Fertility Change and Variation

  • Jennifer A. Johnson-Hanks
  • Christine A. Bachrach
  • S. Philip Morgan
  • Hans-Peter Kohler
Part of the Understanding Population Trends and Processes book series (UPTA, volume 5)


Fertility has declined dramatically over the last half-century while substantial variations in fertility levels remain (see United Nations, 2008). Specifically, fertility remains well above replacement levels in many African countries and in some Asian and Latin American and Caribbean countries; fertility levels in developed—and increasingly some developing—countries are below replacement levels (i.e., with a total fertility rate, TFR, below 2.1). The United States is an exception among developed countries with aggregate fertility near replacement levels (see Morgan, 2003). But in Europe and Southeast Asia, fertility has dropped to very low levels, with the TFR in some countries well below 1.5 for several decades. Recently, some reversals in fertility declines have been observed in several advanced countries (Myrskylä, Kohler, & Billari, 2009).


Labor Force Participation Demographic Transition Fertility Decline Fertility Level Fertility Transition 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jennifer A. Johnson-Hanks
    • 1
  • Christine A. Bachrach
    • 2
  • S. Philip Morgan
    • 3
  • Hans-Peter Kohler
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of DemographyUniversity of California at BerkeleyBerkeleyUSA
  2. 2.ColumbiaUSA
  3. 3.Sociology DepartmentDuke UniversityDurhamUSA
  4. 4.University of Pennsylvania, Population Studies CenterPhiladelphiaUSA

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