Ecological Considerations in Using Deladenus (=Beddingia) siricidicola for the Biological Control of Sirex noctilio in North America

  • David W. Williams
  • Kelley E. Zylstra
  • Victor C. Mastro


Sirex noctilio was discovered in North America in New York, USA in 2004. The woodwasp has the potential to damage pine forest resources if it is not controlled. Sirex has been managed with varying degrees of success in pine plantations throughout the Southern Hemisphere using biological control. The most ­successful control agent is the “Kamona strain” of the nematode, Deladenus (=Beddingia) siricidicola. The technology for mass rearing and applying the nematode has been developed through many years of research in Australia. Thus, implementing a biological control program in North America seemed at first to be a simple matter of technology transfer. This has proved not to be the case because of environmental factors that both affect and are affected by use of the nematode. The first set of factors includes climate and the discovery of an indigenous strain of D. siricidicola. Climate may affect the overwinter survival and population increase of the nematode, as well as the timing of program operations, whereas the presence of another strain complicates nematode identification and, hence, the evaluation of effectiveness of the Kamona strain. In addition, strain hybridization may occur, potentially decreasing the efficacy of the Kamona strain. The second set of factors includes possible effects of the nematode on non-target North American siricids. As many as five species of native pine-feeding Siricinae potentially may be exposed to infection by the nematode when it is released.


North America Biological Control Nematode Infection North American Species Fungal Symbiont 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



We thank Robin Bedding, Peter de Groot, Ann Hajek, Andrew Liebhold, Nathan Schiff, Bernard Slippers, and Michael Stefan for their helpful comments on the manuscript.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • David W. Williams
    • 1
  • Kelley E. Zylstra
    • 1
  • Victor C. Mastro
    • 1
  1. 1.Otis Laboratory, United States Department of AgricultureAnimal and Plant Health Inspection ServiceBuzzards BayUSA

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