar
  208. Petropoulos SA, Daferera D, Polissiou MG, Passam HC (2008) The effect of water deficit stress on the growth, yield and composition of essential oils of parsley. Sci Hort 115:393–397Google Scholar
  209. Poschenrieder C, Barceló J (2004) Water relations in heavy metal stressed plants. In: Prasad MNV (ed) Heavy metal stress in plants, 3rd edn. Springer, Berlin, pp 249–270Google Scholar
  210. Prasad TK (1997) Role of catalase in inducing chilling tolerance in pre-emergent maize seedlings. Plant Physiol 114:1369–1376PubMedGoogle Scholar
  211. Pukacka S, Pukacki P (2000) Seasonal changes in antioxidant level of Scots pine (Pinus silvestrisL.) needles exposed to industrial pollution. II. Enzymatic scavengers activities. Acta Physiol Plant 22:457–464Google Scholar
  212. Qureshi MI, Abdin MZ, Qadir S, Iqbal M (2007) Lead-induced oxidative stress and metabolic alterations in Cassia angustifolia Vahl. Biol Plant 51:121–128Google Scholar
  213. Rani B, Dhawan K, Jain V, Chhabra ML, Singh D (2011) High temperature induced changes in antioxidative enzymes in Brassica juncea (L) Czern & Coss. Australian Oilseed Federation. Retrieved from
  214. Rao MV, Paliyath G, Ormrod DP (1996) Ultraviolet-B and ozone-induced biochemical changes in antioxidant enzymes of Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant Physiol 110:125–136PubMedGoogle Scholar
  215. Raven EL (2000) Peroxidase-catalyzed oxidation of ascorbate. Structural, spectroscopic and mechanistic correlations in ascorbate peroxidase. Subcell Biochem 35:317–349PubMedGoogle Scholar
  216. Ravindran KC, Indrajith A, Pratheesh PV, Sanjiviraja K, Balakrishnan V (2010) Effect of ultraviolet-B radiation on biochemical and antioxidant defence system in Indigofera tinctoria L. seedlings. Int J Eng Sci Technol 2:226–232Google Scholar
  217. Raziuddin, Farhatullah, Hassan G, Akmal M, Shah SS1, Mohammad F, Shafi M, Bakht J, Zhou W (2011) Effects of cadmium and salinity on growth and photosynthesis parameters of Brassica species. Pak J Bot 43:333–340Google Scholar
  218. Reisinger S, Schiavon M, Norman T, Pilon-Smits EAH (2008) Heavy metal tolerance and accumulation in Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L.) expressing bacterial gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase or glutathione synthetase. Int J Phytorem 10:1–15Google Scholar
  219. Ren J, Dai W, Xuan Z, Yao Y, Korpelainen H, Li C (2007) The effect of drought and enhanced UV-B radiation on the growth and physiological traits of two contrasting poplar species. For Ecol Manage 239:112–119Google Scholar
  220. Robson CA, Vanlerberghe GC (2002) Transgenic plant cells lacking mitochondrial alternative oxidase have increased susceptibility to mitochondria-dependent and independent pathway of programmed cell death. Plant Physiol 129:1908–1920PubMedGoogle Scholar
  221. Rodríguez M, Canales E, Borrás-Hidalgo O (2005) Molecular aspects of abiotic stress in plants. Biotechnol Appl 22:1–10Google Scholar
  222. Roleda MY, Hanelt D, Wiencke C (2006a) Growth and DNA damage in young Laminaria sporophytes exposed to ultraviolet radiation: implication for depth zonation of kelps on Helgoland (North Sea). Mar Biol 148:1201–1211Google Scholar
  223. Roleda MY, Wiencke C, Lüder UH (2006b) Impact of Ultraviolet radiation on cell structure, UV-absorbing compounds, photosynthesis, DNA damage, and germination in zoospores of Arctic Saccorhiza dermatodea. J Exp Bot 57:3847–3856PubMedGoogle Scholar
  224. Roxas VP, Lodhi SA, Garrett DK, Mahan JR, Allen RD (2000) Stress tolerance in transgenic tobacco seedlings that overexpress glutathione S-transferase/glutathione peroxidase. Plant Cell Physiol 41:1229–1234PubMedGoogle Scholar
  225. Ruan C-J, Shao H-B, Teixeira da Silva JA (2011) A critical review on the improvement of photosynthetic carbon assimilation in C3 plants using genetic engineering. Crit Rev Biotech. doi:10.3109/07388551.2010.533119
  226. Ruiz JM, Blumwald E (2002) Salinity-induced glutathione synthesis in Brassica napus. Planta 214:965–969PubMedGoogle Scholar
  227. Ruiz-Sánchez MC, Domingo R, Morales D, Torrecillas A (1996) Water relations of Fino lemon plants on two rootstocks under flooded conditions. Plant Sci 120:119–125Google Scholar
  228. Sairam RK, Kumutha D, Ezhilmathi K, Chinnusamy V, Meena RC (2009) Water-logging induced oxidative stress and antioxidant enzymes activity in pigeon pea. Biol Plant 53:493–504Google Scholar
  229. Sairam RK, Dharmar K, Lekshmy S, Chinnusam V (2011) Expression of antioxidant defense genes in mung bean (Vigna radiata L.) roots under water-logging is associated with hypoxia tolerance. Acta Physiol Plant 33:735–744Google Scholar
  230. Sánchez-Casas P, Klesseg DF (1994) A salicyclic acid-binding activity and a salicyclic acid-inhibitable catalase activity are present in a variety of plant species. Plant Physiol 106:1675–1679PubMedGoogle Scholar
  231. Sánchez-Rodríguez E, Rubio-Wilhelmi MM, Cervilla LM, Blasco B, Ríos JJ, Rosales MA, Romero L, Ruiz JM (2010) Genotypic differences in some physiological parameters symptomatic for oxidative stress under moderate drought in tomato plants. Plant Sci 178:30–40Google Scholar
  232. Sandermann H Jr (1996) Ozone and plant health. Annu Rev Phytopathol 34:347–366PubMedGoogle Scholar
  233. Sato Y, Masuta Y, Saito K, Murayama S, Ozawa K (2011) Enhanced chilling tolerance at the booting stage in rice by transgenic overexpression of the ascorbate peroxidase gene, OsAPXa. Plant Cell Rep 30:399–406PubMedGoogle Scholar
  234. Scandalios JG (1993) Oxygen stress and superoxide dismutases. Plant Physiol 101:7–12PubMedGoogle Scholar
  235. Scebba F, Pucciareli I, Soldatini GF, Ranieri A (2003) O3-induced changes in the antioxidant systems and their relationship to different degrees of susceptibility of two clover species. Plant Sci 165:583–593Google Scholar
  236. Schöffl F, Prandl R, Reindl A (1999) Molecular responses to heat stress. In: Shinozaki K, Yamaguchi-Shinozaki K (eds) Molecular responses to cold, drought, heat and salt stress in higher plants. R.G. Landes Co., Austin, pp 81–98Google Scholar
  237. Schraudner M, Langebartels C, Sandermann H (1997) Changes in the biochemical status of plant cells induced by the environmental pollutant ozone. Physiol Plant 100:274–280Google Scholar
  238. Schützendübel A, Polle A (2002) Plant responses to abiotic stresses: heavy metal-induced oxidative stress and protection by mycorrhization. J Exp Bot 53:1351–1365PubMedGoogle Scholar
  239. Sečenji M, Hideg É, Bebes A, Györgyey J (2010) Transcriptional differences in gene families of the ascorbate-glutathione cycle in wheat during mild water deficit. Plant Cell Rep 29:37–50PubMedGoogle Scholar
  240. Selote DS, Khanna-Chopra R (2006) Drought acclimation confers oxidative stress tolerance by inducing co-ordinated antioxidant defense at cellular and subcellular level in leaves of wheat seedlings. Physiol Plant 127:494–506Google Scholar
  241. Selote DS, Khanna-Chopra R (2010) Antioxidant response of wheat roots to drought acclimation. Protoplasma 245:153–163PubMedGoogle Scholar
  242. Sen Gupta A, Alscher RG, McCune D (1991) Response of photosynthesis and cellular antioxidants to ozone in Populus leaves. Plant Physiol 96:650–655Google Scholar
  243. Shalata A, Neumann PM (2001) Exogenous ascorbic acid (Vitamin C) increases resistance to salt stress and reduces lipid peroxidation. J Exp Bot 52:2207–2211PubMedGoogle Scholar
  244. Shanker AK, Djanaguiraman M, Sudhagar R, Chandrashekar CN, Pathmanabhan G (2004) Differential antioxidative response of ascorbate glutathione pathway enzymes and metabolites to chromium speciation stress in green gram (Vigna radiata (L.) R. Wilczek, cv CO 4) roots. Plant Sci 166:1035–1043Google Scholar
  245. Sharma SS, Dietz KJ (2006) The significance of amino acids and amino acid-derived molecules in plant responses and adaptation to heavy metal stress. J Exp Bot 57:711–726PubMedGoogle Scholar
  246. Sharma SS, Dietz KJ (2008) The relationship between metal toxicity and cellular redox imbalance. Trends Plant Sci 14:43–50PubMedGoogle Scholar
  247. Sharma P, Dubey RS (2005) Drought induces oxidative stress and enhances the activities of antioxidant enzymes in growing rice seedlings. Plant Growth Regul 46:209–221Google Scholar
  248. Sharma P, Dubey RS (2007) Involvement of oxidative stress and role of antioxidative defense system in growing rice seedlings exposed to toxic levels of aluminium. Plant Cell Rep 26:2027–2038PubMedGoogle Scholar
  249. Sharma PK, Anand P, Sankhalkar S, Shetye R (1998) Photochemical and biochemical changes in wheat seedlings exposed to supplementary ultraviolet-B radiation. Plant Sci 132:21–30Google Scholar
  250. Sharma P, Sharma N, Deswal R (2005) The molecular biology of the low-temperature response in plants. Bioessays 27:1048–1059PubMedGoogle Scholar
  251. Shehab GG, Ahmed OK, El-Beltagi HS (2010) Effects of various chemical agents for alleviation of drought stress in rice plants (Oryza sativa L.). Not Bot Hort Agrobot Cluj 38:139–148Google Scholar
  252. Shiyab S, Chen J, Han FX, Monts DL, Matta FB, Gu M, Su Y, Masad MA (2009) Mercury-induced oxidative stress in Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L.). Environ Toxicol 24:462–471PubMedGoogle Scholar
  253. Shri M, Kumar S, Chakrabarty D, Trivedi PK, Mallick S, Misra P, Shukla D, Mishra S, Srivastava S, Tripathi RD, Tuli R (2009) Effect of arsenic on growth, oxidative stress, and antioxidant system in rice seedlings. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 72:1102–1110PubMedGoogle Scholar
  254. Simões-Araújo JL, Rumjank NG, Margis-Pinheiro M (2003) Small heat shock proteins genes are differentially expressed in distinct varieties of common bean. Braz J Plant Physiol 15:33–41Google Scholar
  255. Singh N, Ma LQ, Srivastava M, Rathinasabapathi B (2006) Metabolic adaptations to arsenic-induced oxidative stress in Pteris vittata L. and Pteris ensiformis L. Plant Sci 170:274–282Google Scholar
  256. Singh S, Khan NA, Nazar R, Anjum NA (2008) Photosynthetic traits and activities of antioxidant enzymes in blackgram (Vigna mungo L. Hepper) under cadmium stress. Am J Plant Physiol 3:25–32Google Scholar
  257. Singh R, Singh S, Tripathi R, Agrawal SB (2011) Supplemental UV-B radiation induced changes in growth, pigments and antioxidant pool of bean (Dolichos lablab) under field conditions. J Environ Biol 32:139–145PubMedGoogle Scholar
  258. Sinha RP, Ambasht NK, Sinha JP, Klisch M, Häder DP (2003) UV-B-induced synthesis of mycosporine-like amino acids in three strains of Nodularia (Cyanobacteria). J Photochem Photobiol B: Biol 71:51–58Google Scholar
  259. Smirnoff N (1993) The role of active oxygen in the response of plants to water deficit and desiccation. New Phytol 125:27–58Google Scholar
  260. Smirnoff N (2005) Ascorbate, tocopherol and carotenoids: metabolism, pathway engineering and functions. In: Smirnoff N (ed) Antioxidants and reactive oxygen species in plants. Blackwell Publishing, Oxford, pp 53–86Google Scholar
  261. Sofo A, Dichio B, Xiloyannis C, Masia A (2005) Antioxidant defenses in olive trees during drought stress: changes in activity of some antioxidant enzymes. Funct Plant Biol 32:45–53Google Scholar
  262. Solanke AU, Sharma AK (2008) Signal transduction during cold stress in plants. Physiol Mol Biol Plants 14:69–79Google Scholar
  263. Sorkheha K, Shirana B, Rouhia V, Khodambashia M, Sofob A (2011) Regulation of the Ascorbate–Glutathione cycle in wild almond during drought stress. Russ J Plant Physiol 58:76–84Google Scholar
  264. Srivalli S, Khanna-Chopra R (2008) Role of glutathione in abiotic stress tolerance. In: Khan NA, Singh S, Umar S (eds) Sulfur assimilation and abiotic stress in plants. Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg, pp 207–225Google Scholar
  265. Strohm M, Eiblmeier M, Langebartels C, Jouanin L, Polle A, Sandermann H, Rennenberg H (2002) Responses of antioxidative systems to acute ozone stress in transgenic poplar (Populus tremula × P. alba) over-expressing glutathione synthetase or glutathione reductase. Trees 16:262–273Google Scholar
  266. Sumithra K, Jutur PP, Carmel BD, Reddy AR (2006) Salinity-induced changes in two cultivars of Vigna radiata: responses of antioxidative and proline metabolism. Plant Growth Regul 50:11–22Google Scholar
  267. Sun Y, Li Z, Guoc B, Chud G, Wei C, Liang Y (2008) Arsenic mitigates cadmium toxicity in rice seedlings. Environ Exp Bot 64:264–270Google Scholar
  268. Sun WH, Li F, Shu DF, Dong XC, Yang XM, Meng QW (2009) Tobacco plants transformed with tomato sense LetAPX enhanced salt tolerance. Sci Agric Sin 42:1165–1171Google Scholar
  269. Suzuki N, Mittler R (2006) Reactive oxygen species and temperature stresses: a delicate balance between signaling and destruction. Physiol Plant 126:45–51Google Scholar
  270. Taiz L, Zeiger E (2006) Plant physiology, 4th edn. Sinaur Associates, SunderlandGoogle Scholar
  271. Takahashi S, Murata N (2008) How do environmental stresses accelerate photoinhibition? Trends Plant Sci 13:178–182PubMedGoogle Scholar
  272. Tanou G, Molassiotis A, Diamantidis G (2009) Induction of reactive oxygen species and necrotic death-like destruction in strawberry leaves by salinity. Environ Exp Bot 65:270–281Google Scholar
  273. Tausz M, Grulke NE, Wieser G (2007) Defense and avoidance of ozone under global change. Environ Pollut 147:525–531PubMedGoogle Scholar
  274. Tavakkoli E, Fatehi F, Coventry S, Rengasamy P, McDonald GK (2011) Additive effects of Na+ and Cl– ions on barley growth under salinity stress. J Exp Bot 62:2189–2203PubMedGoogle Scholar
  275. Tekchandani S, Guruprasad KN (1998) Modulation of guaiacol peroxidase inhibitor by UV-B in cucumber cotyledons. Plant Sci 136:131–137Google Scholar
  276. Thomashow MF (1999) Plant cold acclimation: freezing tolerance genes and regulatory mechanisms. Annu Rev Plant Physiol Plant Mol Biol 50:571–599PubMedGoogle Scholar
  277. Turan Ö, Ekmekçi Y (2011) Activities of photosystem II and antioxidant enzymes in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) cultivars exposed to chilling temperatures. Acta Physiol Plant 33:67, 7849–7855Google Scholar
  278. Turcsanyi E, Lyons T, Plochl M, Barnes J (2000) Does ascorbate in the mesophyll cell walls form the first line of defence against ozone? Testing the concept using broad bean (Vicia faba L.). J Exp Bot 51:901–910PubMedGoogle Scholar
  279. Urban P, Mignotte C, Kazmaier M, Delorme F, Pompon D (1989) Cloning, yeast expression and characterization of the coupling of two distantly related Arabidopsis thaliana NADPH-Cytochrome P450 reductases with P450 CYP73A5. J Biol Chem 272:19176–19186Google Scholar
  280. Vaidyanathan H, Sivakumar P, Chakrabarty R, Thomas G (2003) Scavenging of reactive oxygen species in NaCl-stressed rice (Oryza sativaL.) – differential response in salt-tolerant and sensitive varieties. Plant Sci 165:1411–1418Google Scholar
  281. Verheul MJ, Picatto C, Stamp P (1996) Growth and development of maize (Zea mays L.) seedlings under chilling conditions in the field. Eur J Agron 5:31–43Google Scholar
  282. Verma S, Dubey RS (2003) Lead toxicity induces lipid peroxidation and alters the activities of antioxidant enzymes in growing rice plants. Plant Sci 164:645–655Google Scholar
  283. Vickers CE, Possell M, Cojocariu CI, Velikova VB, Laothawornkitkul J, Ryan A, Mullineaux PM, Nicholas Hewitt C (2009) Isoprene synthesis protects transgenic tobacco plants from oxidative stress. Plant Cell Environ 32:520–531PubMedGoogle Scholar
  284. Vinit-Dunand F, Epron D, Alaoui-Sossé B, Badot PM (2002) Effects of copper on growth and on photosynthesis of mature and expanding leaves in cucumber plants. Plant Sci 163:53–58Google Scholar
  285. Vinocur B, Altman A (2005) Recent advances in engineering plant tolerance to abiotic stress: achievements and limitations. Curr Opin Biotechnol 16:123–132PubMedGoogle Scholar
  286. Voesenek LACJ, Benschop JJ, Bou J, Cox MCH, Groeneveld HW, Millenaar FF, Vreeburg RAM, Peeters AJM (2003) Interactions between plant hormones regulate submergence-induced shoot elongation in the flooding-tolerant dicot Rumex palustris. Ann Bot 91:205–211PubMedGoogle Scholar
  287. Wahid A (2007) Physiological implications of metabolites biosynthesis in net assimilation and heat stress tolerance of sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum) sprouts. J Plant Res 120:219–228PubMedGoogle Scholar
  288. Wahid A, Gelani S, Ashraf M, Foolad MR (2007) Heat tolerance in plants: an overview. Environ Exp Bot 61:199–223Google Scholar
  289. Wang WX, Vinocur B, Shoseyov O, Altman A (2001) Biotechnology of plant osmotic stress tolerance: physiological and molecular considerations. Acta Hort 560:285–292Google Scholar
  290. Wang ST, He XJ, An RD (2010) Responses of growth and antioxidant metabolism to nickel toxicity in Luffa cylindrica seedlings. J Anim Plant Sci 7:810–821Google Scholar
  291. Weast RC (1984) CRC Handbook of chemistry and physics, 64th edn. CRC Press, Boca RatonGoogle Scholar
  292. Wise RR (1995) Chilling-enhanced photooxidation: the production, action and study of reactive oxygen species produced during chilling in the light. Photosynth Res 45:79–975Google Scholar
  293. Wohlgemuth H, Mittelstrass K, Kschieschan S, Bender J, Weigel HJ, Overmyer K, Kangasjärvi J, Sandermann H, Langebartels C (2002) Activation of an oxidative burst is a general feature of sensitive plants exposed to the air pollutant ozone. Plant Cell Environ 25:717–726Google Scholar
  294. Wójcik M, Tukiendorf A (2011) Glutathione in adaptation of Arabidopsis thaliana to cadmium stress. Biol Plant 55:125–132Google Scholar
  295. Wollenweber B, Porter JR, Schellberg J (2003) Lack of interaction between extreme high temperature events at vegetative and reproductive growth stages in wheat. J Agron Crop Sci 189:142–150Google Scholar
  296. Wu G, Wei ZK, Shao HB (2007) The mutual responses of higher plants to environment: physiological and microbiological aspects. Biointerfaces 59:113–119Google Scholar
  297. Wu QS, Xia RX, Zou YN (2008) Improved soil structure and citrus growth after inoculation with three arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi under drought stress. Eur J Soil Biol 44:122–128Google Scholar
  298. Wu B, Jiang QW, Gu TT, Zhao M, Liu LW (2010) Physiological response to high temperature stress in radish seedlings with different heat tolerance. China Vegetables 10:25–28Google Scholar
  299. Xu S, Li J, Zhang X, Wei H, Cui L (2006) Effects of heat acclimation pretreatment on changes of membrane lipid peroxidation, antioxidant metabolites, and ultrastructure of chloroplasts in two cool-season turfgrass species under heat stress. Environ Exp Bot 56:274–285Google Scholar
  300. Yadav SK (2010) Cold stress tolerance mechanisms in plants: a review. Agron Sustain Dev 30:515–527Google Scholar
  301. Yan K, Chen W, He X, Zhang G, Xu S, Wang L (2010a) Responses of photosynthesis, lipid peroxidation and antioxidant system in leaves of Quercus mongolica to elevated O3. Environ Exp Bot 69:198–204Google Scholar
  302. Yan K, Chen W, Zhang GY, He XY, Li X, Xu S (2010b) Effects of elevated CO2 and O3 on active oxygen metabolism of Quercus mongolica leaves. Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao 21:557–562PubMedGoogle Scholar
  303. Yang H, Wu F, Cheng J (2011) Reduced chilling injury in cucumber by nitric oxide and the antioxidant response. Food Chem 127:1237–1242Google Scholar
  304. Yazdanpanah S, Baghizadeh A, Abbassi F (2011) The interaction between drought stress and salicylic and ascorbic acids on some biochemical characteristics of Satureja hortensis. Afr J Agric Res 6:798–807Google Scholar
  305. Yin H, Chen QM, Yi MF (2008) Effects of short-term heat stress on oxidative damage and responses of antioxidant system in Lilium longiflorum. Plant Growth Regul 54:45–54Google Scholar
  306. Yin D, Chen S, Chen F, Guan Z, Fang W (2009) Morphological and physiological responses of two chrysanthemum cultivars differing in their tolerance to waterlogging. Environ Exp Bot 67:87–93Google Scholar
  307. Yin L, Wang S, Eltayeb AE, Uddin MI, Yamamoto Y, Tsuji W, Takeuchi Y, Tanaka K (2010) Overexpression of dehydroascorbate reductase, but not monodehydroascorbate reductase confers tolerance to aluminum stress in transgenic tobacco. Planta 231:609–621PubMedGoogle Scholar
  308. Zhang M, An L, Feng H, Chen T, Chen K, Liu Y, Tang H, Wang CH (2003) The cascade mechanisms of nitric oxide as second messenger of ultraviolet–B in inhibiting mesocotyl elonsgation. Photochem Photobiol 77:219–225PubMedGoogle Scholar
  309. Zhang Y, Lou Y, Hao J, Chen Q, Tang HR (2008) Chilling acclimation induced changes in the distribution of H2O2 and antioxidant system of strawberry leaves. Agric J 3:286–291Google Scholar
  310. Zhao F, Zhang H (2006) Salt and paraquat stress tolerance results from co-expression of the Suaeda salsa glutathione S-transferase and catalase in transgenic rice. Plant Cell Tiss Organ Cult 86:349–358Google Scholar
  311. Zhao DY, Shen L, Yu MM, Zheng Y, Sheng JP (2009) Relationship between activities of antioxidant enzymes and cold tolerance of postharvest tomato fruits. Food Sci 14:309–313Google Scholar
  312. Zheng YH, Jia AJ, Ning TY, Xu JL, Li ZJ, Jiang GM (2008) Potassium nitrate application alleviates sodium chloride stress in winter wheat cultivars differing in salt tolerance. J Plant Physiol 165:1455–1465PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mirza Hasanuzzaman
    • 1
    • 2
  • Mohammad Anwar Hossain
    • 1
  • Jaime A. Teixeira da Silva
    • 3
  • Masayuki Fujita
    • 1
  1. 1.Laboratory of Plant Stress Responses, Department of Applied Biological Science, Faculty of AgricultureKagawa UniversityKagawaJapan
  2. 2.Department of Agronomy, Faculty of AgricultureSher-e-Bangla Agricultural UniversityDhakaBangladesh
  3. 3.Ornamental Floriculture Lab, Department of Bioproduction Science, Faculty of AgricultureKagawa UniversityKagawaJapan

Personalised recommendations