Privatization and Collective Stewardship of Water Resources: Case Studies
Zimbabwe instituted a series of water reforms in the 1990s on the basis of the four Dublin Principles for Integrated Water Resource Management. A new parastatal institution, the Zimbabwe National Water Authority (ZINWA), was formed to co-manage Zimbabwe’s waters with more participatory institutions. The president of Zimbabwe remained the owner of the national waters; ZINWA became their manager. The longstanding distinction between primary or free water (water used by rural household use and in small-scale irrigation) and commercial water (water used for commercial purposes whose use was subject to fees) remained. In urban areas, ZINWA was to supply raw water that would then be purified and delivered for human use, and treated before being returned to rivers.
KeywordsWater Resource Integrate Water Resource Management Land Reform Water Governance Water Trading
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