Study on the Method for the Seismic Design of Expressway Embankments
The behaviour of road embankments during past earthquakes in Japan are reviewed and methods for the seismic design of expressway embankments are discussed. There are several grades of roads in Japan. Though basic design methods for the embankments are similar, detailed methods are different. For example, the standard inclinations of slopes differ. The embankments for national expressways, which are of the highest grade, have been designed and constructed with special care. Nevertheless, the 2004 Niigataken-chuetsu earthquake damaged the embankment of the Kan-etsu Expressway due to very strong shaking. Three types of failure occurred on the Kan-etsu Expressway. Type 1 failure was serious slides of the embankment on slope. Type 2 failure was settlement of the embankment on level ground without deformation of the ground. Type 3 failure was settlement of the embankment on level ground with deformation of the ground. If road embankments are designed to withstand very strong shaking motion, their probable deformation must be considered in their design. And it is necessary to introduce performance based design by considering the deformation of the embankments. Newmark’s method of estimating deformation was applied to Type 1 failures and residual deformation analysis was applied to Type 2 and 3 failures. Base on these studies, relevant method for the seismic design of expressway embankments are discussed.
KeywordsSlip Surface Seismic Design Peak Acceleration Differential Settlement National Expressway
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