Advertisement

Applied Pollination: Present Scenario

  • Dharam P. Abrol
Chapter

Abstract

Production of cross-pollinated crops can be increased considerably in areas where there is a dearth of natural pollinators by brining pollinators like domesticated bees to the crop when it is in bloom. This practice has yielded excellent results and the techniques is widely used in advanced countries to enhance production, particularly of self-sterile crop varieties; and significant investment is made in research in evolving more efficient techniques as well as pollinators.

Keywords

Seed Yield Insect Pollinator Open Plot Insect Pollination Insect Visitor 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Abrol DP (1985) Analysis of biophysical interactions in causing forgaing behaviour of some bees-a study in bioenergetics. PhD thesis, Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar, 286ppGoogle Scholar
  2. Abrol DP (1988a) Ecology and behaviour of three bee species pollinating loquat (Eriobotrya japonica Lindley). Proc Indian Nat Sci Acad 54 B:161–163Google Scholar
  3. Abrol DP (1988b) Insect pollination studies in Almond (Prunus amygdalus L.). Curr Sci 57(7):397–398Google Scholar
  4. Abrol DP (1989a) Studies on abundance, diversity, behaviour and importance of native pollinators for crop production. Korean J Apic 4(2):25–40Google Scholar
  5. Abrol DP (1989b) Insect pollinators of cherry (Prunus avium L.). J Anim Morphol Physiol 36(2):243–245Google Scholar
  6. Abrol DP (1989c) Studies on ecology and behaviour of insect pollinators frequenting strawberry blossoms and their impact on yield and fruit quality. Trop Ecol 30(1):96–100Google Scholar
  7. Abrol DP (1996) Sunflower pollination: abundance and diversity of pollinating insects and their effect on seed yield. Indian Bee J 58(2):60–63Google Scholar
  8. Abrol DP (1997) Bees and beekeeping in India. Kalyani Publishers, Ludhiana, 450ppGoogle Scholar
  9. Abrol DP (2000) Insect pollinators of kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa). Indian Bee J 62(3–4):55–57Google Scholar
  10. Abrol DP (2005) Foraging ecology of insect pollinators visiting cherry flowers and their impact on fruit production. Korean J Apic 20(2):159–168Google Scholar
  11. Abrol DP (2006a) Diversity of pollinating insects visiting litchi flowers (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) and path analysis of environmental factors influencing foraging behaviour of four honeybee species. J Apic Res Bee World 45(4):180–187CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Abrol DP (2006b) Factors influencing flight activity of Apis florea F, an important pollinator of Daucus carota L. J Apic Res Bee World 45(2):2–6CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Abrol DP (2009) Bees and Beekeeping in India. 2nd Edition Kalyani Publishers Ludhiana, India, 719 pGoogle Scholar
  14. Abrol DP (2010a) Megascolia flavifrons – an unusual pollinator of onion flowers. Adv Pollen Spore Res 28:51–56Google Scholar
  15. Abrol DP (2010b) Foraging behaviour of Apis florea F., an important pollinator of Allium cepa L. J Apic Res Bee World 49(4):318–325CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Abrol DP, Kapil RP (1988) Pollination studies in Crotolaria Juncea L. Sci Cult 54(7):243–244CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Abrol DP, Kumar A (2009) Foraging activity of Apis species on strawberry blossoms as influenced by pesticides. Pak Entomol 31(1):57–65Google Scholar
  18. Abrol DP, Bhat AA (1990) Studies on `Thai sac brood virus’ affecting indigenous honeybee Apis cerana indica Fab. colonies – prospects and future strategies - I.Journal of Animal Morphology and Physiology 37(1/2):101–108Google Scholar
  19. Abrol DP, Bhat AA, Khan AR (1990) Factors affecting pollination activity of honeybees and fruit set in almond. In: Veeresh GK, Kumar ARV, Shivashankar T (eds) Social insects: an Indian perspective. ISUSI-Indian, Bangalore, pp 50–53Google Scholar
  20. Abrol DP, Sharma D, Monobrullah M (2005) Abundance and diversity of pollinating insects ­visiting peach and plum flowers and their impact on fruit production. SKUAST J Res 4(1):38–45Google Scholar
  21. Adlakha RL, Dhaliwal HS (1979) Insect pollination of seed cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) with particular reference to the role of honeybees. Indian Bee J 41(1/2):13–16Google Scholar
  22. Afzal M, Khan H (1950) Natural crossing in cotton in western Punjab. Agron J 42:14–19, 89–93, 202–205, 236–238CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Afzal M, Trought T (1934) Motes in cotton. I. Punjab-American cotton. Indian J Agric Sci 4:554–575Google Scholar
  24. Ahn SB, Kim IS, Choi WS, Choi KM (1989) Survey on the use of honeybee pollination of strawberries grown in plastic greenhouse. Korean J Apic 4(1):1–8 (Korean)Google Scholar
  25. Akhtar AR (1932) Studies in Indian Brassicas. I. Sterility and selective pollen tube growth. Indian J Agric Sci 2:280–292Google Scholar
  26. Alam MZ, Quadir MA, Ali M (1987a) Pollinating behaviour of honeybee, Apis indica F. and its influence on seed production of cauliflower. Bangladesh Hortic 15(1):25–30Google Scholar
  27. Alam MZ, Quadir MA, Ali M (1987b) Effect of bee pollination on seed production of carrot, Daucus carota L. Bangladesh J Bot 16(2):199–201Google Scholar
  28. Annand PN (1926) Thysanoptera and the pollination of flowers. Am Nat 60:177–182CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Anonymous (1954) Honeybees and the seed production of Chinese milk vetch. Gifu Agr Expt Sta Bull, 11pp (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  30. Atwal AS (1970) Biology, ecology and utilization of insects other than Honeybees in the pollination of crops. Final Research Report (1965–1970) PL-480 Project, Punjab Agriculture University, Ludhiana, 115ppGoogle Scholar
  31. Badiyala SD, Garg R (1990) Studies on the pollination and fruit production by Apis mellifera l. in seven cultivars of Litchi (Litchi Chinensis Sonn.). Indian Bee J 52(1–4):28–30Google Scholar
  32. Barbier EC, Abid M (1966) Pollination and seed formation in sunflower. Al Awamia 21:63–83Google Scholar
  33. Barroga SF (1964) Progress report on the study of insects, particularly midges associated with pollination of Theobroma Cacao, April 1963. Philipp J Plant Ind 29(3/4):123–133Google Scholar
  34. Bhalla OP, Verma AK, Dhaliwal HS (1983a) Foraging activity of insect pollinators visiting stone fruits. J Entomol Res 7:91–94Google Scholar
  35. Bhalla OP, Verma AK, Dhaliwal HS (1983b) Foraging activity of insect pollinators visiting stone fruits. J Entomol Res 7(2):91–99Google Scholar
  36. Bhambure CS (1958a) Effect of honeybee activity on niger (Guizotia abyssinica Cass) seed production. Indian Bee J 20:189–191Google Scholar
  37. Bhambure CS (1958b) Further studies on the importance of honeybees in pollination of cucurbitaceae. Indian Bee J 20(10):148–149Google Scholar
  38. Bhattacharya P, Samuli RC, Ghos MR, Dasgupta SK, Roy A (1982) Sunflower seed yield as influenced by pollination and insect pests. In: Proceedings of the 10th international sunflower conference, Sulfers Paradise, pp 132–234Google Scholar
  39. Bisht DS, Naim M, Mehrotra KN (1980) Studies on the role of honeybee in rapeseed production. In: Proceedings of the 2nd international conference on apiculture tropical climate, New Delhi, pp 491–496Google Scholar
  40. Brar JS, Nandpuri KS (1969) Study on floral biology of Cucurbita pepo Linn. J Res Ludhiana (Supplement) 6(3):186–792Google Scholar
  41. Brar HS, Jhaji HS, Gatoria GS (1992) Abundance and activity of the bee visitors of pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.) and role of Apis mellifera L. in its pollination. Indian Bee J 54(1–4):76–80Google Scholar
  42. Capinpin JM, Alviar MA (1949) Hetrosis in eggplant. Philipp Agric 33:126–141Google Scholar
  43. Chandran K, Rajan P, Joseph D, Suryanarayana MC (1980) Studies on the role of honeybees in the pollination of cardamom. In: Proceedings of the 2nd international conference on apiculture tropical climate, New Delhi, pp 497–504Google Scholar
  44. Channabasavanna GP (1979) Role of insect pollinators in sunflower production. Curr Res 8(1):1–3Google Scholar
  45. Chaturvedi RB (1965) Preliminary studies in the sex distribution, pollination and fruit development in litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.). Allahabad Farmer 39(2):49–51Google Scholar
  46. Chaudhary B, Choomsai MLA, Menon MGA (1973) Insect pollination in some vegetable crops. Haryana J Hortic Sci 2(1/2):56–62Google Scholar
  47. Chavan VM (1961) Niger and safflower. Indian Central Oilseed Company, Hyderabad, 150ppGoogle Scholar
  48. Cheema GS, Dani PG (1929) Seedlessness in papayas. Agric J India 26(3):206–207Google Scholar
  49. Chowdhury JB, Mehta RK, Joshi AB (1966) Pollination in berseem. Indian J Genet Plant Breed 26:118–120Google Scholar
  50. Das CS, Choudhary R (1958) Floral biology of Litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.). South Indian Hortic 6(1):17–22Google Scholar
  51. Delaplane KS, Mayer DF (2000) Crop pollination by bees. CABI Publication, CambridgeCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Deodikar GB, Suryanarayana MC (1972) Crop yields and bee pollination. Indian Bee J 34:53–64Google Scholar
  53. Deodikar GB, Seethalakshmi VS, Suryanaryana MC (1976) Flower biology of sunflower with special reference to honeybees. J Palynol 12(1/2):115–125Google Scholar
  54. Deshmukh SD (1977) Effects of bee visits and climate on sunflower pollination. Sci Cult 43(12):543–545Google Scholar
  55. Dhaliwal JS (1975) Insect pollination in ber (Ziziphus mauritiana Lamk.). Curr Sci 44(14):527Google Scholar
  56. Dhaliwal JS, Atwal AS (1976) Note on the effect of air temperature, relative humidity and wind velocity on bees visiting berseem at Ludhiana. Indian J Agric Sci 46(1):50–51Google Scholar
  57. Dhoble YS, Shinde YM (1982) Role of insect pollinators for effective seed setting in sunflower. J Maharastra Agric Univ 7(1):103Google Scholar
  58. Dinakaran M, Sundaraj DD (1960) Preliminary studies on chicory (Chicorium intybus L.) with special reference to floral biology. S Indian Hortic 8(1/2):23–27Google Scholar
  59. Divan VV, Salvi SR (1965) Some interesting behavioual features of Apis dorsata Fab. Indian Bee J 27(1):52Google Scholar
  60. Dubey RS, Singh SP (1968) Note on stigma receptivity in kenaf. Indian J Agric Sci 38(1):195–197Google Scholar
  61. Free JB (1993) Insect pollination of crops, 2nd edn. Academic, New York, p 684Google Scholar
  62. Fukae Y, Hamachi F, Tsujikava Y (1987) A detailed analysis of the effect of honeybee introductions on the pollination of persimmons. Honeybee Sci 8(4):167–171Google Scholar
  63. Gnanaratnam JK (1954) Pollination mechanism of cacao flower. Trop Agric (Ceylon) 110:98–104Google Scholar
  64. Goyal NP, Atwal AS (1975) Studies on the relation of the population of insect pollinators with seed production in lucerne (Medicago sativa), Indian J Ecol 2:58–61. Keywords: bee botany, India.Google Scholar
  65. Goyal NP, Singh M, Kandoria JL (1989) Role of insect pollination on seed production in carrot, Daucus carota L. Indian Bee J 51(3):89–93Google Scholar
  66. Grewal GS, Sidhu AS (1978) Insect pollinators of some cucurbits in Punjab. Indian J Agric Sci 48(2):79–83Google Scholar
  67. Grewal GS, Sidhu AS (1979) Note on the role of bees in the pollination of Cucurbita pepo. Indian J Agric Sci 49(5):386–388Google Scholar
  68. Grewal GS, Sidhu AS (1980) Studies on insect pollination in Cucumis melo Linn. In: Proceedings of the 2nd international conference on apiculture tropical climate, New Delhi, pp 527–544Google Scholar
  69. Grewal GS, Singh G (1979) Notes on insect pollinators of sunhemp in Punjab. Indian J Agric Sci 49(10):822–824Google Scholar
  70. Hardon JJ, Turner PD (1967) Observations on natural pollination in commercial plantings of oil palm (Elacis guineensis) in Malaya. Exp Agric 3(2):105–116CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Hayase H (1954) Cucurbita-crosses. Iv. The development of squash fruit as affected by placement of pollen on stigma. Hokkaido Nat Agric Stn Res B 64:22–25 (In Japanese)Google Scholar
  72. Heide FFR (1923) Biological observations of Arachis hypogea L. (Dutch East Indies). Alg Proefsta V Landb Meded 14:1–19Google Scholar
  73. Henry AW, Chin Tu (1928) Natural crossing in flax. Am Soc Agron J 20:1183–1192CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Howard A, Howard GLC, Rahman KA (1919) Studies in the pollination of Indian crop. Indian Dept Agric Mem Bot Serv 7:214–272Google Scholar
  75. Ibrahim AG (1987) Effects of insects pollinators on fruit set of cocoa flowers. In: Proceedings of the 10th international cocoa research conference, Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic, pp 303–306, 17–23 May 1987Google Scholar
  76. Iyer CPA, Randhawa GS (1965) Hybridization studies in grapes: investigations on the direct influence of pollen on some fruit and seed characters. Indian J Hortic 22(2):107–121Google Scholar
  77. Jadhav LD (1981) Role of insects in the pollination of onion (Allium cepa) in the Maharastra state, India. Indian Bee J 43(3):61–63Google Scholar
  78. Janki RP, Singh R, Prakash R, Haque MF (1968) Floral biology of cotton (Gossypium spp.). Indian J Agric Sci 38(3):528–535Google Scholar
  79. Jitendra Mohan KV (1973) Some observations on the bee pollination in sunhemp (Crotolaria juncea) and their importance in breeding work. Jute Bull 35:214–216Google Scholar
  80. Kakizaki Y (1922) Self-sterility in Chinese cabbage. J Hered 13:374–376Google Scholar
  81. Kakizaki Y (1931) Hybrid vigor in egg-plant and its practical utilization. Genetics 16:1–25PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Kakkar KL (1980) Prospects of bees as pollinating agents of cauliflower. In: Proceedings of the 2nd international conference on apiculture tropical climate, New Delhi, pp 545–556Google Scholar
  83. Kamato K, Yoshida M, Kurihara A, Makino Y (1967) Studies on pollen sterility of peach Hiratsuka Hort. Res Stn Bull Ser A 6:91–104 (In Japanese)Google Scholar
  84. Kanwar SM (1987) Fruit bud formation, pollination and fruit set. In: Apples production technology and economic. Tata McGraw Hill Publishing Company, New York, pp 151–181Google Scholar
  85. Kapil RP, Jain KL (1980) Biology and utilization of insect pollinators for crop production. Final Tech Report, Department of Zoology, Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar, 81ppGoogle Scholar
  86. Kapil RP, Kumar S (1975) Foraging activity of Apis dorsata Fab. on Brassica juncea Hook and Thomas. J Bombay Nat Hist Soc 71(2):327–331Google Scholar
  87. Kapil RP, Grewal GS, Kumar S, Atwal AS (1970) Role of Ceratina binghami CKII in seed setting of setting of Medicago sativa L. Indian J Entomol 32:335–341Google Scholar
  88. Kapil RP, Grewal GS, Kumar S, Atwal AS (1971) Insect pollinators of rape seed and mustard. Indian J Entomol 33(1):61–66Google Scholar
  89. Kapil RP, Grewal GS, Kumar S, Atwal AS (1974) Insect pollinators of alfalfa, Medicago sativa L. Indian J Entomol 36(3):214–220Google Scholar
  90. Katayama E (1987) Utilization of honeybees as pollinators for strawberries in plastic greenhouse in Tochigi Prefecture. Honeybee Sci 8(4):147–150Google Scholar
  91. Khalifman IA (1959) Heterosis in plants as the after-effects of pollination by bees (Hysteresis). Bee World 40:303–313Google Scholar
  92. Khan KSAH (1929) Pollination and fruit formation in Litchi. Agric J India 24:183–187Google Scholar
  93. Khan KSAR (1930) Some observations on the pollination of peaches (Prunus persica Benth. and Hook.) Agr Jour India 25(6):492–494Google Scholar
  94. Khan H, Afzal M (1950) Vicinism in cotton. Indian Cotton Grow Rev 4(4):227–239Google Scholar
  95. Khan BM, Shahid M, Choudhary MI (1916) Effect of honeybee pollination on fruit – setting and yield of loquat. Pak J For 36(2):73–77Google Scholar
  96. Kidavu MG, Nambiyar EK (1925) Pollination in coconut. Madras Dept Agric Yearbook 1925:43–49Google Scholar
  97. Kumar J, Rao KVK (1991) Pollinating efficiency of some bees visitors to the carrot (Daucus carota L.) crop in mid hills of Himachal Pradesh (India). Indian Bee J 53(1–4):34–38Google Scholar
  98. Kumar J, Mishra RC, Gupta JK (1985) The effect of mode of pollination on Allium species with observations on insects as pollinators. J Apic Res 24(1):62–66Google Scholar
  99. Kumar J, Rao KVK, Gupta PR, Dogra GS (1989) Temporal distribution of bees (Hymenoptera: Apoidea) on spring flowering crops in mid hills of Himachal Pradesh, India. Indian Bee J 51(2):55–58Google Scholar
  100. Latif A (1956) Role of Apis indica F. in the pollination of Egyptian clover (Trifolium alexandrinum Linn.). Pak J Sci Res 8(1):48–50Google Scholar
  101. Latif A, Qayyum A, Abbas M (1960) The role of Apis indica in the pollination of (oil seeds) “Toria” and “Sarson” (Brassica campestris var. Toria and Dichotoma). Bee World 41:283–286Google Scholar
  102. Madhusoodanan KJ, Dandin SB (1981) Flower biology of cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum L.) in relation to the foraging behaviour of honeybees (Apis spp.). Indian Bee J 43(4):104–108Google Scholar
  103. Mahadevan V, Chandy KC (1959) Preliminary studies on the increase in cotton yield due to honeybee pollination. Madras Agric J 47:23–26Google Scholar
  104. Mann GS, Singh G (1981a) A note on activity and abundance of flower visiting insects of peach (Prunus persica L.) at Ludhiana (Punjab). Prog Hortic 13(3/4):25–27Google Scholar
  105. Mann GS, Singh G (1981b) Activity and abundance of flower visiting insects of almond (Prunus amygdalus Matsch) at Ludhiana (Punjab). J Bombay Nat Hist Soc 78(3):617–618Google Scholar
  106. Mann GS, Tanda AS (1984) Activity and abundance of insects visiting grape flowers in Punjab (India). In: Proceedings of the 3rd international conference on apiculture tropical climate, Nairobi, p 139Google Scholar
  107. Matta DN, Dave BE (1931) Studies in Cajanus indicus. Indian Dept Agric Mem Bot 19:1–25Google Scholar
  108. Mattu VK, Chaudhary DK, Kumar L (1994) Foraging ecology of Apis cerana F. and Apis mellifera L. in pollinating stone fruit. Pest Manag Econ Zool 2(1):35–39Google Scholar
  109. McGregor SE (1976) Insect pollination of cultivated crop plants. Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture, Handbook, Washington, p 496Google Scholar
  110. Mishra RC, Gupta JK (1987) Effect of modes of pollination on fruit characteristics of okra, Abelmoschus esculentus (L,) moench. Proc Indian Nat Sci Acad 53 B(2):157–160Google Scholar
  111. Mohammad A (1935) Pollination studies in toria (Brassica napus var. Dicchotoma prain), and sarson (B. campestris L. var. Sarson Prain). Indian J Agric Sci 5:125–154Google Scholar
  112. Moriya N, Ikeda J, Hoshino M (1956) Studies on the seed production of alfalfa. 2. Effect of rainfall on seed production. 3. Effect on nitrogen applied before and after the bud formation stage on flowering, pod and seed-setting. Proc Crop Sd Soc Jpn 25(2):111–112 (In Japanese)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Muttoo RN (1952) Uttar Pradesh Government beekeeping station, Jeolikot, District Nainital, Uttar Pradesh - A summary of 14 years work (1938–1952), Indian Bee J 14:40–51Google Scholar
  114. Naik KC, Rao MM (1943) Studies on the blossom biology and pollination in mangoes (Mangifera indica L.). Indian J Hortic 1(2):107–119Google Scholar
  115. Naim M, Phadke KG (1976) Bee flora and seasonal activity of Apis cerana indica at Pusa (Bihar). Indian Bee J 38(1–4):13–19Google Scholar
  116. Nakanishi T (1983) Preferences of honeybee foraging on male fertile and male-sterile flowers of Japanese apricote (Prunus nume). Honeybee Sci 4(1):1–8Google Scholar
  117. Nand D (1971) Pollination, fruit set and development in carambola (Averrhoa carambola Linn). Indian J Hortic 28:278–284Google Scholar
  118. Nandpuri KS, Brar JS (1966) Studies on floral biology in muskmelon (Cucumis melo L.). J Res Ludhiana 3(4):395–399Google Scholar
  119. Narayanan ES, Sharma PL, Phadke KG (1960) Studies on requirements of various crops for insect pollinators. I. Insect pollinators of saunf (Foeniculum vulgare) with particular reference to the honeybees at Pusa (Bihar). Indian Bee J 22(1/3):7–11Google Scholar
  120. Narayanan ES, Sharma PL, Phadke KG (1961) Studies on requirements of various crops for insect pollinators II. Insect pollinators of berseem-Egyptian clover (Trifolium alaxandrinum) (L.) with particular reference to honeybees and their role in seed setting. Indian Bee J 23(4/6):23–30Google Scholar
  121. Noda M (1987) Utilization of honeybees for the pollination of plum and pear, unattractive to ­honeybees, in Tokushima Prefecture. Honeybee Sci 8(4):159–162Google Scholar
  122. Ohbayashi N (1976) Protection and utilization of pollinators in watermelon: efficiency of honeybees in watermelon fields. Bull Kamagawa Hortic Exp Stn 23:49–53Google Scholar
  123. Ohsawa R, Namai H (1987) The effect of insect pollinators on pollination and seed setting in Brassica campestris cultivar Nozawana and Brassica juncea cultivar Kikarashina. Japanese Journal of Breeding 37:453–463Google Scholar
  124. Panchabhavi KS, Devaiah MA (1977) A note on the activities of insect pollinators on sunflower during winter and summer seasons at Bangalore. Curr Sci 6:88–89Google Scholar
  125. Panchabhavi KS, Devaiah MA, Channabasavanna GP (1976) The effect of keeping Apis cerana indica F colonies on the seed set of sunflowers, Helianthus annuus Linn. Mysore S Sci 10(4):631–636Google Scholar
  126. Pandey RS, Yadava RPS (1970) Pollination of litchi (Litchi chinensis) by insects with special reference to honeybees. J Apic Res 9(2):103–105Google Scholar
  127. Patel JS (1938) The coconut: a monograph. Madras Government Press, Madras, 262 ppGoogle Scholar
  128. Pattanshetti HV, Prasad ABN (1973) Bees help pollination of cardamom flowers. Curr Res 2(8):56–57Google Scholar
  129. Pattanshetti HV, Prasad ABN (1974) Exposing the cardamom panicles from a layer of leaf mulch to open pollination by bees and thereby improving the fruit set. Curr Sci 3(8):90Google Scholar
  130. Phadke KG, Naim M (1974) Observations on the honeybees visitation to the litchi (Nephelium Iitchi) blossoms at Pusa (Bihar, India). Indian Bee J 36(1–4):9–12Google Scholar
  131. Phoon AGG (1985) Pollination and fruit production of carambola, Averrhoa carambola, in Malaysia. In: Proceedings of the 3rd international conference on apiculture tropical climate, Nairobi, pp 12–133Google Scholar
  132. Pion S, de Oliveira D, Paradis RO (1980) Agents pollinasateurs et productivite du fraisier ‘Redcoat’, Fragaria x ananassa Duch. Phytoprotection 61:72–78Google Scholar
  133. Purewal SS, Randhawa GE (1947) Studies on Hibiscus csculentus (Lady finger) (Okra) I. Chromosome and pollen studies. Indian J Agric Sci 17:129–136Google Scholar
  134. Rahman KA (1940) Insect pollinators of toria (Brassica napus Linn. var. Dichotoma Prain) and sarson (B. campestris Linn. var. Sarson Prain) at Lyallpur. Indian J Agric Sci 10(3):422–477Google Scholar
  135. Rai KK, Gupta BP (1983) Role of honeybees and other insects as pollinators in apple and pear. Indian Bee J 45(2/3):56–57Google Scholar
  136. Rana RS, Verma LR, Mattu VK (1994) Foraging activity and abundance of insect pollinators on plum bloom. In: Pollination biology-environmental factors and pollination. Rajendra Scientific Publishers, Hisar, pp 20–31Google Scholar
  137. Randhawa GS, Yadav IS, Nath N (1963) Studies on flowering, pollination and fruit development in peach grown under subtropical conditions. Indian J Agric Sci 33(2):129–138Google Scholar
  138. Rao GM, Lazar M (1980) Studies on the behaviour and pollination on onion (Allium cepa L.). In: Proceedings of the 2nd international conference on apiculture tropical climate, New Delhi, pp 580–589Google Scholar
  139. Rao GM, Suryanarayana MC (1990) Studies on the foraging behaviour of honeybees and its effect on the seed yield in Niger. Indian Bee J 52(1–4):31–33Google Scholar
  140. Rao GM, Lazer M, Suryanarayana MC (1981) Foraging behaviour of honeybees in sesame (Sesamum indicum L.). Indian Bee J 43(4):97–100Google Scholar
  141. Roubik DW (1995) Pollination of cultivated plants in the tropics. FAO Agricultural Service Bulletin 118, FAO, RomeGoogle Scholar
  142. Sagar P (1981) Role of insects in cross pollination of fennel crop at Ludhiana. S Res Ludhiana 18(4):388–392Google Scholar
  143. Sakai T, Matsuka M (1988) Honeybee pollination in Japan, with special reference to strawberry production. Honeybee Sci 9(3):97–101Google Scholar
  144. Sakamori M, Yabe K, Osuka M (1977) Growing muskmelon with honeybee pollinators. Res Bull Aichi-ken Agric Res Centre 9:15–21Google Scholar
  145. Sands WN (1928) The bitter-cucumber or peria. Malaya Agric 16(2):32Google Scholar
  146. Sen KRD, Afzal H (1937) Variation in the characters of cotton in relation to the position of boils on the plant. Indian J Agric Sci 7(1):35–47Google Scholar
  147. Shah RC, Patel RM (1966) Studies on pollination in cucurbitaceae. Indian J Genet Plant Breed 26(1):94–97Google Scholar
  148. Sharma PL (1961) The honeybee (Apis indica) population among insects visiting temperate-zone fruit flowers and their role in setting fruit. Bee World 42:6–7Google Scholar
  149. Sharma PL, Sharma BR (1968) Role of insects in the pollination of Daucus carota (carrots) and Beta vulgaris (Sugarbeet). Indian J Hortic 25(3/4):216Google Scholar
  150. Sharma PL, Dhaliwal HS, Kakar KL (1974) Insect visitors and pollinators of cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) seed crop bloom. Himachal J Agric Res 2(2):74–78Google Scholar
  151. Shelar DG, Suryanarayana MC (1981) Preliminary studies on pollination of coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.). Indian Bee J 43(4):110–111Google Scholar
  152. Shelar DG, Suryanarayana MC (1983) Effect of pollination by honeybee (Apis cerana indica Fabricious) on the yield of lucerne. Indian J Agric Sci 53(3):190–191Google Scholar
  153. Shibuya T, Sato H, Suzuki M (1955) Morphological and physiological studies on subterranean fluctuation of legume-crops. Proc Crop Sci Soc Jpn 24:16–19, In Japanese, English SummaryCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Shrivastava U (1991) Insect pollination in some cucurbits. In: Proceedings of the 6th international symposium, Palm, pp 445–451Google Scholar
  155. Shrivastava OS, Shrivastava GP (1986) Nocturnal pollination in sunflower, Helianthus annuus L. In: Kapil RP (ed) Pollination biology: an analysis. Inter-India Publications, New Delhi, pp 59–65Google Scholar
  156. Siddappaji C, Channabasavanna GP (1980) Role of honeybees in the pollination of cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum (L) Meton). In: Proceedings of the 2nd international conference on apiculture tropical climate, New Delhi, pp 640–648Google Scholar
  157. Sidhu AS, Singh S (1962) Role of honeybees in cotton production. Indian Cotton Grow Rev 16(1):18–23Google Scholar
  158. Sihag RC (1982) Effect of competition with Parkinsonia aculeata L. on pollination and seed production in Medicago sativa L. Indian Bee J 44(4):89–90Google Scholar
  159. Sihag RC (1985a) Floral biology, melittophily and pollination ecology of onion crop. In: Varghese TM (ed) Recent advances in pollen research. Allied Publishers, New Delhi, pp 277–284Google Scholar
  160. Sihag RC (1985b) Floral biology, melittophily and pollination ecology of cultivated cruciferous crops. In: Varghese TM (ed) Recent advances in pollen research. Allied Publishers, New Delhi, pp 241–268Google Scholar
  161. Sihag RC (1985c) Floral biology, melittophily and pollination ecology of cultivated umbelliferous crops. In: Varghese TM (ed) Recent advances in pollen research. Allied Publishers, New Delhi, pp 269–276Google Scholar
  162. Sihag RC (1986) Insect pollination increases seed production in cruciferous and umbelliferous crops. J Apic Res 25(2):121–126Google Scholar
  163. Sihag RC (1988) Characterization of the pollinators of cultivated cruciferous and leguminous crops of sub-tropical Hisar, India. Bee World 69(4):153–158Google Scholar
  164. Sihag RC (1990) Behaviour and ecology of the sub-tropical carpenter bee, Xylocopa fenestrata F. 2. Host plant association. Indian Bee J 52(1–4):38–40Google Scholar
  165. Sihag RC (1992) Utilization of waste stems of sarkandas and castor as nesting tunnels for culturing/keeping wild bee pollinators of some crops. Bioresour Technol 42:159–162CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. Sihag RC (1993) Behaviour and ecology of the subtropical carpenter bee, Xylocopa fenestrata F. 6. Crop hosts, foraging dynamics and pollination potential. J Apic Res 32(2):94–101Google Scholar
  167. Sihag RC, Abrol DP (1986) Correlation and path coefficient analysis of environmental factors influencing flight activity of Apis florea F. J Apic Res 25:202–208Google Scholar
  168. Sihag RC, Kaur G (1994) Floral biology, melittophily and pollination ecology of sunflower. In: Sihag RC (ed) Pollination biology: pollination plant reproduction and crop seed production. Rajendra Scientific Publishers, Hisar, pp 69–82Google Scholar
  169. Simura T, Oosone K (1956) Studies on the fertilization of the tea plant. Tkushugaku Zasshi – Jpn Jap J Breed 6:11–14 (In Japanese)Google Scholar
  170. Singh DP (1958) Rape and mustard. Indian Central Oilseed Committee, Gandhi BhawanGoogle Scholar
  171. Singh SN (1961) Studies on the morphology and viability of the pollen grains of mango. Hort Adv 5:121–144Google Scholar
  172. Singh LB (1969) Mango. In: Ferwerda FP, Wit F, Veenman FH, Zonen NV (eds) Outlines of perennial crop breeding in the tropics. Veenen and Zonen, Wageningen, pp 309–327Google Scholar
  173. Singh Y (1979) Pollination activity on strawberry at Jeolikot, District, Nainital, India. Indian Bee J 41(1/2):17–19Google Scholar
  174. Singh MP (1984) Studies on the activity of some insect pollinators on jujube (Zizyphus mauritiana Lamk.). Entomon 9(3):177–180Google Scholar
  175. Singh S (1988) Insect pollination studies on Almond. Ph.D. thesis, Dr. Y.S. Parmar University of Horticulture and Forestry, Solan, Himachal PradeshGoogle Scholar
  176. Singh JP, Dharamwal SS (1970) The role of honeybees in seed setting of onion at Pantnagar, Distt. Nainital, Uttar Pradesh, India. Indian Bee J 32(1/2):23–26Google Scholar
  177. Singh R, Mishra RC (1986) Flower visiting flies of fruits in Himachal Pradesh. Proc Indian Nat Sci Acad 52B(4):451–453Google Scholar
  178. Singh RN, Majumdar PK, Sharma DK (1962) Self-incompatibility in mango (Mangifera indica L. var. Dashehari). Curr Sci 31(5):209Google Scholar
  179. Srinivasalu N, Chandrasekaran NR (1958) A note on natural crossing in groundnut, Arachis hypogea Lian. Sci Cult 23:650 (Calcutta)Google Scholar
  180. Sriram TA, Raman KR (1961) Some aspects of flowering and fruiting in yellow passion fruit and Granadilla. S Indian Hart 9(1–4):30–37Google Scholar
  181. Srivastava DP, Singh SN (1968) Heterosis in sesame. Indian Bot Soc J 47(1/2):79–88Google Scholar
  182. Svetsugo I, Kobayashi S (1952) Studies on Vicia villosa Roth, with special reference to the fertilization and seed production. Proc Crop Sci 21(1/2):150–151 (In Japanese)Google Scholar
  183. Swaminathan R, Bhardwaj SC (1982) Bee pollinators of sunflower and their foraging behaviour. Indian Bee J 44(2):32–34Google Scholar
  184. Tanda AS (1983) Assessing the role of honeybee in a field of Asiatic cotton (Gossypium arboreum L.). Am Bee J 123(8):593–594Google Scholar
  185. Tanda AS (1984) Bee pollination increases yield of two interplanted varieties of Asiatic cotton (Gossypium arboreum L,). Am Bee J 122(7):539–540Google Scholar
  186. Tanda AS, Goyal NP (1978) Effect of bee pollination on ball retention in Gossypium arboreum Linn. Seeds Farms 4(8):45–46Google Scholar
  187. Tanda AS, Goyal NP (1979a) Pollen dispersal by insects in desi cotton (Gossypium arboreum Linn,). Seeds Farms 5:56–59Google Scholar
  188. Tanda AS, Goyal NP (1979b) Some observations on the behavior of Apis mellifera Linn. and Apis cerana indica Fab. workers in a field of desi cotton (Gossypium arboreum Linn.). Am Beef 119(2):106Google Scholar
  189. Tanda AS, Goyal NP (1979c) Insect pollination in Asiatic cotton (Gossypium arboreum). J Apic Res 18(1):64–72Google Scholar
  190. Tanda AS, Goyal NP (1979d) Preliminary observations on the effect of intervarietal bee pollination of desi cotton (Gossypium arboreum Linn.). Indian J Entomol 41(3):281–282Google Scholar
  191. Tewari GN, Singh K (1983) Studies on insect pollinators in relation to seed production in ­cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis L.). Indian Bee J 45(1 and 2):54–55Google Scholar
  192. Thakar CV (1974) Experiments on pollination of sunflower. Indian Bee J 36(1–4):36–38Google Scholar
  193. Vaish OP, Agrawal SC, Joshi MJ (1978) Frequency of insect visitors for pollen foraging on sunflower in relation to daily temperature and humidity. In: Proceedings of the 8th international sunflower conference, Minneapolis, pp 148–l57Google Scholar
  194. Verma LR (1990) Beekeeping in integrated mountain development: economic and scientific perspective. Oxford and IBH Publishing Co, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  195. Verma LR, Chauan P (1985) Distribution, abundance and diversity of insect pollinators in apple orchards of Shimla hills. Indian J Ecol 12:286–292Google Scholar
  196. Verma SK, Joshi NK (1983) Studies on the role of honeybee in the pollination of cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis). Indian Bee J 45(2/3):52–53Google Scholar
  197. Wagle PV (1929) A preliminary study of pollination of the Alphonso mango. Agric J India 24(14):259–263Google Scholar
  198. Wakhle DM, Nair KS, Phadke RP (1978) Effect of bee pollination on the oil and protein content in the seeds of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). Indian Bee J 40(1):1–2Google Scholar
  199. Williams IH (1977) Behaviour of insects foraging on pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.) in India. Trap Agric Trinidad 54(4):353–356Google Scholar
  200. Woo KS, Choo HY, Choi KR (1986) Studies on the ecology and utilization of pollinating insects. Korean JApic 1(1):54–61Google Scholar
  201. Wu CT (1967) Studies on the percentage of fruit-setting of self-and cross- pollination and its relation to some economic characters of the Ft hybrids in tea plant. J Agric Assoc China 59:24–39 (In Chinese)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of Entomology Faculty of AgricultureSher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and TechnologyJammuIndia

Personalised recommendations