Advertisement

Trigonella foenum-graecum

  • T. K. Lim
Chapter

Abstract

The exact origin of fenugreek is difficult to ascertain as the plant has been cultivated since antiquity, about 4,000 BC. The plant is probably indigenous to eastern Mediterranean, West Asia and India. It has been grown as a traditional minor pulse crop in the Mediterranean area, Near and Middle East countries, India, NE Africa (Ethiopia), Arabia. It is grown in small scale in Europe, North America, Latin America and China.

Keywords

Aberrant Crypt Focus Antiplasmodial Activity Soluble Dietary Fibre Steroidal Saponin Fenugreek Seed 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Selected References

  1. Abdel-Barry JA, Abdel-Hassan IA, Al-Hakiem MH (1997) Hypoglycaemic and antihyperglycaemic effects of Trigonella foenum-graecum leaf in normal and alloxan induced diabetic rats. J Ethnopharmacol 58(3):149–155PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Abdel-Barry JA, Al-Hakiem MH (2000) Acute intraperitoneal and oral toxicity of the leaf glycosidic extract of Trigonella foenum-graecum in mice. J Ethnopharmacol 70(1):65–68PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ahmadiani A, Javan M, Semnanian S, Barat E, Kamalinejad M (2001) Anti-inflammatory and antipyretic effects of Trigonella foenum-graecum leaves extract in the rat. J Ethnopharmacol 75(2–3):283–286PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Ahmadiani A, Rustaiyan A, Karimian M, Kamalinejad M (2004) Volatile constituents from the oil of Trigonella foenum graecum L. J Essent Oil Res 16(4):356–357Google Scholar
  5. Ahsan SK, Tabiq M, Ageel AM, Al-Yahya MA, Shah AH (1989) Effect of Trigonella foenum-graecum and Ammi majus on calcium oxalate urolithiasis in rats. J Ethnopharmacol 26(3):249–254PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Ali F, Sultana S (2010) Trigonella foenum graecum prevents pathological exacerbation by toxic insults following chronic restraint stress in mice skin. J Complement Integr Med 7(1):Article 38Google Scholar
  7. Ali L, Azad Khan AK, Hassan Z, Mosihuzzaman M, Nahar N, Nasreen T, Nur-e-Alam M, Rokeya B (1995) Characterization of the hypoglycemic effects of Trigonella foenum graecum seed. Planta Med 61(4):358–360PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Anuradha CV, Ravikumar P (2001) Restoration on tissue antioxidants by fenugreek seeds (Trigonella foenum graecum) in alloxan-diabetic rats. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol 45(4):408–420PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Aswar U, Bodhankar SL, Mohan V, Thakurdesai PA (2010) Effect of furostanol glycosides from Trigonella foenum-graecum on the reproductive system of male albino rats. Phytother Res 24(10):1482–1488PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Balakrishnan A, Menon VP (2010) Supplementation of (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.) fenugreek leaves stimulates the insulin action in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. J Ecobiotechnol 2(3):26–32Google Scholar
  11. Balakrishnan A, Prince SMP (2004) Supplementation of fenugreek leaves lower lipid profile in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. J Med Food 7(2):153–156CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Belguith-Hadriche O, Bouaziz M, Jamoussi K, El Feki A, Sayadi S, Makni-Ayedi F (2010) Lipid-lowering and antioxidant effects of an ethyl acetate extract of fenugreek seeds in high-cholesterol-fed rats. J Agric Food Chem 58(4):2116–2122PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bhalke RD, Anarthe SJ, Sasane KD, Satpute SN, Shinde SN, Sangle VS (2009) Antinociceptive activity of Trigonella foenum-graecum leaves and seeds (Fabaceae). IJPT 8:57–59Google Scholar
  14. Bin-Hafeez B, Haque R, Parvez S, Pandey S, Sayeed I, Raisuddin S (2003) Immunomodulatory effects of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum L.) extract in mice. Int Immunopharmacol 3(2):257–265PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Blank I, Lin J, Devaud S, Fumeaux R, Fay LB (1997) The principal flavor components of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.). In: Risch S, Ho CT (eds) Spices: flavour chemistry and antioxidant properties. ACS Symposium Series 660. A Chem Soc, Washington, DC, pp 12–28Google Scholar
  16. Bordia A, Verma SK, Srivastava KC (1997) Effect of ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) and fenugreek (Trigonella foenumgraecum L.) on blood lipids, blood sugar and platelet aggregation in patients with coronary artery disease. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 56(5):379–384PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Bukhari SB, Bhanger MI, Memon S (2008) Antioxidative activity of extracts from fenugreek seeds (Trigonella foenum-graecum). Pak J Anal Environ Chem 9(2):78–83Google Scholar
  18. Burkill IH (1966) A dictionary of the economic products of the Malay Peninsula. Revised reprint, 2 vols. Ministry of Agriculture and Co-operatives, Kuala Lumpur, vol 1(A–H), pp 1–1240, vol 2(I–Z), pp 1241–2444Google Scholar
  19. Chatterjee S, Variyar PS, Sharma A (2009) Stability of lipid constituents in radiation processed fenugreek seeds and turmeric: role of phenolic antioxidants. J Agric Food Chem 57(19):9226–9233PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Chevassus H, Gaillard JB, Farret A, Costa F, Gabillaud I, Mas E, Dupuy AM, Michel F, Cantié C, Renard E, Galtier F, Petit P (2010) A fenugreek seed extract selectively reduces spontaneous fat intake in overweight subjects. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 66(5):449–455PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) (1976) The wealth of India. A dictionary of Indian raw materials and industrial products (Raw materials 10). Publications and Information Directorate, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  22. Dirk LMA, van der Krol AR, Vreugdenhil D, Hilhors HWM, Bewley JD (1999) Galactomannan, soluble sugar and starch mobilization following germination of Trigonella foenum-graecum seeds. Plant Physiol Biochem 37(1):41–50CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Duke JA (1981) Handbook of legumes of world economic importance. Plenum Press, New York/London, 345 ppGoogle Scholar
  24. Fazli FRY, Hardman R (1971) Isolation and characterization of steroids and other constituents from Trigonella foenum-graecum. Phytochemistry 10(10):2497–2503CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Foundation for Revitalisation of Local Health Traditions (2008) FRLHT database. htttp://envis.frlht.org
  26. Fowden L, Pratt HM, Smith S (1973) 4-Hydroxyisoleucine from seed of Trigonella foenum-graecum. Phytochemistry 12(7):1707–1711CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Ghosal S, Srivastava RS, Chatterjee DC, Dutta SK (1974) Fenugreekine, a new steroidal sapogenin-peptide ester of Trigonella foenum-graecum. Phytochemistry 13(10):2247–2251CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Gupta A, Gupta R, Lal B (2001) Effect of Trigonella foenum- graecum (fenugreek) seeds on glycaemic control and insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes mellitus: a double blind placebo controlled study. J Assoc Physicians India 49:1057–1061PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Gupta RK, Jain DC, Thakur RS (1984) Furostanol glycosidesfrom Trigonella foenum-graecum seeds. Phytochemistry 23(11):2603–2607CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Gupta RK, Jain DC, Thakur RS (1985) Furostanol glycosides from Trigonella foenum-graecum seeds. Phytochemistry 24(10):2399–2440CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Gupta RK, Jain DC, Thakur RS (1986) Two furostanol saponins from Trigonella foenum-graecum. Phytochemistry 25(9):2205–2207CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Gupta SK, Kalaiselvan V, Srivastava S, Saxena R, Agrawal SS (2010) Trigonella foenum-graecum (Fenugreek) protects against selenite-induced oxidative stress in experimental cataractogenesis. Biol Trace Elem Res 136(3):258–268PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Hamden K, Jaouadi B, Carreau S, Aouidet A, El-Fazaa S, Gharbi N, Elfeki A (2010a) Potential protective effect on key steroidogenesis and metabolic enzymes and sperm abnormalities by fenugreek steroids in testis and epididymis of surviving diabetic rats. Arch Physiol Biochem 116(3):146–155PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Hamden K, Masmoudi H, Carreau S, Elfeki A (2010b) Immunomodulatory, b-cell, and neuroprotective actions of fenugreek oil from alloxan-induced diabetes. Immuno­pharmacol Immunotoxicol 32(3):437–445PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Han Y, Nishibe S, Noguchi Y, Jin Z (2001) Flavonol glycosides from the stems of Trigonella foenum-graecum. Phytochemistry 58(4):577–580PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Hannan JM, Ali L, Rokeya B, Khaleque J, Akhter M, Flatt PR, Abdel-Wahab YH (2007) Soluble dietary fibre fraction of Trigonella foenum-graecum (fenugreek) seed improves glucose homeostasis in animal models of type 1 and type 2 diabetes by delaying carbohydrate digestion and absorption, and enhancing insulin action. Br J Nutr 97(3):514–521PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Hannan JM, Rokeya B, Faruque O, Nahar N, Mosihuzzaman M, Azad Khan AK, Ali L (2003) Effect of soluble dietary fibre fraction of Trigonella foenum graecum on glycemic, insulinemic, lipidemic and platelet aggregation status of Type 2 diabetic model rats. J Ethnopharmacol 88(1):73–77PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Hemavathy J, Prabhakar JV (1989) Lipid composition of fenugreek (Trigonella foenumgraecum L.) seeds. Food Chem 31(1):1–7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Hu S-Y (2005) Food plants of China. The Chinese University Press, Hong Kong, 844 ppGoogle Scholar
  40. Javan M, Ahmadiani A, Semnanian S, Kamalinejad M (1997) Antinociceptive effects of Trigonella foenum-graecum leaves extract. J Ethnopharmacol 8(2):125–129CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Kaviarasan S, Ramamurty N, Gunasekaran P, Varalakshmi E, Anuradha CV (2006) Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum) seed extract prevents ethanol-induced toxicity and apoptosis in chang liver cells. Alcohol Alcohol 41(3):267–273PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Kawabata T, Cui MY, Hasegawa T, Takano F, Ohta T (2010) Anti-inflammatory and anti-melanogenic steroidal saponin glycosides from fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.) seeds. Planta Med 77(7):705–10Google Scholar
  43. Khalki L, M’hamed SB, Bennis M, Chait A, Sokar Z (2010) Evaluation of the developmental toxicity of the aqueous extract from Trigonella foenum-graecum (L.) in mice. J Ethnopharmacol 131(2):321–325PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Khanra R, Chatterjee A, Singh BP, Goel A, Sen K (2010) Antimicrobial activity of ethanolic extract of Trigonella foenum-graecum Linn. Int Res J Pharm 1(1):181–183Google Scholar
  45. Khosla P, Gupta DD, Nagpal RK (1995) Effect of Trigonella foenum graecum (fenugreek) on blood glucose in normal and diabetic rats. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol 39(2):173–174PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Khurana SK, Krishnamoorthy V, Parmar VS, Sanduja R, Chawla HL (1982) 3,4,7-Trimethylcoumarin from Trigonella foenum-graecum stems. Phytochemistry 21(8):2145–2146CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Ladizinsky G, Porath N (1975) On the origin of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.). Legume Res 1:38–42Google Scholar
  48. Losso JN, Holliday DL, Finley JW, Martin RJ, Rood JC, Yu Y, Greenway FL (2009) Fenugreek bread: a treatment for diabetes mellitus. J Med Food 12(5):1046–1049PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Malviya KG, Babhulkar MW, Mali PY, Rangari VD (2010) Evaluation of anti-inflammatory potential of Trigonella foenum-graecum (Fenugreek) seed extracts by using carrageenan induced rat paw edema. Drug Invent Today 2:2Google Scholar
  50. Mathern JR, Raatz SK, Thomas W, Slavin JL (2009) Effect of fenugreek fiber on satiety, blood glucose and insulin response and energy intake in obese subjects. Phytother Res 23(11):1543–1548PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Mebazaa R, Mahmoudi A, Fouchet M, Santos MD, Kamissoko F, Nafti A, Cheikh RB, Rega B, Camel V (2009) Characterisation of volatile compounds in Tunisian fenugreek seeds. Food Chem 115(4):1326–1336CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Mohamad S, Taha A, Bamezai RN, Basir SF, Baquer NZ (2004) Lower doses of vanadate in combination with Trigonella restore altered carbohydrate metabolism and antioxidant status in alloxan-diabetic rats. Clin Chim Acta 342(1–2):105–114PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Moorthy R, Prabhu KM, Murthy PS (2010a) Anti-hyperglycemic compound (GII) from fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum Linn.) seeds, its purification and effect in diabetes mellitus. Indian J Exp Biol 48(11):1111–1118PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Moorthy R, Prabhu KM, Murthy PS (2010b) Mechanism of anti-diabetic action, efficacy and safety profile of GII purified from fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graceum Linn.) seeds in diabetic animals. Indian J Exp Biol 48(11):1119–1122PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Mowla A, Alauddin M, Rahman MA, Ahmed K (2009) Antihyperglycemic effect of Trigonella foenum-graecum (fenugreek) seed extract in alloxan-induced diabetic rats and its use in diabetes mellitus: a brief qualitative phytochemical and acute toxicity test on the extract. Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med 6(3):255–261PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Narender T, Puri A, Shweta, Khaliq T, Saxena R, Bhatia G, Chandra R (2006) 4-hydroxyisoleucine an unusual amino acid as antidyslipidemic and antihyperglycemic agent. Bioorg Med Chem Lett 16(2):293–296PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Palaniswamy M, Pradeep BV, Sathya R, Angayarkanni J (2010) In vitro anti-plasmodial activity of Trigonella foenum-graecum L. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 7(4):441–445PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Panda S, Kar A (2010) A novel phytochemical, digoxigenin-3-o-rutin in the amelioration of isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction in rat: a comparison with digoxin. Cardiovasc Ther. doi:10.1111/j.1755-5922.2010.00242.xGoogle Scholar
  59. Parvizpur A, Ahmadiani A, Kamalinejad M (2004) Spinal serotonergic system is partially involved in antinociception induced by Trigonella foenum-graecum (TFG) leaf extract. J Ethnopharmacol 95(1):13–17PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Parvizpur A, Ahmadiani A, Kamalinejad M (2006) Probable role of spinal purinoceptors in the analgesic effect of Trigonella foenum (TFG) leaves extract. J Ethnopharmacol 104(1–2):108–112PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Preet A, Siddiqui MR, Taha A, Badhai J, Hussain ME, Yadava PK, Baquer NZ (2006) Long-term effect of Trigonella foenum graecum and its combination with sodium orthovanadate in preventing histopathological and biochemical abnormalities in diabetic rat ocular tissues. Mol Cell Biochem 289(1–2):137–147PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Puri D, Prabhu KM, Murthy PS (2002) Mechanism of action of a hypoglycemic principle isolated from fenugreek seeds. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol 46(4):457–462PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Raghuram TC, Sharma RD, Sivakumar B, Sahay BK (1994) Effect of fenugreek seeds on intravenous glucose disposition in non-insulin dependent diabetic patients. Phytother Res 8(2):83–86PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Raju J, Gupta D, Rao AR, Yadava PK, Baquer NZ (2001) Trigonellafoenum graecum (fenugreek) seed powder improves glucose homeostasis in alloxan diabetic rat tissues by reversing the altered glycolytic, gluconeogenic and lipogenic enzymes. Mol Cell Biochem 224(1–2):45–51PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Raju J, Patlolla JMR, Swamy MV, Rao CV (2004) Diosgenin, a steroid saponin of Trigonella foenum graecum (fenugreek), inhibits azoxymethane-induced aberrant crypt foci formation in f344 rats and induces apoptosis in HT-29 human colon cancer cells. Cancer Epidemiol Biomark Prev 13:1392–1398Google Scholar
  66. Rayyan S, Fossen T, Andersen ØM (2010) Flavone C-glycosides from seeds of fenugreek. Trigonella ­foenum-graecum L. J Agric Food Chem 58(12):7211–7217PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Reddy RL, Srinivasan K (2009a) Dietary fenugreek seed regresses preestablished cholesterol gallstones in mice. Can J Physiol Pharmacol 87(9):684–693PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Reddy RL, Srinivasan K (2009b) Fenugreek seeds reduce atherogenic diet-induced cholesterol gallstone formation in experimental mice. Can J Physiol Pharmacol 87(11):933–943PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Reid JSG, Meier H (1970) Formation of reserve galactomannan in the seeds of Trigonella foenum-graecum. Phytochemistry 9(3):513–520CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Satheeshkumar N, Mukherjee PK, Bhadra S, Saha BP (2010) Acetylcholinesterase enzyme inhibitory potential of standardized extract of Trigonella foenum graecum L and its constituents. Phytomedicine 17(3–4):292–295PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Shabbeer S, Sobolewski M, Anchoori RK, Kachhap S, Hidalgo M, Jimeno A, Davidson N, Carducci MA, Khan SR (2009) Fenugreek: a naturally occurring edible spice as an anticancer agent. Cancer Biol Ther 8(3):272–278PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Siddiqui MR, Taha A, Moorthy K, Hussain ME, Basir SF, Baquer NZ (2005) Amelioration of altered antioxidant status and membrane linked functions by vanadium and Trigonella in alloxan diabetic rat brains. J Biosci 30(4):483–490PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Singh AB, Tamarkar AK, Narender T, Srivastava AK (2010) Antihyperglycaemic effect of an unusual amino acid (4-hydroxyisoleucine) in C57BL/KsJ-db/db mice. Nat Prod Res 24(3):258–265PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Sofi G, Dar MA, Jafri MA, Ahmad G (2011) Anti-inflammatory and analgesic effect of barge hulba (Leaves of Trigonella foenum graecum). Unani Res 1(1):23–30Google Scholar
  75. Sreeja S, Anju VS, Sreeja S (2010) In vitro estrogenic activities of fenugreek Trigonella foenum graecum seeds. Indian J Med Res 13:814–819Google Scholar
  76. Sushma N, Devasena T (2010) Aqueous extract of Trigonella foenum graecum (fenugreek) prevents cypermethrin-induced hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity. Hum Exp Toxicol 29(4):311–319PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Tawan CS, Wulijarni-Soetjipto N (1999) Trigonella foenum-graecum L. In: de Guzman CC, Siemonsma JS (eds.) Plant resources of South-East Asia no. 13: spices. Backhuys, Leiden, pp 225–228Google Scholar
  78. Taylor WG, Zaman MS, Mir Z, Mir PS, Acharya SN, Mears GJ, Elder JL (1997) Analysis of steroidal sapogenins from amber fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) by capillary gas chromatography and combined gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. J Agric Food Chem 45(3):753–759CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Taylor WG, Zulyniak HJ, Richards KW, Acharya SN, Bittman S, Elder JL (2002) Variation in diosgenin levels among 10 accessions of fenugreek seeds produced in western Canada. J Agric Food Chem 50(21):5994–5997PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Thakran S, Salimuddin, Baquer NZ (2003) Oral administration of orthovanadate and Trigonella foenum graecum seed power restore the activities of mitochondrial enzymes in tissues of alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Mol Cell Biochem 247(1–2):45–53PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Thakran S, Siddiqui MR, Baquer NZ (2004) Trigonella foenum graecum seed powder protects against histopathological abnormalities in tissues of diabetic rats. Mol Cell Biochem 266(1–2):151–159PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Tripathi UN, Chandra D (2009) The plant extracts of Momordica charantia and Trigonella foenum-graecum have anti-oxidant and anti-hyperglycemic properties for cardiac tissue during diabetes mellitus. Oxid Med Cell Longev 2(5):290–296PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Tripathi UN, Chandra D (2010) Anti-hyperglycemic and anti-oxidative effect of aqueous extract of Momordica charantia pulp and Trigonella foenum graecum seed in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Indian J Biochem Biophys 47(4):227–233PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service (2010) USDA national nutrient database for standard reference, release 23. Nutrient data laboratory home page. http://www.ars.usda.gov/ba/bhnrc/ndl
  85. Uemura T, Hirai S, Mizoguchi N, Goto T, Lee JY, Taketani K, Nakano Y, Shono J, Hoshino S, Tsuge N, Narukami T, Takahashi N, Kawada T (2010) Diosgenin present in fenugreek improves glucose metabolism by promoting adipocyte differentiation and inhibiting inflammation in adipose tissues. Mol Nutr Food Res 54(11):1596–1608PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Vats V, Yadav SP, Biswas NR, Grover JK (2004) Anti-cataract activity of Pterocarpus marsupium bark and Trigonella foenum-graecum seeds extract in alloxan diabetic rats. J Ethnopharmacol 93(2–3):289–294PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Vijayakumar MV, Pandey V, Mishra GC, Bhat MK (2010) Hypolipidemic effect of fenugreek seeds is mediated through inhibition of fat accumulation and upregulation of LDL receptor. Obes Silver Spring 18(4):667–674CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Wang GR, Tang WZ, Yao QQ, Zhong H, Liu YJ (2010) New flavonoids with 2BS cell proliferation promoting effect from the seeds of Trigonella foenum-graecum L. J Nat Med 64:358–361CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Waqas MK, Akhtar N, Ahmad M, Murtaza G, Khan HM, Iqbal M, Rasul A, Bhatti NS (2010) Formulation and characterization of a cream containing extract of fenugreek seeds. Acta Pol Pharm 67(2):173–178PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Westphal E (1974) Pulses in Ethiopia, their taxonomy and agricultural significance (Agricultural Research Reports 815). Centre for Agricultural Publishing and Documentation, Wageningen, p 276Google Scholar
  91. Xue WL, Li XS, Zhang J, Liu YH, Wang ZL, Zhang R (2007) Effect of Trigonella foenum-graecum (fenugreek) extract on blood glucose, blood lipid and hemorheological properties in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. J Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 16(Suppl 1):422–426Google Scholar
  92. Zhuo R, Wang L, Wang L, Xiao H, Cai S (2010) Determination of trigonelline in Trigonella foenum-graecum L. by hydrophilic interaction chromatography. Se Pu 28(4):379–382, In ChinesePubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Zia T, Hasnain SN, Hasan SK (2001) Evaluation of the oral hypoglycaemic effect of Trigonella foenum-graecum L. (methi) in normal mice. J Ethnopharmacol 75(2–3):191–195PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • T. K. Lim
    • 1
  1. 1.ChisholmAustralia

Personalised recommendations