The Cochlear Implant Controversy: Lessons Learned for Using Anticipatory Governance to Address Societal Concerns of Nano-scale Neural Interface Technologies
A shortcoming of public policy, according to Jeffery Greene (2005), is that it tends to be reactive and not proactive. That is to say, public policies tend towards addressing looming and existent public problems rather than preventing or foreseeing and circumventing future public problems. While the “reactive” nature of public policy might be contested in some scholarly or professional circles it is safe to say that the prevailing public policy making structures in modern democracies are often more inclined to respond to public problems rather than attempt to anticipate, circumvent, or prevent them.
KeywordsCochlear Implant Deaf Child Deaf People Deaf Community Interface Technology
- Advanced Bionics. 2010. Your journey to hearing. http://www.advancedbionics.com/CMS/Your-Journey-to-Hearing/FAQ.aspx. Accessed Oct 2010.
- BrainGate. 2010a. Corporate website of the BrainGate Company. http://www.braingate.com/. Accessed Oct 2010.
- BrainGate. 2010b. Corporate website of the BrainGate Company. http://www.braingate.com/thought.html. Accessed Oct 2010.
- Chorost, M. 2005. Rebuilt: How becoming part computer made me more human. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.Google Scholar
- Cozzens, Susan E., and Jameson M. Wetmore. 2010. Equity. In Encyclopedia of nanotechnology in society, ed. D. Guston. Thousand Oaks: Sage.Google Scholar
- FDA—United States Food and Drug Administration. 2003. Public health notifications. http://www.fda.gov/MedicalDevices/Safety/AlertsandNotices/PublicHealthNotifications/ucm064526.htm. Accessed Oct 2010.
- FDA—United States Food and Drug Administration. 2009a. Information on cochlear implants. http://www.fda.gov/MedicalDevices/ProductsandMedicalProcedures/ImplantsandProsthetics/CochlearImplants/ucm062823.htm. Accessed Nov 2009.
- FDA—United States Food and Drug Administration. 2009b. Information on cochlear implants. http://www.fda.gov/MedicalDevices/ProductsandMedicalProcedures/ImplantsandProsthetics/CochlearImplants/ucm062892.htm. Accessed Oct 2010.
- FDA—United States Food and Drug Administration. 2010. Information on cochlear implants. http://www.fda.gov/MedicalDevices/ProductsandMedicalProcedures/ImplantsandProsthetics/CochlearImplants/ucm062843.htm. Accessed Oct 2010.
- Garber, S., M.S. Ridgely, M. Bradley, and K.W. Chin. 2002. Payment under public and private insurance and access to cochlear implants. Archives of Otolaryngology – Head and Neck Surgery 128(10): 1145–1152.Google Scholar
- Greene, Jeffery D. 2005. Public administration in the new century: A concise introduction. Belmont: Thomson Wadsworth.Google Scholar
- Guston, David H. 2007. Toward anticipatory governance. http://nanohub.org/resources/3270.
- Guston, David H., John Parsi, and Justin Tosi. 2007. Anticipating the ethical and political challenges of human nanotechnologies. In Nanoethics: The ethical and social implications of nanotechnology. Hoboken: Wiley.Google Scholar
- Ladd, P. 2003. Understanding deaf culture: In Search of deafhood. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.Google Scholar
- National Association of the Deaf. 2000. NAD position statement on cochlear implants. http://www.nad.org/issues/technology/assistive-listening/cochlear-implants. Accessed Oct 2010.
- National Nanotechnology Initiative. 2007. Strategic plan 2007. Washington, DC: Committee on Technology/National Science and Technology Council.Google Scholar
- NIDCD—National Institute of Deafness and other Communication Disorders. 2009. Primer on cochlear implants. http://www.nidcd.hig.gov/health/hearing/coch.asp. Accessed Sept 2009.
- PBS—Public Broadcasting System. 2010. The sound and fury: About the film. http://www.pbs.org/wnet/soundandfury/film/index.html. Accessed Oct 2010.
- Roco, M.C., and W.S. Bainbridge. 2001. Societal implication of nanoscience and nanotechnology. Boston: Kluwer Academic.Google Scholar
- Schauer, F. 2010. Neuroscience, lie-detection, and the law: Contrary to the prevailing view, the suitability of brain-based lie-detection for courtroom or forensic use should be determined according to legal and not scientific standards. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 14(3): 101–103.MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Van de Ven, A.H., and R. Garud. 1993. Innovation and industry development: The case of cochlear implants. Research on Technological Innovation, Management and Policy 5: 1–46.Google Scholar
- Weinberg, A. 2005. Pediatric cochlear implants: The great debate. Penn Bioethics Journal 1(1): 1–4.Google Scholar