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Bioremediation: New Approaches and Trends

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Biomanagement of Metal-Contaminated Soils

Part of the book series: Environmental Pollution ((EPOL,volume 20))

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Abstract

Ever increasing human activities including agricultural, urban, or industrial are a major source of environmental pollution. Toxic metal pollution of waters, air, and soils is one of the potential problems, which is an enigma for scientists how to tackle this problem that has threatened the environment. To solve this, conventional remediation approaches have been used, which, however, do not provide acceptable solutions. The development of an alternative remediation strategy for the abatement of a contaminated medium is important for environmental conservation and human health. Bioremediation, an attractive and novel technology, is a multidisciplinary approach that uses biological systems to degrade/transform and/or to rid the soil and water of pollutants. This technology involves the use of plants (phytoremediation), plant–microbe interactions (rhizoremediation), and microbial communities involving stimulation of viable native microbial population (biostimulation), artificial introduction of viable population (bioaugmentation), bioaccumulation (live cells), and use of dead microbial biomass (biosorption) to clean up the contaminated sites. Bioremediation is simple, can be applied over large areas, environmentally friendly, and inexpensive. The use of genetic engineering to further modify plants for uptake, transport, and sequester metal opens up new avenues for enhancing efficiency of phytoremediation. Various bioremediation approaches adopted to remediate contaminated sites and major concerns associated with phytoremediation as a sustainable alternative are reviewed and discussed.

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Abou-Shanab, R.A.EA.I. (2011). Bioremediation: New Approaches and Trends. In: Khan, M., Zaidi, A., Goel, R., Musarrat, J. (eds) Biomanagement of Metal-Contaminated Soils. Environmental Pollution, vol 20. Springer, Dordrecht. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-007-1914-9_3

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