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The Woodwasp Sirex noctilio in Brazil: Monitoring and Control

  • Edson T. Iede
  • Susete R. C. Penteado
  • Wilson R. Filho
Chapter

Abstract

Until 1988, a small number of outbreaks of native pests had been recorded in the 1.84 million ha of pine plantations in Brazil. Most of these stands were planted with little species diversity, and at high density and received inadequate management. In 1988, an outbreak of Sirex noctilio was first recorded in southern Brazil and the insect currently infests 450,000 ha in the southern and southeast regions. The presence of Sirex has the potential to cause losses of up to $US30 million annually. The discovery of this insect resulted in an immediate change in silvicultural practices used in forest plantations, with the introduction of Integrated Pest Management (IPM) as a part of the Forest Management Programs. In 1989, the National Programme of Woodwasp Control (PNCVM) was established. This programme has a broad scope and includes the early detection and monitoring of the spread of Sirex through the use of trap trees (trees artificially stressed with herbicides) and ground inspections. Appropriate silvicultural practices, especially stand thinning, preventing competition and providing healthy growing conditions are also an important aspect of control programs. Curative measures used are based on biological control using the nematode parasite Deladenus (=Beddingia) siricidicola, introduced from Australia, which sterilizes the females and reaches up to 100% parasitism. The egg parasitoid Ibalia leucospoides has also been introduced and can reach about 25% parasitism. Two other parasites, Rhyssa persuasoria and Megarhyssa nortoni were introduced into Brazil between 1996 and 1998, and in 2003, from Australia. Establishment of these two parasites has not been confirmed. This combination of biological control and appropriate silvicultural practices are essential to keep the Sirex population under control in Brazil.

Keywords

Biological Control Integrate Pest Management Municipal District Silvicultural Practice Symbiotic Fungus 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Edson T. Iede
    • 1
  • Susete R. C. Penteado
    • 1
  • Wilson R. Filho
    • 1
  1. 1.Embrapa FlorestasColomboBrazil

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