Advertisement

Eutrophication of the Three Gorges Reservoir After Its First Filling

  • Sheng Zhang
Chapter
Part of the Monographiae Biologicae book series (MOBI, volume 91)

Abstract

Trophic status of water, including that of the main river channel, backwaters of tributaries, and thrity-five reservoirs on tributaries of the Three Gorges Reservoir basin was surveyed. In the main channel, concentrations of dissolved total nitrogen (DTN) and phosphorus (DTP) exceeded the low limit for eutrophication assessment, and the ratio of DTN to DTP was over 16:1. Chlorophyll a ranged from 1.58 to 7.53 mg/m3 at the water surface. A trophic gradient from oligotrophic to mesotrophic was spatially observed. Eutrophy factors could be divided into three clusters in terms of flow direction. In twelve tributary bays of the Three Gorges Reservoir, the integrated trophic state index was 33.3–66.1. Of these tributaries, five were eutrophic in May, eight were eutrophic in June, and the rest were mesotrophic. The eutrophication is currently worse than before impoundment. In the thirty-five reservoirs studied on the tributaries, finally, it was found that nutrients and chlorophyll a were high while organic pollution and SD were low. Twenty-two reservoirs were eutrophic, one was oligotrophic, and the rest were mesotrophic. Our investigation found that water storage already had a strong impact on the eutrophication of the Three Gorges Reservoir after the first filling. Chinese scientists and water managers are therefore facing a highly unsatisfactory and challenging situation.

Keywords

Main Channel Dissolve Inorganic Nitrogen Gorge Reservoir Reservoir Area Dissolve Total Nitrogen 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Burford MA, Rothlisberg PC (1999) Factors limiting phytoplankton production in a tropical continental shelf ecosystem. Estuarine, coastal and shelf. Science 48:541–549Google Scholar
  2. Canfield DE (1983) Prediction of chlorophyll a concentration in Florida lakes: the importance of phosphorus and nitrogen. Water Resour Bull 9:255–262CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Dillon PJ, Rigler FH (1974) The phosphorus-chlorophyll relationship in lakes. Limnol Oceanogr 19:767–773CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Gibbs RJ (1970) Mechanism controlling world water chemistry. Science 170:1088–1090PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Havens KE, Fukushima T, Xie P (2001) Nutrient dynamics and the eutrophication of shallow Lakes Kasumigaura (Japan), Donghu (China), and Okeechobee(USA). Environ Pollut 111:263–272PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Jones JR, Laperriere JD, Perkins BD (1990) Limnology of Walker Lake and comparisons with other lakes in the Brooks range, Alaska (USA). Verh Internat Verein Limnol 24:302–308Google Scholar
  7. Liu H (1990) Investment methods of Lake and Reservoir, vol 1. Chinese Environment Press, BeijingGoogle Scholar
  8. Liu R (2000) Preliminary report on physico-chemical properties of main channel and tributaries in upper and middle reaches of the Changjiang River, before and after damming of the Three-Gorges Project. Acta Hydrobiol Sin 24:446–450Google Scholar
  9. Lü P (2002) Concentration of nutrient in Three Gorges Reservoir. In: Zhilong H (ed) Chinese hydraulics. Chinese Hydraulics Press, Beijing, pp 127–131 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  10. Meybeck M, Helmer R (1989) The quality of rivers: from pristine stage to global pollution. Paleogeogr Paleoclimatol 75:283–309CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) (1982) Eutrophication of waters monitoring, assessment and control. OECD, Paris, pp 17–22Google Scholar
  12. Perkins RG, Underwood GJC (2000) Gradients of chlorophyll a and water chemistry along a eutrophic reservoir with determination of the limiting nutrient by in-situ nutrient addition. Water Res 34:713–724CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Puig MA, Armengol J, Gonzalez G, Penuelas J, Sabater S, Webb BW, Walling DE (1996) Water quality. II. Chemical characteristics. In: Petts G, Calow P (eds) River of lows and channel forms. Blackwell Science, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  14. Redfield AC (1958) The biological control of chemical factors in the environment. Am Sci 46:205–222Google Scholar
  15. Thornton FW, Kennedy RH, Magoun AD, Saul GE (1982) Reservoir water quality sampling design. Water Resour Bull 18:471–480CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Van Dijk GM, van Liere L, Admiraal W, Bannink BA, Cappon JJ (1994) Present state of the water quality of European rivers and implications for management. Sci Total Environ 145:187–195CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Vrba J, Vyhnalek V, Helzlar J, Nedoma J (1995) Comparison of phosphorus deficiency indices during a spring bloom in a eutrophic reservoir. Freshw Biol 33:73–78CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Wang X, Wang Y, Li T, He W, Hu Q, Zhang H (2002) Characteristics of non-point source pollution in the watershed of Miyun Reservoir, Beijing, China. Chin J Geochem 21:89–95CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Yangtze Hydraulic Committee (1997) The impact of Three Gorges project on ecology and environment. Hubei Science Press, Wuhan (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  20. Zhang S, Liu J, Zhang Q, Li F, Gao J (2005) Characteristics of water environmental chemistry in flood season in Incipient Three Gorges Reservoir. J Soil Water Conserv 19:118–120Google Scholar
  21. Zhang S, Li C, Zheng B, Zhai C, Zheng J, Zhang Q (2007) Trophic states and nutrient output of tributaries in Three Gorges Reservoir area. Environ Sci 28:500–505 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  22. Zhang S, Li C, Fu Y, Zhang Y, Zheng J (2008) Trophic states and nutrient output of tributaries bay in Three Gorges Reservoir after impoundment. Environ Sci 29:7–12 (in Chinese)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Netherlands 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Chongqing Academe of Environmental ScienceChongqingChina

Personalised recommendations