Spatial Distribution of Macrozoobenthos in a Large and Deep Impoundment: Xin’anjiang Reservoir, Zhejiang Province

  • Qi-Gen Liu
  • Yu-Ting Zha
  • Zhong-Jun Hu
Part of the Monographiae Biologicae book series (MOBI, volume 91)


The horizontal and bathymetrical distribution pattern of macrozoobenthos in Xin’anjiang Reservoir, a large, deep reservoir in Zhejiang Province, China, was investigated from 2007 to 2009. Macrozoobenthos was sampled and environmental variables were measured at five sites along the upper to lower reaches (S1 at upper reaches, S3 and S4 at middle reaches, and S8 and S9 at lower reaches) in 2007 to 2008. Benthic macroinvertebrates were also collected over three transects in 2009, i.e., T1, T4, and T8, traversing S1, S4, and S8, respectively, and 10–15 sites were set along each transect. Totally, 24 taxa from 5 classes were recorded. Oligochaeta predominated in the macrozoobenthic community in terms of important value (IV), density, and standing crop, among which Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri was prevailing. The annual average density and biomass were 793.8 ± 92.1 ind. m−2 and 2.25 ± 0.32 g m−2, respectively. There were no clear differences in density and biomass between seasons, but significant horizontal differences revealed a maximum in the upper reaches and minimum at the lower reaches. Both density and biomass negatively correlated with water depth and Secchi depth (SD); density positively correlated with total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) of mixed water samples from the water column (MWSWC) and with TP of local water samples at the bottom (LWSB). Biomass positively correlated with TP of MWSWC. Only water depth (from eight physical and chemical variables) was selected by a stepwise regression model to explain the variation in density and biomass of macrozoobenthos in 2007 to 2008. Bathymetrically, both density and biomass increased with water depth, peaked just below the thermocline, and then decreased gradually. This numerical bathymetric change in Xin’anjiang Reservoir conformed to the patterns of vertical distribution of zoobenthos in oligo- and mesotrophic lakes. The relationship of density and biomass with the main environmental variables, the bathymetric distribution pattern of macrozoobenthos, and the two biological indices (Wright index and Carlander’s biotic index) all typified Xin’anjiang Reservoir as oligo- and mesotrophic, with the upper reaches mesotrophic or moderately polluted and the middle and lower reaches oligotrophic or slightly polluted. Three other biological indices (King, Goodnight–Whitley, and Shannon–Weaver) were unsuitable to assess water quality.


Water Depth Total Phosphorus Lower Reach Secchi Depth Biotic Index 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



This study was funded by Chinese Natural Science Foundation (CNSF) (No. 30670388), Shanghai Leading Academic Discipline Project (No. Y1101).


  1. Aston RJ (1973) Tubificids and water quality: a review. Environ Pollut 5:1–10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Baudo R, Occhipinti A, Nocentini AM, Sabolla M (2001) Benthos of Lake Orta in the year 1996. J Limnol 60:241–248Google Scholar
  3. Bechara JA (1996) The relative importance of water quality, sediment composition and floating vegetation in explaining the macrobenthic community structure of floodplain lakes (Paraná River, Argentina). Hydrobiologia 333:95–109CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Brinkhurst RO (1974) The benthos of lakes. The Blackburn Press, CaldwellGoogle Scholar
  5. Carlander KD (1952) Farm fish pond research in Iowa. J Wildl Manag 16:258–261CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Chi SY, Peng JH, Wan CY, Zou X, Li M (2009) Preliminary study on macrozoobenthos of Sandaohe Reservoir, Hubei Province. J Lake Sci 21:705–712Google Scholar
  7. Cui YD, Wang HZ (2008) Ecology of macrozoobenthic communities in two plateau lakes of Southwest China. Chin J Oceanol Limnol 26:345–352CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Cui YD, Liu XQ, Wang HZ (2008) Macrozoobenthic community of Fuxian Lake, the deepest lake of southwest China. Limnologica 38:116–125CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Edmonds JS, Ward JV (1979) Profundal benthos of a multibasin foothills reservoir in Colorado, U.S.A. Hydrobiologia 63:199–208CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Goodnight CJ, Whitley LS (1960) Oligochaetes as indicators of pollution. In: Proceeding of 15th annual water conference, vol 160, Purdue University, Lafayette, pp 139−142Google Scholar
  11. Hargrave BT (2001) Ecology of deep-water zones. In: Barnes RSK, Mann KHM (eds) Fundamentals of aquatic ecology. Blackwell Science Ltd., London, pp 57–76Google Scholar
  12. Hu ZJ, Liu QG, Chen LJ, Peng ZR (2009) Structural characteristics of chironomid community and their indicative significance in bioassessment of water quality in Mingzhu Lake of Chongming Island, Shanghai. Chin J Appl Ecol 20:929–936 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  13. Jin XC, Tu QY (1990) Survey criteria for Eutrophic Lake, 2nd edn. China Environmental Science Press, BeijingGoogle Scholar
  14. King DL, Ball KR (1964) A quantitative biological measure of stream pollution. Water Pollut Control Federation 36:650–653Google Scholar
  15. Lang C (2007) How to interpret changes of zoobenthos (oligochaetes and chironomids) in Lake Neuchâtel between 1984 to 2002? Bulletin de la Societe Vaudoise des Sciences Naturelles 90:133–149Google Scholar
  16. Li GG, Yu ZM (2001) A study on the diversity of a zooplankton community in Lake Qiandaohu, Zhejiang. Biodivers Sci 9:115–121Google Scholar
  17. Li GG, Yu ZM (2003) Community structure of Rotifera and ecological assessment of water quality in Qiandao Lake. J Lake Sci 15:170–176Google Scholar
  18. Liang YL, Wang HZ (2001) Zoobenthos. In: Liu JK (ed) Advanced hydrobiology. Science Press, Beijing, pp 241–259Google Scholar
  19. Liu QG (2005) Aquatic environmental protection oriented fishery in Xin’anjiang Reservoir and its influences on lake ecosystem. Doctoral Dissertation of East China Normal University, ShanghaiGoogle Scholar
  20. Liu BY, Liang XP (1997) Zoobenthos in Taipinghu Lake Reservoir, Anhui Province. J Lake Sci 9:237–243Google Scholar
  21. Liu QG, Chen MK, Tong HY (2004) Study on the possible cause of water bloom in Xin’anjiang Reservoir and the ecological prevention technology. Agri Sci China 3:101–107Google Scholar
  22. Liu QG, Chen LQ, Chen Y (2007a) Correlation between biomass reduction of silver carp and bighead carp and the occurrence of algal blooms in Lake Qiandaohu. Trans Oceanol Limnol 2007(1):117–124Google Scholar
  23. Liu QG, Chen Y, Li JL, Chen LQ (2007b) The food web structure and ecosystem properties of a filter-feeding carps dominated deep reservoir ecosystem. Ecol Model 203:279–289CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Ma XF, Xiong BX, Wang MX, Wang YD, Wang WM, Liu XL, Xu MS, Zhang LL, Hu QS, Wang XB (2004) The community structure and biodiversity of macrozoobenthos in Daoguanhe Reservoir, Hubei Province. J Lake Sci 16:49–55Google Scholar
  25. Martin P, Martens K, Goddeeris B (1999) Oligochaeta from the abyssal zone of Lake Baikal (Siberia, Russia). Hydrobiologia 406:165–174CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Milbrink G (1980) Oligochaete communities in pollution biology: the European situation with special reference to lakes in Scandinavia. In: Brinkhurst RO, Cook DG (eds) Aquatic oligochaete biology. Plenum Press, New York, pp 433–455CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Milbrink G (1994) Oligochaetes and water pollution in two deep Norwegian lakes. Hydrobiologia 278:213–222CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Milbrink G, Timm T, Lundberg S (2002) Indicative profundal oligochaete assemblages in selected small Swedish lakes. Hydrobiologia 468:53–61CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Mozley SC, Winnell MH (1975) Macrozoobenthic species assemblages of southeastern Lake Michigan, U.S.A. Verhandlungen Internationale Vereinlgung fur Theoretische und Ungewandte Limnologie 19:922–931Google Scholar
  30. Nalepa T (1989) Estimates of macroinvertebrate biomass in Lake Michigan. J Great Lakes Res 15:437–443CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Ohtaka A, Nishino M, Kobayashi T (2006) Disappearance of deep profundal zoobenthos in Lake Ikeda, southern Kyushu, Japan, with relation to recent environmental changes in the lake. Limnology 7:237–242CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Petridis D, Sinis A (1993) Benthic macrofauna of Tavropos Reservoir (central Greece). Hydrobiologia 262:1–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Petridis D, Sinis A (1995) Benthos of Lake Mikri Prespa (North Greece). Hydrobiologia 304:185–196CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Särkkä J (1982) On the ecology of littoral oligochaeta of an oligotrophic Finnish lake. Holarct Ecol 5:396–404Google Scholar
  35. Shannon CE (1948) A mathematical theory of communication. Bell Syst Tech J 27(379–432):623–656Google Scholar
  36. Shao ML, Xie ZC, Ye L, Cai QC (2007) Monthly change of community structure of zoobenthos in Xiangxi Bay after impoundment of the Three Gorges Reservoir, China. Frontiers Biol China 2:229–234 (in Chinese)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Su HW, Jiang J, Wen FN, Li XY, Yan YJ (2008) Community structures of macrozoobenthos and bioassessment of water quality in Tanqigou Stream of Qingjiang River Basin, Hubei Province. J Lake Sci 20:520–528Google Scholar
  38. The Environmental Protection Bureau of the People’s Republic of China (2002) Analysis methods of water and wastewater, 4th edn. China Environmental Science Press, Beijing, pp 88–200Google Scholar
  39. Wright S (1955) Limnological survey of western Lake Erie. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Special scientific report: fisheries No. 139Google Scholar
  40. Xiong F, Li WC, Pan JZ (2008) Community structure and diversity of macrozoobenthos in Fuxian Lake, a deep plateau lake in Yunnan. Biodivers Sci 16:288–297Google Scholar
  41. Zhang M, Shao ML, Cai QH, Xu YY, WANG L, Kong LH (2010) Macroinvertebrate community structure and the biological assessment to the water quality of Danjiangkou Reservoir. J Lake Sci 22:281–290Google Scholar
  42. Zhu AJ, Rao JL, Xue JZ (2007) The variation of the seasonal and diel vertical distribution of Daphnia pulex in Lake Qiandao. Trans Oceanol Limnol 4:120–128Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Netherlands 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Key laboratory of Aquatic Genetic Resource and Aquacultural Ecosystem Certified of AgricultureShanghai Ocean UniversityShanghaiP.R. China

Personalised recommendations