Multiple Stressors as Environmental Realism: Synergism or Antagonism
Under field conditions, organisms seldom live in fulfillment of all their biotic and abiotic requirements. Rather, they have to face a wide range of different discomforts such as non-optimal temperatures, unpleasant light qualities and quantities, drought, flood, unbalanced nutrient compositions, hypoxia or hyperoxia, highly acidic or highly alkaline conditions, saline environments, and natural xenobiotic chemicals among the abiotic factors. Biotic factors include intra- and interspecific competitors as well as various enemies including predators, parasites, and pathogens.
KeywordsAcid Stress Induce Systemic Resistance Inducible Defense Mountain Birch Paenibacillus Polymyxa
- Coors A, De Meester L (2010) Fitness and virulence of a bacterial endoparasites in an environmentally stressed crustacean host. Parasitology. doi:10.1017/S0031182010000995Google Scholar
- Deegan LA, Bowen JL, Drake D, Fleeger JW, Friedrich CT, Galván KA, Hobbi JE, Hopkinson C, Johnson DS, Johnson JM, LeMay LE, Miller E, Peerson BJ, Picard C, Sheldon S, Sutherland M, Vallino J, Warren RS (2007) Susceptibility of salt marshes to nutrient enrichment and predator removal. Ecol Appl 17:S42–S63CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Holmstrup M, Bindesbøl AM, Oostingh GJ, Duschl A, Scheil V, Köhler HR, Loureiro S, Soares AMVM, Ferreira ALG, Kienle C, Gerhardt A, Laskowski R, Kramarz P, Bayley M, Svendsen C, Spurgeon DJ (2010) Interactions between effects of environmental chemicals and natural stressors: a review. Sci Total Environ 408:3746–3762PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Teplitsky C, Räsänen K, Laurila A (2007) Adaptive plasticity in stressful environments: acidity constrains inducible defences in Rana arvalis. Evol Ecol Res 9:447–458Google Scholar