Advertisement

Demographic Structure and Process in Rural China

  • Dudley L. Poston
  • Mary Ann Davis
  • Danielle Xiaodan Deng
Chapter
Part of the International Handbooks of Population book series (IHOP, volume 3)

Abstract

This chapter covers the major issues of rural demography in the People’s Republic of China. We first provide some perspective for our discussions by presenting an overview of China, its history and recent emergence as a world power, followed by a short discussion of its demography. We then cover the thorny issue of the definition in China of rurality, followed by a discussion of the changing nature of the rural-urban population distribution in China since 1949. We next consider rural-urban socioeconomic disparities, the age and sex structures of rural and urban China, and then marital status. Next, we review key issues pertaining to fertility, mortality, and migration in rural and urban China, and finally, we assess the situation of the minority nationalities in rural China.

Keywords

Total Fertility Rate Qing Dynasty Chinese Communist Party Crude Birth Rate Hukou System 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Aird, J. S. (1972). Population policy and demographic prospects in the People’s Republic of China. In People’s Republic of China: An Economic Assessment, A Compendium of Papers Submitted to the Joint Economic Committee, Congress of the United States, 18 May (92nd Congress, 2nd Session). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.Google Scholar
  2. Ashton, B., Hill, K., Piazza, A., & Zeitz, R. (1984). Famine in China, 1958–61. Population and Development Review, 10(4), 613–645.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Banister, J. (1984). An analysis of recent data on the population of China. Population and Development Review, 10(2), 241–271.Google Scholar
  4. Banister, J. (1987). China’s changing population. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  5. Banister, J., & Hill, K. (2004). Mortality in China 1964–2000. Population Studies, 58, 55–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Becker, J. (1998). Hungry ghosts: Mao’s secret famine. New York: Henry Holt and Company.Google Scholar
  7. Bogue, D. J. (1969). Principles of demography. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  8. Central Intelligence Agency. (2007). The CIA World Factbook. New York: Skyhorse Publishing.Google Scholar
  9. Chan, K. W., & Buckingham, W. (2008). Is China abolishing the Hukou system? The China Quarterly, 195, 582–606.Google Scholar
  10. Chandler, T. (1987). Four thousand years of urban growth: An historical census. Lewiston, NY: Edwin Mellen Press.Google Scholar
  11. Chandler, T., & Fox, G. (1974). Three thousand years of urban growth. New York: Academic.Google Scholar
  12. Chen, S. (1984). Fertility of women during the 42-year period from 1940 to 1981. In China Population Information Center, Analysis on China’s National One-per-Thousand Sampling Survey (pp. 32–58). Beijing: China Population Information Center.Google Scholar
  13. China Statistics Press. (2005). The China statistical yearbook 2005. Beijing, China: China Statistics Press. Retrieved November 1, 2010, from http://www.stats.gov.cn/tjsj/ndsj/2005/indexee.htm
  14. China Statistical Yearbooks Database. (1998). The China statistical yearbook 1997. Retrieved November 1, 2010, from http://tongji.cnki.net/overseas/engnavi/YearBook.aspx?id=N2006042082&floor=1###
  15. China Statistical Yearbooks Database. (2007). The China statistical yearbook 2007. Retrieved November 1, 2010, from http://www.stats.gov.cn/tjsj/ndsj/2007/indexeh.htm
  16. Coale, A. J. (1984). Rapid population change in China, 1952–1982. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.Google Scholar
  17. Dikotter, F. (2010). Mao’s great famine: The history of China’s most devastating catastrophe, 1958–1962. New Yor: Walker and Company.Google Scholar
  18. Fairbank, J. K., & Goldman, M. (2006). China: A new history (2nd enlarged ed.). Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press.Google Scholar
  19. Fan, S., Chan-Kang, C., & Mukherjee, A. (2005). Rural and urban dynamics and poverty: Evidence from China and India. Washington, DC: International Food Policy Research Institute, Discussion Paper 196. Retrieved January 19, 2010, from http://www.ifpri.org/sites/default/files/publications/fcndp196.pdf Google Scholar
  20. Farris, D. N., He, L., Iwinska-Nowak, A., & Poston, D. L., Jr. (forthcoming). Poverty in China. In J. Singelmann & M. Lee (Eds.), International handbook of poverty populations. New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  21. Goldstein, S. (1990). Urbanization in China, 1982–1987: Effect of migration and reclassification. Population and Development Review, 16, 673–701.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Heilig, G. K. (1999). China Food: Can China Feed Itself? Laxenburg, Austria: International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis.Google Scholar
  23. Heilig, G. K. (2003). Rural development or sustainable development in China: Is China’s rural development sustainable? Paper presented at “ECOLINK Workshop: Ecosites, EcoCenters and the Implementation of European Union Environment and Sustainable Development Policies.” Montpellier, France, 18–19 September.Google Scholar
  24. Horiuchi, S., & Preston, S. H. (1988). Age-specific growth rates: The legacy of past population dynamics. Demography, 25, 429–441.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Hsu, M. L. (1985). Growth and control of population in China: The urban-rural contrast. Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 75, 241–257.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Keyfitz, N. (1965). Age distribution as a challenge to development. American Journal of Sociology, 70, 659–668.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Keyfitz, N., & Flieger, W. (1971). Population: Facts and methods of demography. San Francisco: W.H. Freeman and Company.Google Scholar
  28. Liang, Z. (2001). Demography of illicit emigration from China: A sending country’s perspective. Sociological Forum, 16, 677–701.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Liang, Z., & Ma, Z. (2004). China’s floating population: New evidence from the 2000 census. Population and Development Review, 30, 467–488.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Massey, D. S. (1995). The new immigration and ethnicity in the United States. Population and Development Review, 21, 631–652.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Orleans, L. A. 1972. Every fifth child: The population of China. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  32. Poston, D. L., Jr. (1986). Patterns of contraceptive use in China. Studies in Family Planning, 17, 217–227.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Poston, D. L., Jr. (1992). China in 1990. In D. L. Poston, Jr. & D. Yaukey (Eds.), The population of modern China (pp. 699–718). New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  34. Poston, D. L., Jr. (2005). Age and sex. In D. L. Poston, Jr. & M. Micklin (Eds.), Handbook of population (pp. 19–58). New York: Springer Publishers.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Poston, D. L., Jr., & Bouvier, L. F. (2010). Population and society: An introduction to demography. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  36. Poston, D. L., Jr., Chang, Y., Deng, X., & Venegas, M. (forthcoming). The demography of China’s minority nationalities. In R. Saenz, N. Rodriguez, & D. G. Embrick (Eds.), The international handbook of the demography of race and ethnicity. New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  37. Poston, D. L., Jr., & Duan, C. C. (2000). The current and projected distribution of the elderly and eldercare in the people’s Republic of China. Journal of Family Issues, 21, 714–732.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Poston, D. L., Jr., Gu, B., & Luo, H. (2004). The effects of the fertility and mortality transitions on the elderly and eldercare in China, and Shanghai, Beijing, and Tianjin. The Journal of Gerontology, 8, 126–166.Google Scholar
  39. Poston, D. L., Jr., Mao, M. X., & Yu, M.-Y. (1994). The global distribution of the overseas Chinese around 1990. Population and Development Review, 20, 631–645.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Poston, D. L., Jr., & Shu, J. (1987). The demographic and socioeconomic composition of the major minority groups in China. Population and Development Review, 13, 703–722.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Poston, D. L., Jr., Tian, Y., & Jia, Z. (1990). The urban hierarchy of China. In B. D. H. Doan (Ed.), Urbanization and geographical distribution of population (pp. 100–130). Pusan, Korea: Social Survey Research Center, Pusan National University.Google Scholar
  42. Poston, D. L., Jr., & Zhang, L. (2008). Ecological analyses of permanent and temporary migration streams in China in the 1990s. Population Research and Policy Review, 27, 689–712.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Roberts, K. D. (1997). China’s ‘tidal wave’ of migrant labor: What can we learn from Mexican undocumented migration to the United States? International Migration Review, 31, 249–293.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Sardon, J.-P. (1985). Planification Familiale et Pratiques Contraceptives en Chine. Population, 40, 774–779.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Solinger, D. J. (1999). Contesting citizenship in urban China: Peasant migrants, the state, and the logic of the market. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  46. South, S. J., & Trent, K. (1988). Sex ratios and women’s roles: A cross-national analysis. American Journal of Sociology, 93, 1096–1115.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Tien, H. Y. (1983). China: Demographic billionaire. Population Bulletin, 38(2), 1–42.Google Scholar
  48. Tien, H. Y. (1991). China’s strategic demographic initiative. New York: Praeger Publications.Google Scholar
  49. Trinh, T. (2006). China’s pension system caught between mounting legacies and unfavourable demographics. Deutsche Bank Research: Special China Issue, 1–24. Retrieved January 20, 2010, from http://www.dbresearch.de/PROD/DBR_INTERNET_DEPROD/PROD0000000000196025.pdf
  50. United Nations. (1980). Patterns of urban and rural population growth. New York: United Nations.Google Scholar
  51. United Nations. (2007). World urbanization prospects: The 2007 revision population database. Retrieved May 5, 2010, from http://esa.un.org/unup/
  52. World Bank. (1997). China 2020: Sharing rising incomes: Disparities in China. Washington, DC: The World Bank.Google Scholar
  53. Wu, C., & Wang, L. (2004). Contribution of population control in creating opportunities for China arising from fertility decline should not be neglected. Paper Presented at the International Symposium on the 2000 Population Census of China, Beijing, April.Google Scholar
  54. Yang, X. (1994). Urban temporary out-migration under economic reforms: Who moves and for what reasons? Population Research and Policy Review, 13, 83–100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Yang, X. (1996). Labor force characteristics and labor force migration in China. In The U.S. Department of Labor, Changes in China’s labor market: Implications for the future (pp. 13–44). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Labor.Google Scholar
  56. You, H. X., & Poston, D. L., Jr. (2004). Are floating migrants in China “Child bearing guerillas?”: An analysis of floating migration and fertility. Asian and Pacific Migration Journal, 13(4), 405–422.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Dudley L. Poston
    • 1
  • Mary Ann Davis
    • 2
  • Danielle Xiaodan Deng
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of SociologyTexas A&M UniversityCollege StationUSA
  2. 2.Department of SociologySam Houston State UniversityHuntsvilleUSA

Personalised recommendations