Emissions of Ammonia, Nitrous Oxide and Methane During the Management of Solid Manures

  • J. WebbEmail author
  • Sven G. Sommer
  • Thomas Kupper
  • Karin Groenestein
  • Nicholas J. Hutchings
  • Brigitte Eurich-Menden
  • Lena Rodhe
  • Thomas H. Misselbrook
  • Barbara Amon
Part of the Sustainable Agriculture Reviews book series (SARV, volume 8)


Organic manures arising from livestock production provide a source of plant nutrients when applied to agricultural land. However, only about 52% of the N excreted by livestock is estimated to be recycled as a plant nutrient. The ­greatest losses of N from livestock excreta and manures are as gaseous emissions. These emissions are in the form of ammonia (NH3), nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4). Ammonia forms particles in the atmosphere which reduce visibility and may also harm human health, and when deposited to land NH3 causes nutrient enrichment of soil. Nitrous oxide and CH4 contribute significantly to global warming and N2O can also cause the breakdown of the protective ozone layer in the upper atmosphere. We established a database of emissions from solid manures. Statistical analysis provided new information, focussing on developing emission factors, emission algorithms and also new understanding of emission patterns from solid manure. The review found that housing systems with deep litter emit more NH3 than tied stalls. This is likely to be because the emitting surface area in a tied stall is smaller. Laying hens emit more NH3 than broilers and reduced-emission housing systems for poultry, including the aviary system, can reduce NH3 emissions by between 50% and 80%. The greatest N2O-N emissions from buildings housing livestock were also from deep litter systems, but the amount of N2O-N was smaller than that of NH3-N by a factor of 15. Air exchange and temperature increase induced by aerobic decomposition during manure storage may greatly increase NH3 emission. Emissions of 0.25–0.30 of the total-N have been recorded from pig and cattle manure heaps undergoing aerobic decomposition. Increased density of manure during storage significantly decreased temperatures in manure heaps. Storing solid manures at high density also reduces air exchange which with the low temperature limits the formation and transfer of NH3 to the surface layers of the heap, reducing emissions. Most N2O emission estimates from cattle and pig manure have been between 0.001 and 0.009 of total-N. Emission of N2O from poultry manure tends to be small. Average unabated NH3 emissions following application of manure were 0.79, 0.63 and 0.40 of total ammoniacal-N (TAN) from cattle, pig and poultry manure respectively. The smaller emission from poultry manure is expected as hydrolysis of uric acid to urea may take many months and is often incomplete even after application, hence limiting the potential for NH3 emission. Manure incorporation within 4 h after application reduced emission on average by 32%, 92% and 85% for cattle, pig and poultry manure respectively. Reductions following incorporation within 24 h or more after application were 20%, 56% and 50% for cattle, pigs and poultry, respectively. Incorporation by disc or harrow reduced NH3 emissions less than incorporation by plough. Emissions of N2O following the application of cattle manure were 0.12 of TAN without incorporation after application and 0.073 TAN with incorporation after application. Conversely, emissions following application of pig and poultry manures were 0.003 and 0.001 TAN respectively without and 0.035 and 0.089 TAN respectively with incorporation after application.


Ammonia Methane Nitrous oxide Manures 



The authors wish to acknowledge support from: the Federal Office for the Environment (Switzerland), Danish Council for Strategic Research (DSF) under the research program “Strategic Research in Sustainable Energy and Environment” to the project “Clean and environmentally friendly animal waste technologies for fertilizer and energy production (Cleanwaste)”; the Dutch Ministry of agriculture, nature and food quality. We thank Laura Valli of CRPA (Italy) and Melynda Hassouna (INRA) for providing data for the study. We also thank Sabine Guesewell (Swiss College of Agriculture) for the statistical evaluation and Harald Menzi for discussion during preparation of the paper.


  1. Aarnink AJA (1997) Ammonia emission from houses for growing pigs as affected by pen design, indoor climate and behaviour. Thesis Wageningen University, IMAG DLO-report 97–03, ISBN 90-5406-151-0, Wageningen, 175 ppGoogle Scholar
  2. Akiyama H, Tsuruta H (2003) Nitrous oxide, nitric oxide, and nitrogen dioxide fluxes from soils after manure and urea application. J Environ Qual 32:423–431PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Amon B (1999) NH3-, N2O- und CH4-Emissionen aus der Festmistanbindehaltung für Milchvieh – Stall – Lagerung – Ausbringung. Dissertation. Forschungsbericht Agrartechnik 331. Universität für Bodenkultur, Institut für Land-, Umwelt und Energietechnik, WienGoogle Scholar
  4. Amon B, Amon T, Boxberger J, Alt C (2001) Emissions of NH3, N2O and CH4 from dairy cows housed in a farmyard manure tying stall (housing, manure storage, manure spreading). Nutr Cycl Agroecosyst 60:103–113CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Amon B, Amon T, Boxberger J (1998) Untersuchung der Ammoniakemissionen in der Landwirtschaft Österreichs zur Ermittlung der Reduktionspotentiale und Reduktionsmöglichkeiten. Institut für Land-, Umwelt- und Energietechnik (eds), Final Report, Forschungsprojekt L 883/64 des Bundesministeriums für Land- und Forstwirtschaft, Wien, 311 ppGoogle Scholar
  6. Amon B, Kryvoruchko V, Amon T, Zechmeister-Boltenstern S (2006) Methane, nitrous oxide and ammonia emissions during storage and after application of dairy cattle slurry and influence of slurry treatment. Agr Ecosyst Environ 112:153–162CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Aneja VP, Roelle PA, Murray GC, Southerland J, Erisman JW, Fowler D, Asman WAH, Patni N (2001) Atmospheric nitrogen compounds II: emissions, transport, transformation, deposition, and assessment. Atmos Environ 35:1903–1911CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Anon. (2000) Fertilizer recommendations for agricultural and horticultural crops. Ministry of Agriculture Fisheries and Food, Reference book 209, 7th edn. The Stationery Office, LondonGoogle Scholar
  9. Asteraki E, Pain BF, Chadwick DR (1998) Defra Project WA0618, Emissions from farm yard manure based systems for cattle. Final Report to Defra, London. North Wyke Research, Okehampton, pp 23Google Scholar
  10. Berges MGM, Crutzen PJ (1996) Estimates of global N2O emissions from cattle, pig and chicken manure, including a discussion of CH4 emissions. J Atmos Chem 24:241–269CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bishop PL, Godfrey C (1983) Nitrogen variations during sludge composting. BioCycle 24:34–39Google Scholar
  12. Bode MJC (1990) Research on the ammonia emission after application of manure: the effects of incorporation of dried chicken manure on bare soil. DLO Report 34506–2700Google Scholar
  13. Bouwman AF (1990) Soil and the greenhouse effect. Wiley, Chichester, 575 ppGoogle Scholar
  14. Bouwman AF (1996) Direct emission of nitrous oxide from agricultural soils. Nutr Cycl Agroecosys 46:53–70CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Bouwman AF, Van Vuuren D (1999) Global assessment of acidification and eutrophication of natural ecosystems, Rep. UNEP/DEIA and EW/TR.99-6; RIVM/4002001012, U.N. Environ. Programme, and Natl. Inst. for Public Health and the Environ., Nairobi/BilthovenGoogle Scholar
  16. Bruins MA, Hol JMG (1990) The ammonia emission after application of solid pig manure and mixed pig manure. IMAG-nota P-498Google Scholar
  17. Bruins MA, Huijsmans JFM (1989) The reduction of ammonia emissions after the application of pig manure on bare soil. IMAG-Report 225Google Scholar
  18. Brunekreef B, Holgate ST (2002) Air pollution and health. Lancet 360:1233–1242PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Burton CH, Sneath RW, Farrent JW (1993) Emissions of nitrogen oxide gases during aerobic treatment of animal slurry. Bioresour Technol 45:233–235CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Burton CH, Turner C (2003) Manure Management: Treatment Strategies for Sustainable Agriculture, 2nd edn. Silsoe Research Institute, SilsoeGoogle Scholar
  21. Cabrera ML, Chiang SC, Merka WC, Pancorbo OC, Thompson SA (1994) Pelletizing and soil-water effects on gaseous emissions from surface-applied poultry litter. Soil Sci Soc Am J 58:807–811CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Chadwick DR (2005) Emissions of ammonia, nitrous oxide and methane from cattle manure heaps: effect of compaction and covering. Atmos Environ 39:787–799CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Chadwick DR, Pain BF, Brookman SKE (2000) Nitrous oxide and methane emissions following application of animal manures to grassland. J Environ Qual 29:277–287CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Chadwick DR, Sneath RW, Phillips VR, Pain BF (1999) A UK inventory of nitrous oxide emissions from farmed livestock. Atmos Environ 33:3345–3354CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Chambers BJ, Smith KA, van der Weerden TJ (1997) Ammonia emissions following the land spreading of solid manures. In: Jarvis SC, Pain BF (eds) Gaseous nitrogen emissions from grasslands. CAB International, Wallingford, pp 275–280Google Scholar
  26. Christensen S, Ambus P, Arah JRM, Clayton H, Galle B, Griffith DWT, Hargreaves KJ, Klemedtsson L, Lind AM, Maag M, Scott A, Skiba U, Smith KA, Welling M, Wienhold FG (1996) Nitrous oxide emission from an agricultural field: comparison between measurements by flux chamber and micrometerological techniques. Atmos Environ 30:4183–4190CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Crutzen PJ (1981) Atmospheric chemical process of the oxides of nitrogen, including nitrous oxide. In: Delwiche J (ed) Denitrification, nitrification and nitrous oxide. Wiley, New York, pp 17–44Google Scholar
  28. Dämmgen U, Lüttich M, Döhler H, Eurich-Menden B, Osterburg B (2003) GAS-EM – a procedure to calculate gaseous emissions from agriculture. Landbauforschung Völkenrode 52:19–42Google Scholar
  29. Dämmgen U, Webb J (2006) The development of the EMEP/CORINAIR Guidebook with respect to the emissions of different C and N species from animal production. Agric Ecosyst Environ 112:241–248CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Dobbie KE, McTaggart IP, Smith KA (1998) Nitrous oxide emissions from intensive agricultural systems: variations between crops and seasons, key driving variables, and mean emission factors. J Geophys Res 104:26891–26899CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. EC (European Commission) (2001) Directive 2001/81/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 23 October 2001 on national emission ceilings for certain atmospheric pollutantsGoogle Scholar
  32. EMEP (2005) Joint EMEP/CORINAIR Emission inventory guidebook, 3rd edn., Oct 2002 (updated 2005) (
  33. Espagnol S, Hassouna M, Robin P, Levasseur P, Paillat JM (2006) Gaseous emissions (NH3, N2O, CH4) during the storage of pig manure, with and without turning over, coming from an accumulated litter. In : IFIP, INRA. 38ème Journées de la recherche porcine, 6 au 8 février 2007, Paris, [Online]. Paris: INRA, pp 41–48. Journées de la recherche porcine. 38, 2006-01-31/2006-02-02, Paris.
  34. Fangueiro D, Senbayram M, Trindade H, Chadwick D (2008) Cattle slurry treatment by screw press separation and chemically enhanced settling: effect on greenhouse gas emissions after land spreading and grass yield. Bioresour Technol 99:7132–7142PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Firestone MK, Davidson EA (1989) Microbiological basis of NO and N2O production and consumption in soil. In: Andreae MO, Schimel DS (eds) Exchange of trace gases between ecosystems and the atmosphere. Wiley, ChichesterGoogle Scholar
  36. Flechard CR, Ambus P, Skiba U, Rees RM, Hensen A, van Amstel A, Pol-van Dasselaar AV, Soussana JF, Jones M, Clifton-Brown J, Raschi A, Horvath L, Neftel A, Jocher M, Ammann C, Leifeld J, Fuhrer J, Calanca P, Thalman E, Pilegaard K, Di Marco C, Campbell C, Nemitz E, Hargreaves KJ, Levy PE, Ball BC, Jones SK, van de Bulk WCM, Groot T, Blom M, Domingues R, Kasper G, Allard V, Ceschia E, Cellier P, Laville P, Henault C, Bizouard F, Abdalla M, Williams M, Baronti S, Berretti F, Grosz B (2007) Effects of climate and management intensity on nitrous oxide emissions in grassland systems across Europe. Agr Ecosyst Environ 121:135–152CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Forshell LP (1993) Composting of cattle and pig manure. J Vet Med B 40:634–640CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Fukumoto Y, Osada T, Hanajima D, Haga K (2003) Patterns and quantities of NH3, N2O and CH4 emissions during swine manure composting without forced aeration – effects of compost pile scale. Bioresour Technol 89:109–114PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Génermont S, Cellier P (1997) A mechanistic method for estimating ammonia volatilization from slurry applied to bare soil. Agric For Meteorol 88:145–167CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Gordon R, Schuepp P (1994) Water-manure interactions on ammonia volatilization. Biol Fert Soils 18:237–240CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Graedel TE, Crutzen PJ (1993) Atmospheric change. An earth system perspective. W.H. Freeman & Company, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  42. Gregorich EG, Rochette P, Vandenbygaart AJ, Angers DA (2005) Greenhouse gas contributions of agricultural soils and potential mitigation practices in Eastern Canada. Soil Till Res 83:53–72CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Groenestein CM (2006) Environmental aspects of improving sow welfare with group housing and straw bedding. PhD Thesis, Wageningen University, ISBN 90-8585-089-4Google Scholar
  44. Groenestein CM, Monteny GJ, den Hartog LA, Metz JHM (2009) Effect of straw bedding in pig housing on emissions of greenhouse gases. In: Fifth international symposium on non-CO2 greenhouse gases (NCGG-5) science, Reduction Policy and Implementation, Wageningen, June 30–July 3, 2009Google Scholar
  45. Groenestein CM, van Faassen HG (1996) Volatilization of ammonia, nitrous oxide and nitric oxide in deep-litter systems for fattening pigs. J Agr Eng Res 65:269–274CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Groenwold JG, Oudendag D, Luesink HH, Cotteleer G, Vrolijk H (2002) Het Mest- en Ammoniakmodel. LEI, Den Haag, Rapport 8.02.03 (In Dutch)Google Scholar
  47. Groot Koerkamp PWG, Kroodsma W (2000) Environmental benefits of the burning of poultry manure. IMAG report 2000–2004Google Scholar
  48. Hansen MN (2004) Influence of storage of deep litter manure on ammonia loss and uniformity of mass and nutrient distribution following land spreading. Biosyst Eng 87:99–107CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Hansen MN, Henriksen K, Sommer SG (2007) Observations of production and emission of greenhouse gases and ammonia during storage of solids separated from pig slurry: effects of covering. Atmos Environ 40:4172–4181CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Hansen RC, Keener HM, Hoitink HAJ (1989) Poultry manure composting. An exploratory study. Trans ASAE 32:2151–2158Google Scholar
  51. Heil GW, Diemont WH (1983) Raised nutrient levels change heathland into grassland. Vegetation 53:113–120CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Hellmann B, Zelles L, Palojärvi A, Bai Q (1997) Emission of climate-relevant trace gases and succession of microbial communities during open-windrow composting. Appl Environ Microbol 63:1011–1018Google Scholar
  53. Hol JMG (1992) Research on the ammonia emission after application of manure: solid, liquid manure. DLO Report 34506–42000Google Scholar
  54. Hutchings NJ, Sommer SG, Andersen JM, Asman WAH (2001) A detailed ammonia emission inventory for Denmark. Atmos Environ 35:1959–1968CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Husted S (1994) Seasonal variation in methane emission from stored slurry and solid manures. J Environ Qual 23:585–592CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. IPCC (2006) Chapter 11: N2O emissions from managed soils, and CO2 emissions from lime and urea application. 2006 IPCC guidelines for national greenhouse gas inventories. Volume 4: Agriculture, forestry and other land useGoogle Scholar
  57. Karlsson S, Salomon E (2002) Deep litter manure to spring cereals – manure properties and ammonia emissions. Poster presented at the 10th international conference of the FAO European System of Cooperative Research Networks in Agriculture (ESCORENA) – Recycling of Agricultural, Municipal and Industrial Residues in Agriculture Network (RAMIRAN), Strbske Pleso, High Tatras, 1418 May 2002. Report (paper) in Conference ProceedingsGoogle Scholar
  58. Karlsson S, Jeppson KH (1995) Djupströbädd i stall och mellanlager (Deep litter in livestock buildings and field storage). JTI Report 204, Swedish Institute of Agricultural Eng., UltunaGoogle Scholar
  59. Kemppainen E (1987) Ammonia binding capacity of peat, straw, sawdust and cutter shavings. Annales Agriculturae Fenniae 26:89–94Google Scholar
  60. Kirchmann H, Lundvall A (1993) Relationship between N immobilization and volatile fatty acids in soil after application of pig and cattle slurry. Biol Fert Soils 15:161–164CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Kirchmann H, Witter E (1989) Ammonia volatilization during aerobic and anaerobic manure decomposition. Plant Soil 115:35–41CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Kosch R (2003) Einfluss der Festmistaufbereitung und –anwendung auf die Stickstoffflüsse im ökologisch wirtschaftenden Futterbaubetrieb. PhD thesis, Göttinger Agrarwissenschaftliche Beiträge, Band 12, 108 pp (in German)Google Scholar
  63. Kroodsma W, Scholtens R, Huis J (1988) Ammonia emission from poultry housing systems. In: Nielsen VC, Voorburg JH, L’Hermite P (eds) Volatile emissions from livestock farming and sewage operations. Elsevier Applied Science, London/New York, pp 152–161Google Scholar
  64. Kupper T, Bonjour C, Achermann B, Rihm B, Zaucker F, Nyfeler-Brunner A, Leuenberger C, Menzi H (2010) Ammonia emissions for Switzerland: revised calculation 1990 to 2007. Previsions until 2020. Report in German with summary in English. Bundesamt für Umwelt (BAFU), Abteilung Luftreinhaltung und NIS, Sektion Luftqualität, 3003 Bern. pp 79. (Oct 2010)
  65. Laville P, Jambert C, Cellier P, Delmas R (1999) Nitrous oxide fluxes from a fertilised maize crop using micrometeorological and chamber methods. Agr Forest Meteorol 96:19–38CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Loro PJ, Bergstrom DW, Beauchamp EG (1997) Intensity and duration of denitrification following application of manure and fertilizer to soil. J Environ Qual 26:706–713CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Malgeryd J (1996) Åtgärder för att minska ammoniakemissionerna vid spridning av stallgödsel. JTI-rapport Lantbruk & Industri nr 229, Jordbrukstekniska institutet, Uppsala (in Swedish)Google Scholar
  68. Malgeryd J (1998) Technical measures to reduce ammonia losses after spreading of animal manure. Nutr Cycl Agroecosys 51:51–57CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Martins O, Dewes T (1992) Loss of nitrogenous compounds during composting of animal wastes. Bioresour Technol 42:103–111CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Mazzotta V, Bonazzi G, Fabbri C, Valli L (2003) Ammonia and greenhouse gas emission of poultry farms: emission factors and reduction techniques. ENEA, Rome, 42 pp (in Italian)Google Scholar
  71. Menzi H, Katz P, Frick R, Fahrni M, Keller M (1997a) Ammonia emissions following the application of solid manure to grassland. In: Jarvis SC, Pain BF (eds) Gaseous nitrogen emissions from grasslands. CAB International, Wallingford, pp 265–274Google Scholar
  72. Menzi H, Keller M, Katz P, Fahrni M, Neftel A (1997b) Ammoniakverluste nach der Anwendung von Mist. Agrarforschung 4:328–331 (in German)Google Scholar
  73. Misselbrook TH, Nicholson FA, Chambers BJ (2005a) Predicting ammonia losses following the application of livestock manure to land. Bioresour Technol 96:159–168PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Misselbrook TH, Nicholson FA, Chambers BJ, Johnson RA (2005b) Measuring ammonia emissions from land applied manure: an intercomparison of commonly used samplers and techniques. Environ Pollut 135:389–397PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Monteny GJ (2000) Modelling of ammonia emissions from dairy cow houses. Thesis Wageningen University, Wageningen 156 pp. ISBN 90-5808-348-9Google Scholar
  76. Mosquera J, Hol JMG, Hofschreuder P (2005a) Gaseous emission from dairy cattle farm (spruits family). Storage of manure outside the animal house. J. Agrotechnologie and food innovations report 556Google Scholar
  77. Mosquera J, Hofschreuder P, Hol JMG (2005b) Research on the emission of a natural ventilated animal house for dairy cattle: storage of manure outside the animal house. Agrotechnologie and food innovations report 325Google Scholar
  78. Muck RE, Guest RW, Richards BK (1984) Effects of manure storage design on nitrogen conservation. Agr Wastes 10:205–220CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Muck RE, Steenhuis TS (1982) Nitrogen losses from manure storages. Agr Wastes 4:41–54CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Mulder EM (1992a) Research on the ammonia emission after application of manure: ammonia emission after application of deep litter and FYM on bare soil. DLO Report 34506-4100bGoogle Scholar
  81. Mulder EM (1992b) Research on the ammonia emission after application of manure: ammonia emission after application of deep litter on grass. DLO Report 34506-4100aGoogle Scholar
  82. Mulder EM, Hol JMG (1993) Tunnel research on the application of manure: dried chicken manure and chicken manure chips on bare soil. DLO Report 34506–6800Google Scholar
  83. Mulder EM, Huijsmans JFM (1994) Reduction of ammonia emission after application of manure: overview measurements DLO 1990–1993. ISSN: 0926–7085Google Scholar
  84. Nicholson FA, Smith KA, Chambers BJ (2002) Defra project WA0712, Management techniques to minimise ammonia losses during storage and land spreading of poultry manure. Final report to Defra, London. ADAS Gleadthorpe Research Centre. Mansfield, Notts. NG20 9PF pp 22Google Scholar
  85. Oenema O, Oudendag D, Velthof GL (2007) Nutrient losses from manure management in the European Union. Livest Sci 112:261–272CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Osada T, Sommer SG, Dahl P, Rom HB (2001) Gaseous emission and changes in nutrient composition during deep litter composting. Acta Agric Scandin Sect B Soil Plant Sci 51:137–142Google Scholar
  87. Pain BF, Phillips VR, Huijsmans JFM, Klarenbeek JV (1991) Anglo-Dutch experiments on odour and ammonia emissions following the spreading of piggery wastes on arable land. Research Report 88–2, IMAG, Wageningen, 28 ppGoogle Scholar
  88. Pape L, Ammann C, Nyfeler-Brunner A, Spirig C, Hens K, Meixner FX (2009) An automated dynamic chamber system for surface exchange measurement of non-reactive and reactive trace gases of grassland ecosystems. Biogeosciences 6:405–429CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Parkinson R, Gibbs P, Burchett S, Misselbrook T (2004) Effect of turning regime and seasonal weather conditions on nitrogen and phosphorus losses during aerobic composting of cattle manure. Bioresour Technol 91:171–178PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Petersen SO, Lind AM, Sommer SG (1998) Nitrogen and organic matter losses during storage of cattle and pig manure. J Agr Sci 130:69–79CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Petersen SO, Amon B, Gattinger A (2005) Methane oxidation in slurry storage surface crusts. J Environ Qual 34:455–461PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Pitcairn CER, Leith ID, Sheppard LJ, Sutton MA, Fowler D, Munro RC, Tang S, Wilson D (1998) The relationship between nitrogen deposition, species composition and foliar N concentrations in woodland flora in the vicinity of intensive livestock farms. Environ Pollut 102(S1):41–48, Nitrogen Special IssueCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Poth M, Focht DD (1985) N-15 kinetic-analysis of N2O production by nitrosomonas-europaea – and examination of nitrifier denitrification. Appl Environ Microb 49:1134–1141Google Scholar
  94. Poulsen T, Moldrup P (2007) Air permeability of compost as related to bulk density and volumetric air content. Waste Manag Res 25:343–351PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Regione Emilia-Romagna (2004) Best available techniques for the reduction of the emissions from livestock production. Final technical report (in Italian)Google Scholar
  96. Regione Emilia-Romagna (2006) Poultry farms for meat production: emissions prevention and reduction with respect of animal welfare. Final technical report (in Italian)Google Scholar
  97. Regione Emilia-Romagna (2007) Innovative techniques for measurements and Best Available Techniques (BAT) for the reduction of the emissions in the livestock farms. Final technical report (in Italian)Google Scholar
  98. Reidy B, Dämmgen U, Döhler H, Eurich-Menden B, van Evert FK, Hutchings NJ, Luesink HH, Menzi H, Misselbrook TH, Monteny G-J, Webb J (2007) Comparison of models used for national agricultural ammonia emission inventories in Europe: liquid manure systems. Atmos Environ 42:3452–3464CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Reidy B, Rhim B, Menzi H (2008) A new Swiss inventory of ammonia emissions from agriculture based on a survey on farm and manure management and farm-specific model calculations. Atmos Environ 42:3266–3276CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Reidy B, Webb J, Monteny G-J, Misselbrook TH, Menzi H, Luesink HH, Hutchings NJ, Eurich-Menden B, Döhler H, Dämmgen U (2009) Comparison of models used for national agricultural ammonia emission inventories in Europe: litter-based manure systems. Atmos Environ 43:1632–1640CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Renard JJ, Calidonna SE, Henley MV (2004) Fate of ammonia in the atmosphere – a review for applicability to hazardous releases. J Hazard Mater 108:29–60PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Rochette P, Angers DA, Chantigny MH, Gagnon B, Bertrand N (2008) N2O fluxes in soils of contrasting textures fertilized with liquid and solid dairy cattle manures. Can J Soil Sci 88:175–187CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Rohde L, Karlsson S (2002) Ammonia emissions from broiler manure – influence of storage and spreading method. Biosyst Eng 82:455–462CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Rodhe L, Salomon E, Rammer C (1996) Spreading of farmyard manure to ley with different methods. Yield and silage quality. Swed J Agr Res 26:43–51Google Scholar
  105. Sagoo E, Williams JR, Chambers BJ, Chadwick DR (2006) Defra project WA0716, management techniques to minimise ammonia emissions from solid manures. Final report to Defra, London. ADAS Gleadthorpe Research Centre. Mansfield, Notts. NG20 9PF pp 35Google Scholar
  106. Sagoo E, Williams JR, Chambers BJ, Boyles LO, Matthews R, Chadwick DR (2007) Integrated management practices to minimise losses and maximise the crop nitrogen value of broiler litter. Biosyst Eng 97:512–519CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Sannö J-O, Cederberg C, Gustafsson G, Hultgren J, Jeppsson K-H, Nadeau E (2003) LIFE ammonia. Sustainable milk production through reduction of on-farm ammonia losses. Report no. 5, Department of Animal Environment and Health, Swedish University of agricultural Sciences (In Swedish, English summary)Google Scholar
  108. Shah SB, Westerman PW, Arogo J (2006) Measuring ammonia concentrations and emissions from agricultural land and liquid surfaces: a review. J Air Waste Manag Assoc 56:945–960PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Smith KA, Ball T, Conen F, Dobbie KE, Massheder J, Rey A (2003) Exchange of greenhouse gases between soil and atmosphere: interactions of soil physical factors and biological processes. Eur J Soil Sci 54:779–791CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Sommer SG (2001) Effect of composting on nutrient loss and nitrogen availability of cattle deep litter. Eur J Agron 14:123–133CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Sommer SG, Christensen BT (1990) NH3 emission from solid manure and raw, fermented and separated slurry after surface application, injection, incorporation into the soil and irrigation. Tidsskr Planteavl 94:407–417 (in Danish)Google Scholar
  112. Sommer SG, Dahl P (1999) Emission of ammonia, nitrous oxide, methane and carbon dioxide during composting of deep litter. J Agr Eng 74:145–153CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Sommer SG, Hutchings NJ (2001) Ammonia emission from field applied manure and its reduction—invited paper. Eur J Agron 15:1–15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Sommer S-G, Møller HB (2000) Emission of greenhouse gases during composting of deep litter from pig production - effect of straw content. J Agr Sci 134:327–335CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Sommer SG, Zhang GQ, Bannink A, Chadwick D, Hutchings NJ, Misselbrook T, Menzi H, Ji-Qin N, Oenema O, Webb J, Monteny G-J (2006) Algorithms determining ammonia emission from livestock houses and manure stores. Adv Agron 89:261–335CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Svensson L (1994) A new dynamic chamber technique for measuring ammonia emissions from land-spread manure and fertilizers. Act Agric Scand Sec B – Plant Soil Sci 44:35–46Google Scholar
  117. Szanto GL, Hamelers HVM, Rulkens WH, Veeken AHM (2007) NH3, N2O and CH4 emissions during passively aerated composting of straw-rich pig manure. Bioresour Technol 98:2659–2670PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Tam NFY, Tiquia SM (1999) Nitrogen transformation during co-composting of spent pig manure, sawdust litter and sludge under forced-aerated system. Environ Technol 20:259–267CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Thomsen IK, Olesen JE (2000) C and N mineralization of composted and anaerobically stored ruminant manure in differently textured soils. J Agr Sci 135:151–159CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Thorman RE, Chadwick DR, Harrison R, Boyles LO, Matthews R (2007) The effect on N2O emissions of storage conditions and rapid incorporation of pig and cattle farmyard manure into tillage land. Biosyst Eng 97:501–511CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. UNECE (1999) Protocol to the 1979 convention on long-range transboundary air pollution to abate acidification, eutrophication and ground-level ozone. United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE), GenevaGoogle Scholar
  122. Van Evert F, van der Meer H, Berge H, Rutgers B, Schut T, Ketelaars J (2003) FARMMIN: modeling crop-livestock nutrient flows. Agron. Abstr. 2003, ASA/CSSA/SSSA, MadisonGoogle Scholar
  123. Vavilin VA, Lokshina LY, Rytov SV, Kotsyurbenko OR, Nozhevnikova AN (1998) Modelling low-temperature methane production from cattle manure by an acclimated microbial community. Bioresour Technol 63:159–171CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Veeken AHM, de Wilde V, Szanto G, Hamelers HVM (2002) Passively aerated composting of straw-rich organic pig manure. In: Insam H, Riddech N (eds) Microbiology of composting. Springer, Berlin, pp 607–621Google Scholar
  125. Webb J, Anthony S, Yamulki S (2006) Validating the Mavis model for optimizing incorporation of litter-based manures to reduce ammonia emissions. Trans Am Soc Agr Biol Eng 49:1905–1913Google Scholar
  126. Webb J, Misselbrook TH (2004) A mass-flow model of ammonia emissions from UK livestock production. Atmos Environ 38:2163–2176CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Webb J, Chadwick D, Ellis S (2004) Emissions of ammonia and nitrous oxide following incorporation into the soil of farmyard manures stored at different densities. Nutr Cycl Agroecosyst 70:67–76CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Williams JR, Chambers BJ, Chadwick DR, Balsdon SL (2003) Defra project WA0632, Ammonia fluxes within solid and liquid manure management systems. Final report to Defra, London. ADAS Gleadthorpe Research Centre. Mansfield, Notts. NG20 9PF, pp 33Google Scholar
  129. Witter E, Lopez-Real J (1988) Nitrogen losses during the composting of sewage sludges, and the effectiveness of clay soil, zeolite, and compost in adsorbing the volatilized ammonia. Biol Wastes 23:279–294CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Wulf S, Maeting M, Clemens J (2002) Application technique and slurry co-fermentation effects on ammonia, nitrous oxide, and methane emissions after spreading: II. Greenhouse gas emissions. J Environ Qual 31:1795–1801PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Yamulki S (2006) Effect of straw addition on nitrous oxide and methane emissions from stored farmyard manures. Agr Ecosyst Environ 112:140–145CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. Webb
    • 1
    Email author
  • Sven G. Sommer
    • 2
  • Thomas Kupper
    • 3
  • Karin Groenestein
    • 4
  • Nicholas J. Hutchings
    • 5
  • Brigitte Eurich-Menden
    • 6
  • Lena Rodhe
    • 7
  • Thomas H. Misselbrook
    • 8
  • Barbara Amon
    • 9
  1. 1.AEADidcotUK
  2. 2.Department of Chemical Engineering, Biotechnology and Environmental Technology, Faculty of EngineeringUniversity of Southern DenmarkOdenseDenmark
  3. 3.Swiss College of AgricultureZollikofenSwitzerland
  4. 4.Animal Sciences GroupWageningen University and Research CentreAA WageningenThe Netherlands
  5. 5.Department of Agroecology and EnvironmentResearch Centre FoulumTjeleDenmark
  6. 6.Association for Technology and Structures in Agriculture (KTBL)DarmstadtGermany
  7. 7.JTI – Swedish Institute of Agricultural and Environmental EngineeringUppsalaSweden
  8. 8.North Wyke ResearchDevonUK
  9. 9.Department of Sustainable Agricultural Systems, Division of Agricultural EngineeringUniversity of Natural Resources and Applied Life SciencesViennaAustria

Personalised recommendations