Study on the Method for the Seismic Design of Expressway Embankments

  • Susumu Yasuda
  • Kazuyori Fujioka
Part of the Geotechnical, Geological and Earthquake Engineering book series (GGEE, volume 16)


The behaviour of road embankments during past earthquakes in Japan are reviewed and methods for the seismic design of expressway embankments are discussed. There are several grades of roads in Japan. Though basic design methods for the embankments are similar, detailed methods are different. For example, the standard inclinations of slopes differ. The embankments for national expressways, which are of the highest grade, have been designed and constructed with special care. Nevertheless, the 2004 Niigataken-chuetsu earthquake damaged the embankment of the Kan-etsu Expressway due to very strong shaking. Three types of failure occurred on the Kan-etsu Expressway. Type 1 failure was serious slides of the embankment on slope. Type 2 failure was settlement of the embankment on level ground without deformation of the ground. Type 3 failure was settlement of the embankment on level ground with deformation of the ground. If road embankments are designed to withstand very strong shaking motion, their probable deformation must be considered in their design. And it is necessary to introduce performance based design by considering the deformation of the embankments. Newmark’s method of estimating deformation was applied to Type 1 failures and residual deformation analysis was applied to Type 2 and 3 failures. Base on these studies, relevant method for the seismic design of expressway embankments are discussed.


Slip Surface Seismic Design Peak Acceleration Differential Settlement National Expressway 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Inagaki M, Itakiyo K, Kasuda K, Yamada S, Yasuda S (2005) Deformation of embankments on clayey grounds during the 2004 Niigataken-chuetsu earthquake (Part 2). In: Proceeding of the 4th annual conference on Japan Association for Earthquake Engineering (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  2. National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (NIED). K-NET WWW service (
  3. Sasaki T, Matsuo O, Sugita H, Matsuda Y (2007) Damage to road fill by the 2007 Noto-hanto earthquake. In: Proceeding of the 14th world conference on earthquake engineering (WCEE), Paper No. S26-20Google Scholar
  4. Yasuda S, Yoshida N, Adachi K, Kiku H, Gose S (1999) A simplified analysis of liquefaction-induced residual deformation. In: Proceedings of the 2nd international conference on earthquake geotechnical engineering, pp 555–560Google Scholar
  5. Yasuda S, Ideno T, Sakurai Y, Yosida N, Kiku H (2003) Analyses of liquefaction-induced settlement of river levees by ALID. In: Proceedings of the 12th Asian Regional conference on SMGE, pp 347–350Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Tokyo Denki UniversitySaitamaJapan
  2. 2.Nippon Expressway Research Institute, Co., LtdMachidaJapan

Personalised recommendations