Advertisement

Green Cities: Benefits of Urban Sustainability

  • Essam Hassan Mohamed Ahmed
Chapter
Part of the Local Sustainability book series (LOCAL, volume 3)

Abstract

In the wake of the global financial crisis of 2008, the concept of a green economy was provided with fresh impetus following wide-spread discussions on a “Green” New Deal to enable a “Green Recovery”. Large investments were seen as necessary to support the recovery of the world economy offering an opportunity to invest in green economy sectors. Nowadays many developed countries have adopted the Green Cities concept as strategic tool to face environmental challenges in general and climate change impacts in particular. With climate change concerns gaining mainstream attention, pressure is mounting for greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction to be taken into account during the course of urban development. From an environmental perspective, we must protect natural resources and include sustainability in development strategies.

Key strategies for achieving green cities will be to reduce consumption of resources such as water and electricity, waste management, and green buildings which use natural materials in their structure. City governments need to coordinate policies and decisions with other levels of government but more importantly need to be equipped with strategic and integrated planning capacities. Finally, governments can set a leadership example by using public procurement in the construction and management of facilities to drive the greening of the building sector.

Keywords

Green cities Green building Urban sustainability Green economy 

References

  1. Bradbury et al (2007) Investing in energy and resource efficiency Cities. http://www.unep.org/greeneconomy/Portals/88/documents/ger/GER_12_Cities.pdf
  2. Brinkhoff T (2011) The principal agglomerations of the world. Available via: http://www.citypopulation.de. Cites 16 Aug 2011
  3. Brown L (2011) World on the edge: how to prevent environmental and economic collapse. W. W. Norton & Company, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  4. Brülhart F, Sbergami F (2009) Agglomeration and growth: cross-country evidence. J Urban Econ 65:48–63CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. C40 Cities (2010d) Investing in energy and resource efficiency Cities. http://www.hbs.edu/environment/docs/HBS-Investing-in-Cities-of-the-21st-Century_Intro.pdf
  6. Clinton Foundation (2010) Annual Report 2010Google Scholar
  7. Cohen P (2006) Worldwide carsharing growth: an international comparison. University of California, BerkeleyGoogle Scholar
  8. Duranton G (2008) Cities: engines of growth and prosperity for developing countries? International trade and development in the Department of Economics, University of Toronto, TorontoGoogle Scholar
  9. Economist Intelligence Unit (2010) Report on business 2010, embracing the challenge of changeGoogle Scholar
  10. EIA (1998) A look at commercial buildings in 1995: characteristics, energy consumption, and energy expenditures. Energy Information Administration, Office of Energy Markets and End Use, U.S. Dept. of Energy, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  11. EIA (2003) Households, Buildings, Industry & Vehicles end-use energy consumption data & analysis. [Online]. U.S. Energy Information Administration, Independent Statistics and Analysis, U.S. Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC. Available via: http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/consumption/index.html. Cited 11 Jan 2011
  12. EIA (2010) International Energy Outlook – highlights. U.S. Energy Information Administration, Office of Integrated Analysis and Forecasting, U.S. Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC. Available via: http://www.eia.doe.gov/oiaf/ieo/highlights.html
  13. EMCDDA MONOGRAPHS, Harm reduction: evidence, impacts and challenges 0 1. http://eur-lex.europa.eu/SECMonth.do?year=2008&month=11
  14. Frumkin H (2003) Environmental health: from global to localGoogle Scholar
  15. Foray (2009) Introduction, setting the stage for a green economy transition, green economyGoogle Scholar
  16. Geary C (2011) Sustainable connections: linking sustainability and economic development strategiesGoogle Scholar
  17. Geon Cho N (2009) The potential of the green economy, green cities, new approaches to ­confronting climate change. OECD workshop proceedings, Las Palmas De Gran Canaria, Spain, 11 June 2009Google Scholar
  18. Ghani E (2010) The service revolution in IndiaGoogle Scholar
  19. Han (2009) Moving beyond deliberative control of impulses, the effect of construal levels on evaluative associations in self-control conflicts. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19493322.
  20. Hitchin R (2008) Can building codes deliver energy efficiency? Defining a best practice approach. A report for the Royal Institution of Chartered Surveyors by the Building Research Establishment, WatfordGoogle Scholar
  21. Houser T (2009) The economics of energy efficiency in buildings. Peterson Institute for International Economics, Washington, DC. Available via: http://www.www.piie.com/publications/pb/pb09-17.pdf
  22. ICLEI - Local Governments for Sustainability http://www.iclei.org/index.php?id=global-themes
  23. Hutton G, Rehfuess E, Tediosi F, Weiss S (2006) Evaluation of the costs and benefits of household energy and health interventions at global and regional levels. World Health Organization, GenevaGoogle Scholar
  24. IEA (2001) Dealing with climate change: policies and measures in IEA member countries. International Energy Agency, ParisGoogle Scholar
  25. IEA (2008) Energy technology perspectives 2008: scenarios and strategies to 2050. International Energy Agency, ParisGoogle Scholar
  26. IEA (2009a) World energy outlook 2009. International Energy Agency, ParisGoogle Scholar
  27. IEA (2009b) Key world energy statistics. International Energy Agency, ParisGoogle Scholar
  28. IEA (2010a) World energy outlook 2010. International Energy Agency, ParisGoogle Scholar
  29. IEA (2010b) Policy pathways: energy performance certification of buildings. International Energy Agency, Paris. Avalable via: http://www.iea.org/publications/free_new_Desc.asp?PUBS_ID=2295
  30. IEA and OECD (2010) Energy technology perspectives 2010 scenarios and strategies to 2050. International Energy Agency and the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development, ParisGoogle Scholar
  31. ILO (2001) The construction industry in the twenty-first century: its image, employment prospects and skill requirements. TMIC, ILO, GenevaGoogle Scholar
  32. ILO (2009) Empregos Verdes no Brasil: Quantos são, onde estão e como evoluirão nos próximos anos. Organização Internacional do Trabalho, Escritorio no BrasilGoogle Scholar
  33. IPCC (2007) Climate change 2007: mitigation of climate change. Contribution of working group III to the fourth assessment report of the intergovernmental panel on climate change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge/New YorkGoogle Scholar
  34. Kats GH (2003) Green building costs and financial benefits. Massachusetts Technology Collaborative, Boston. Available via: http://www.nhphps.org/docs/documents/GreenBuildingspaper.pdf
  35. Kats G (2010) Greening our built world: costs, benefits, and strategies. Island Press, Washington, DC. Available via: http://www.cap-e.com/Capital-E/Resources_ percent26_Publications.html
  36. Keivani R, Tah JHM, Kurul E, Abanda FH (2010) Green jobs creation through sustainable refurbishment in the developing countries. A literature review and analysis conducted for the International Labour Organization (ILO). International Labour Office, Geneva. Available via: http://www.ilo.org/public/english/dialogue/sector/papers/construction/wp275.pdf
  37. Khor M (2011) The ‘green economy’ debate: a sustainability perspective. Presentation at the UN meeting on Rio Plus 20, panel on green economy, New York, 10–11 Jan 2011Google Scholar
  38. Laustsen J (2008) Energy efficiency requirements in building codes, energy efficiency policies for new buildings. International Energy Agency, Paris. Available via: http://www.iea.org/g8/2008/Building_Codes.pdf
  39. Litman T (2006) The future isn’t what it used to be changing trends and their implications for transport planningGoogle Scholar
  40. Litman T (2009a) Smart transportation economic stimulation, infrastructure investments the ­support economic development. Transport Policy Institute, VictoriaGoogle Scholar
  41. Loftness V, Hartkopf V, Gurtekin B (2003) Linking energy to health and productivity in the built environment. Available via: http://www.usgbc.org/Docs/Archive/MediaArchive/207_Loftness.pdf
  42. Luhmann HJ (2007) Smart metering als neue Energie-(effizienz) quelle. Energ Manage 6:356–360. http://www.unep.org/greeneconomy/Portals/88/documents/ger/9.0_Buildings.pdf Google Scholar
  43. Malhotra M (2003) Financing her home, one wall at a time. Environ Urban 15(2):217Google Scholar
  44. Martinez-Fernandez C, Hinojosa C, Miranda G (2010) Greening jobs and skills labour market implications of addressing climate change. OECD Publishing, ParisGoogle Scholar
  45. McDonough W, Braungart M (2002) Cradle to cradle: remaking the way we make things, 1st edn. North Point Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  46. McGraw Hill (2009) Green building retrofit and renovation: rapidly expanding market opportunities through existing building. Smart market report. McGraw Hill Construction, Bedford. Available via: http://construction.ecnext.com/coms2/summary_0249-323452_ITM_analytics
  47. Melo et al (2009) Bridging trade theory and labour econometrics: the effects of international migration. ICLEI - Local Governments for SustainabilityGoogle Scholar
  48. NHHP (2007) National urban housing and habitat policy 2007. Government of India Ministry of Housing & Urban Poverty Alleviation, New Delhi. Available via: http://mhupa.gov.in/policies/owingpa/HousingPolicy2007.pdf
  49. Nicholas Stern, What is the Economics of Climate Change?, World Economics, 6(2). http://www.the-.eans.de/Presse/PMitt/2006/061030c76.pdfGoogle Scholar
  50. NSF/IUCRC (2004) Guidelines for high performance buildings. Available at: http://cbpd.arc.cmu.edu/ebids/pages/home.aspx
  51. OECD (2009) Declaration on Green Growth, adopted at the Meeting of the Council at Ministerial Level on 25 June 2009, [C/MIN(2009)5/ADD1/FINAL]. Cited 10 Oct 2011 at http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/58/34/44077822.pdf
  52. Oregon Department of Energy (2010). Business energy tax credits. Available via: www.oregon.gov/energy/docs/Tribal/2010-energy.pdf
  53. Pearce DW, Markandya A, Barbier E, Dept. of the Environment (UK) (1989) Blueprint for a green economy. Earthscan, LondonGoogle Scholar
  54. Phang (1993) Economic development and the distribution of land rents in Singapore: a Georgist implementation. http://www.jstor.org/discover/10.2307/3487624?uid=3737928&uid=2129&uid=2&uid=70&uid=4&sid=21101199905617
  55. UN Population Division (2006) Available via: http://www.un.org/esa/population/publications/wpp2006/English.pdf
  56. UN Population Division (2010) Available via: http://www.un.org/esa/population/publications/concise2005/Popdev.pdf
  57. Porter ME, van der Linde C (1995) Toward a new conception of the environment-competitiveness relationship. J Econ Perspect 9(4):97–118CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Ravallion et al (2007) A comparative perspective on poverty reduction in Brazil, China and India. Available via: http://Papers.ssrn.com/sol 3/papers.cfm?
  59. Ravetz J (2008) State of the stock – what do we know about existing buildings and their future prospects? Energ Policy 36(12):4462–4470CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Ries C, Jenkins J, Wise O (2009) Improving the energy performance of buildings: learning from the European Union and Australia. RAND Corporation, Santa Monica, CAGoogle Scholar
  61. Rigg et al (2009) Working Papers Series in Economics and Social Sciences; Economic geographers and the limelight: the reaction to the 2009 World Development ReportGoogle Scholar
  62. Satterthwaite D (2011) Cities’ contribution to global warming: notes on the allocation of greenhouse gas emissions. International Institute for Environmental Development. Environ Urban 20:539Google Scholar
  63. Satterthwaite D, Moser C (2008) Human Settlements Discussion Paper Series, theme: climate change and cities – 3, climate change and cities discussion paper 3, IIED, London, October 2008Google Scholar
  64. Stoneman (ed) (1995) Policy design and intervention in the innovation diffusion process: the case of China’s communication sector. Available via: http://pubs.e-contentmanagement.com/doi/abs/10.5172/impp.2006.8.1-2.113?journalCode=impp
  65. Suzuki et al (2010) Technical change, growth and trade: new departures in institutional economics. Available via: http://dspace.mah.se/handle/2043/9844
  66. TEEB (2010) Ecosystem services and green growthGoogle Scholar
  67. TEEB (2011) The Economics of Ecosystems & Biodiversity, A quick guide to TEEB for local and regional policy makers. Available via: http://www.scribd.com/mark_schauer_1/d/55266961-TEEB-D2-Quick-Guide
  68. Thormark C (2000) Environmental analysis of a building with reused building materials. Int J Low Energy Sust Build 1:6–7, 12–13. Available via: http://dspace.mah.se/handle/2043/9844
  69. Thormark C (2006) The effect of material choice on the total energy need and recycling potential of a building. Build Environ 41(8):1019–1026CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. UNECA (2011) Final report, workshop on institutional and strategic frameworks for sustainable development in Africa, ECA/FSSDD/03/11Google Scholar
  71. UNEP (2009a) Annual Report of 2009, seizing the green opportunity. UNEP, Nairobi. Available via: http://www.unep.org/pdf/UNEP_2009_ANNUAL_REPORT.pdf
  72. UNEP (2009b) Global green new deal: an update for the G20 Pittsburgh Summit. United Nations Environment Programme, Pittsburgh. Available via: http://www.unep.org/greeneconomy/LinkClick.aspx? fileticket=ciH 9RD7XHwcpercent3d&tabid=1394&language=en-US
  73. UNEP (2009c) Energy efficiency in the finance sector: a survey on lending activities and policy issues. United Nations Environment Programme, Finance Initiative, Geneva. Available via: www.unepfi.org/fileadmin/documents/Energy_Efficiency.pdf
  74. UNEP (2010) GREEN economy driving a green economy through public finance and fiscal policy reform. Green Economy Initiative, UNEP, Nairobi. Available via: http://www.unep.org/greeneconomy/Portals/30/docs/DrivingGreenEconomy.pdf
  75. UNEP/GRID (2009) Greening the world economy. Environment Times No. 6, UNEP/GRID-Arendal, NorwayGoogle Scholar
  76. UNEP (2011) Towards a green economy: pathways to sustainable development and poverty eradicationGoogle Scholar
  77. UNEP SBCI (2007a) Buildings and climate change: status, challenges, and opportunities. United Nations Environment Programme, Sustainable Buildings and Construction Initiative, ParisGoogle Scholar
  78. UNEP SBCI (2010a) The ‘State of Play’ of sustainable buildings in India. United Nations Environment Programme, Sustainable Buildings and Climate Initiative, Paris. Available via: http://www.unep.org/sbci/pdfs/State_of_play_India.pdf
  79. UN-Habitat (2011) Urban patterns for sustainable development: towards a green economy. UN-Habitat draft working paper, Jan 2011Google Scholar
  80. WBCSD (2011) Energy efficiency in buildings. Business realities and opportunities. World Business Council for Sustainable Development, Geneva. Available at: http://www.wbcsd.org/DocRoot/JNHhGVcWoRIIP4p2NaKl/WBCSD_EEB_final.pdf.
  81. Webster PJ et al (2010) Beyond the spring barrier? Nat Geosci 3:152–153CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. World Bank (2010) The Annual Report 2010Google Scholar
  83. World Humanity Action Trust (2000) Governance for a sustainable future reports, reports of the commissions of the World Humanity Action Trust. World Humanity Action Trust, London. Available via: http://www.earthsummit2002.org/es/issues/Governance/whatgov1.pdf

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Egyptian Environmental Affairs Agency (EEAA)CairoEgypt

Personalised recommendations