# Radiometric and Photometric Quantities and Notions

Chapter
Part of the Springer Series in Optical Sciences book series (SSOS, volume 163)

## Abstract

The energy conservation law for any electromagnetic field implies, that the time derivative $${{{\partial Q}} \left/ {{\partial t}} \right.}$$ of the field energy for optical radiation, which ranges from a wavelength as short as 1 nm to one as long as 1 mm, when propagating in a homogeneous, isotropic, and low-absorbing medium whose properties satisfy the material equations D = εE, B = μH, J = σE and whose elements are in a steady position or in slow motion, is [1.1]:
$$\frac{{dQ}}{{dt}} = - \frac{{d\Pi }}{{dt}} - \Lambda - \int\limits_{\mathbf{A}} {{\mathbf{S}} \bullet \begin{array}{*{20}{c}} {{\mathbf{r}}\begin{array}{*{20}{c}} {dA} \\ \end{array} } \\ \end{array} }$$
(1.1)
where Π is the work done for the travel time t; Λ is the total loss, caused by resistive dissipation of energy Q, if the medium is a conductor; S is the Poynting vector; r is the outward normal unit vector to any arbitrary boundary surface A situated far away from a source of the field; E and H are the electric and the magnetic vectors; D is the vector of electric displacement, B is the vector of magnetic induction; ε is the dielectric constant (permittivity), μ is the magnetic permeability, and σ is the specific conductivity of the medium. The integral in Eq. 1.1 identifies the flow of energy crossing the boundary surface A reached by the optical wave. Thus, when dealing with a transfer of energy of optical radiation in the absence of moving elements or conductors, the space-time derivative in Eq. 1.1 represents the flow of optical energy crossing such a boundary surface A per unit of time.

## Keywords

Light Beam Solid Angle Optical Radiation Luminous Intensity Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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