Ricinus communis

  • T. K. Lim


Castor, Castor Bean, Castorbean, Castor-Bean Tree, Castor Oil Plant, Palma Christi


Castor Bean Ricinoleic Acid Demineralized Bone Matrix Ricinus Communis Castor Seed 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Selected References

  1. Anoymous (2007) Final Report on the Safety Assessment of Ricinus communis (castor) seed oil, hydrogenated castor oil, glyceryl ricinoleate, glyceryl ricinoleate se, ricinoleic acid, potassium ricinoleate, sodium ricinoleate, zinc ricinoleate, cetyl ricinoleate, ethyl ricinoleate, glycol ricinoleate, isopropyl ricinoleate, methyl ricinoleate, and octyldodecyl ricinoleate. Int J Toxicol 26(S3):31–77Google Scholar
  2. Anthos (2010) Information system of the plants of Spain. Real Jardín Botánico, CSIC – Fundación Biodiversidad; for names from the Iberian Peninsula and the Balearic Islands.
  3. Audi J, Belson M, Patel M, Schier J, Osterloh J (2005) Ricin poisoning: a comprehensive review. JAMA 294(18):2342–2351Google Scholar
  4. Backer CA, van den Bakhuizen Brink RC Jr (1963) Flora of Java, (Spermatophytes only), vol 1. Noordhoff, Groningen, 648 ppGoogle Scholar
  5. Banerjee S, Bandhopadhyay SK, Mukherjee PK, Mukherjee A, Sikdar S (1991) Further studies on the anti - inflammatory activities of Ricinus communis in albino rat. Indian J Pharm 23:149–152Google Scholar
  6. Barajas Forero CL (2005) Biodiesel from castor oil: a promising fuel for cold weather. Paper No 222. In: International conference on renewable energy and power quality (ICREPQ’05), Zaragoza, 16–18 Mar 2005. Available from
  7. Beloti MM, Hiraki KR, Barros VM, Rosa AL (2003) Effect of the chemical composition of Ricinus communis polyurethane on rat bone marrow cell attachment, proliferation, and differentiation. J Biomed Mater Res A 64(1):171–176Google Scholar
  8. Binder RG, Applewhite TH, Kohler GO, Goldblatt LA (1962) Chromatographic analysis of seed oils. Fatty acid composition of castor oil. J Am Oil Chem Soc 39(12):513–517Google Scholar
  9. Bourne N, Ireland J, Stanberry LR, Bernstein DI (1999) Effect of undecylenic acid as a topical microbicide against genital herpes infection in mice and guinea pigs. Antivir Res 40(3):139–144Google Scholar
  10. Bown D (1995) Encyclopedia of herbs and their uses. Dorling Kindersley, London, 424 ppGoogle Scholar
  11. Burkill IH (1966) A dictionary of the economic products of the Malay Peninsula, Revised reprint, 2 vols. Ministry of agriculture and co-operatives, Kuala Lumpur, vol 1 (A–H), pp 1–1240, vol 2 (I–Z), pp 1241–2444Google Scholar
  12. Capasso F, Mascolo N, Izzo AA, Gaginella TS (1994) Dissociation of castor oil induced diarrhea and intestinal mucosal injury in rat: effect of NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester. Br J Pharmacol 113:1127–1130Google Scholar
  13. Centre for Indigenous Peoples’ Nutrition and Environment (CINE) (2007) Global health case study – IGBO, Nigeria. Community food system data tables, McGill University, Canada.
  14. Chakravartula SV, Guttarla N (2007) Identification and characterization of phenolic compounds in castor seed. Nat Prod Res 21(12):1073–1077Google Scholar
  15. Chen Z, Zhang J, Chen G (2009) Simultaneous determination of flavones and phenolic acids in the leaves of Ricinus communis Linn. by capillary electrophoresis with amperometric detection. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci 863(1):101–106Google Scholar
  16. Chevallier A (1996) The Encyclopedia of medicinal plants. Dorling Kindersley, London, 336 ppGoogle Scholar
  17. Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) (1972) The Wealth of India. A dictionary of Indian raw materials and industrial products. (Raw materials 9). Publications and Information Directorate, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  18. Darmanin S, Wismayer PS, Camilleri Podesta MT, Micallef MJ, Buhagiar JA (2009) An extract from Ricinus communis L. leaves possesses cytotoxic properties and induces apoptosis in SK-MEL-28 human melanoma cells. Nat Prod Res 23(6):561–571Google Scholar
  19. Dias PCJ, Granato L, Ramalho LTO, Oliveira JA, Pretel H (2009) Ricinus communis biocompatibility histological study in the nose of Cebus apella monkeys. Braz J Otorhinolaryngol 75(3):350–355Google Scholar
  20. Duke JA, Ayensu ES (1985) Medicinal plants of China, vols 1 &2. Reference Publications, Algonac, 705 ppGoogle Scholar
  21. El Baradi TA (1969) Castor bean (Ricinus communis L.). Trop Abstr 24(9):567–572Google Scholar
  22. Elimam AM, Elmalik KH, Ali FS (2009) Larvicidal, adult emergence inhibition and oviposition deterrent effects of foliage extract from Ricinus communis L. against Anopheles arabiensis and Culex quinquefasciatus in Sudan. Trop Biomed 26(2):130–139Google Scholar
  23. Ereaux LP, Craig GE (1949) The oral administration of undecylenic acid in the treatment of psoriasis. Can Med Assoc J 61:361–364Google Scholar
  24. Fang K (1998) A toxin conjugate containing transforming growth factor-alpha and ricin A specifically inhibits growth of A431 human epidermoid cancer cells. Proc Natl Sci Counc Repub China B 22(2):76–82Google Scholar
  25. Ferraz AC, Angelucci ME, Da Costa ML, Batista IR, De Oliveira BH, Da Cunha C (1999) Pharmacological evaluation of ricinine, a central nervous system stimulant isolated from Ricinus communis. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 63(3):367–375Google Scholar
  26. Foundation for Revitalisation of Local Health Traditions (2008) FRLHT Database. htttp://
  27. Govaerts R, Fernández Casas FJ, Barker C, Carter S, Davies S, Esser HJ, Gilbert M, Hoffmann P, Radcliffe-Smith A, Steinmann V, van Welzen P, Whitmoore T (2010) World Checklist of Euphorbiaceae. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet; Retrieved 12 Dec 2010
  28. Grieve M (1971) A modern herbal, vol 2, Penguin. Dover publications, New York, 919 ppGoogle Scholar
  29. Hanelt P (ed) (2001) Mansfeld’s encyclopedia of agricultural and horticultural crops, vol 1–6. Springer, Berlin, 3700 ppGoogle Scholar
  30. Hill AF (1952) Economic botany, 2nd edn. McGraw-Hill, New York, 560 ppGoogle Scholar
  31. Howes D, Wilson R, James CT (1998) The fate of ingested glyceran esters of condensed castor oil fatty acids [polyglycerol polyricinoleate (PGPR)] in the rat. Food Chem Toxicol 36(9–10):719–738Google Scholar
  32. Ilavarasan R, Mallika M, Ventakataraman S (2006) Anti-inflammatory and free radical scavenging activity of Ricinus communis root extract. J Ethnopharmacol 103(3):478–480Google Scholar
  33. Ilavarasan R, Mallika M, Venkataraman S (2011) Toxicological assessment of Ricinus communis Linn root extracts. Toxicol Mech Methods 21(3):246–250Google Scholar
  34. Islam T, Bakshi H, Sam S, Sharma E, Hameed B, Rathore B (2010) Assessment of antibacterial potential of leaves of Ricinus communis against pathogenic and dermatophytic bacteria. Int J Pharma Res Dev 1(12):Article 6Google Scholar
  35. James WH (1999) Polyglycerol polyricinoleate (PGPR) is a compound used in the baking industry and in the manufacture of chocolate. Food Chem Toxicol 37(2–3):268–269Google Scholar
  36. Jombo GT, Enenebeaku MN (2008) Antibacterial profile of fermented seed extracts of Ricinus communis: findings from a preliminary analysis. Niger J Physiol Sci 23(1–2):55–59Google Scholar
  37. Kang SS, Cordell A, Soejarto DD, Fong HHS (1985) Alkaloids and flavonoids from Ricinus communis. J Nat Prod 48:155–156Google Scholar
  38. Khafagy SM, Mahmoud ZF, Salam NAE (1979) Coumarins and flavanoids of Ricinus communis growing in Egypt. Planta Med 37(2):191Google Scholar
  39. Kumar S, Manjula MN, Siddaramaiah KS (2007) Transport behavior of n-alkane penetrants into castor oil based polyurethane-polyester nonwoven fabric composites. J Hazard Mater 145(1–2):36–44Google Scholar
  40. Lakshminarayana G, Subbarao R, Sastry YSR, Rao TC, Kale V, Vijayalakshmi P (1982) Composition of fatty acids obtained by decomposition of castor oil fatty acid estolides. J Am Oil Chem Soc 59(5):538–540Google Scholar
  41. Lakshminarayana G, Paulose MM, Kumari BN (1984) Characteristics and composition of newer varieties of Indian castor seed and oil. J Am Oil Chem Soc 61(12):1871–1872Google Scholar
  42. Laureano Filho JR, Castelo Branco Bde L, Andrade ES, Barbosa JR (2007) Histological comparison of demineralized bone matrix and the Ricinus communis polymer on bone regeneration. Braz J Otorhinolaryngol 73(2):186–192Google Scholar
  43. Leite FR, Ramalho LT (2008) Bone regeneration after demineralized bone matrix and castor oil (Ricinus communis) polyurethane implantation. J Appl Oral Sci 16(2):122–126Google Scholar
  44. Lim H, Kim HJ, Cho YS (2009) A case of ricin poisoning following ingestion of Korean castor bean. Emerg Med J 26(4):301–302Google Scholar
  45. Lin JT, Arcinas A, Harden LR, Fagerquist CK (2006) Identification of (12-ricinoleoylricinoleoyl) diricinoleoylglycerol, an acylglycerol containing four acyl chains, in castor (Ricinus communis L.) oil by LC-ESI-MS. J Agric Food Chem 54(10):3498–3504Google Scholar
  46. Lin JY, Liu SY (1986) Studies on the antitumor lectins isolated from the seeds of Ricinus communis (castor bean). Toxicon 24(8):757–765Google Scholar
  47. Lin TT, Li SL (1980) Purification and physicochemical properties of ricins and agglutinins from Ricinus communis. Eur J Biochem 105(3):453–459Google Scholar
  48. Lomash V, Parihar SK, Jain NK, Katiyar AK (2010) Effect of Solanum nigrum and Ricinus communis extracts on histamine and carrageenan-induced inflammation in the chicken skin. Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-Grand, France) 56(Suppl):OL1239–OL1251Google Scholar
  49. Lugnier AA, Creppy EE, Dirheimer G (1980) Ricin, the toxic protein of the castor-oil plant (Ricinus communis L). Structure and properties. Pathol Biol Paris 28(2):127–139, In FrenchGoogle Scholar
  50. Maroyi A (2007) Ricinus communis L, [Internet] Record from protabase. In: van der Vossen HAM, Mkamilo GS (eds) PROTA (Plant Resources of Tropical Africa/Ressources végétales de l’Afrique tropicale), Wageningen, Netherlands. Accessed 10 Jan 2011
  51. McLain N, Ascanio R, Baker C, Strohaver RA, Dolan JW (2000) Undecylenic acid inhibits morphogenesis of Candida albicans. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 44(10):2873–2875Google Scholar
  52. Nascimento VV, Castro HC, Abreu PA, Oliveira AE, Fernandez JH, Araujo JS, Machado OL (2011) In silico structural characteristics and alpha-amylase inhibitory properties of Ric c 1 and Ric c 3, allergenic 2S albumins from Ricinus communis seeds. J Agric Food Chem 59(9):4814–21Google Scholar
  53. Nithya RS, Anuja MM, Swathy SS, Rajamanickam C, Indira M (2011) Effects on spermatogenesis in swiss mice of a protein isolated from the roots of Ricinus communis (Linn.) (Euphorbiaceae). J Hazard Mater 187(1–3):386–392Google Scholar
  54. Ochse JJ, Bakhuizen van den Brink RC (1980) Vegetables of the Dutch Indies, 3rd edn. Ascher & Co., Amsterdam, 1016 ppGoogle Scholar
  55. Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER) (1999) Ricinus communis L, Euphorbiaceae.
  56. Porcher MH et al (1995 – 2020) Searchable world wide web multilingual multiscript plant name database. The University of Melbourne, Australia.
  57. Purseglove JW (1968) Tropical crops: dicotyledons. 1 & 2 Longman, London, 719 ppGoogle Scholar
  58. Raji Y, Oloyo AK, Morakinyo AO (2006) Effect of methanol extract of Ricinus communis seed on reproduction of male rats. Asian J Androl 8(1):115–121Google Scholar
  59. Sabina EP, Rasool MK, Mathew L, Parameswari (2009) Studies on the protective effect of Ricinus communis leaves extract on carbon tetrachloride hepatotoxicity in albino rats. Pharmacol 2:905–916Google Scholar
  60. Sandhyakumary K, Bobby RG, Indira M (2003) Antifertility effects of Ricinus communis (Linn) on rats. Phytother Res 17(5):508–511Google Scholar
  61. Seegeler CJP, Oyen LPA (2001) Ricinus communis L. In: van der Vossen HAM, Umali BE (eds) Plant resources of South-East Asia No 14. Vegetable Oils and Fats. Backhuys Publishers, Leiden, pp 115–120Google Scholar
  62. Sehgal P, Khan M, Kumar O, Vijayaraghavan R (2010) Purification, characterization and toxicity profile of ricin isoforms from castor beans. Food Chem Toxicol 48(11):3171–3176Google Scholar
  63. Shafran SD, Sacks SL, Aoki FY, Tyrrell DL, Schlech WF 3rd, Mendelson J, Rosenthal D, Gill MJ, Bader RL, Chang I (1997) Topical undecylenic acid for herpes simplex labialis: a multicenter, placebo-controlled trial. J Infect Dis 176(1):78–83Google Scholar
  64. Shokeen P, Anand P, Murali YK, Tandon V (2008) Antidiabetic activity of 50% ethanolic extract of Ricinus communis and its purified fractions. Food Chem Toxicol 46(11):3458–3466Google Scholar
  65. Singh PP, Ambika, Chauhan SMS (2009) Activity guided isolation of antioxidants from the leaves of Ricinus communis L. Food Chem 114(3):1069–72Google Scholar
  66. Smith MR, Wilson R, Hepburn PA (1998) Assessment of the carcinogenic potential of polyglycerol polyricinoleate (PGPR) in rats and mice. Food Chem Toxicol 36(9–10):747–754Google Scholar
  67. Smith SW, Graber NM, Johnson RC, Barr JR, Hoffman RS, Nelson LS (2009) Multisystem organ failure after large volume injection of castor oil. Ann Plast Surg 62(1):12–14Google Scholar
  68. Stuart GU (2010) Philippine alternative medicine, Manual of some Philippine medicinal plants.
  69. Surolia A, Ahmad A, Bachhawat BK (1974) Studies on the interaction of immobilized lectin from Ricinus communis with a simple sugar and a polysaccharide. Biochim Biophys Acta Protein Struct 371(2):491–500Google Scholar
  70. Tan Q-G, Cai X-H, Dua Z-Z, Luo X-D (2009) Three terpenoids and a tocopherol-related compound from Ricinus communis. Helv Chim Acta 92(12):2762–2768Google Scholar
  71. Taur DJ, Waghmare MG, Bandal RS, Ravindra Y, Patil RV (2011) Antinociceptive activity of Ricinus communis L. leaves. Asian Pac. J Trop Biomed 2011:139–141Google Scholar
  72. Upasani SM, Kotkar HM, Mendki PS, Masheshwari VL (2003) Partial characterization and insecticidal properties of Ricinus communis L foliage flavonoids. Pest Manag Sci 59(12):1349–1354Google Scholar
  73. Van der Steen M, Stevens CV (2009) Undecylenic acid: a valuable and physiologically active renewable building block from castor oil. ChemSusChem 2(8):692–713Google Scholar
  74. van Welzen PC (1998) Revisions and phylogenies of Malesian Euphorbiaceae: Subtribe Lasiococcinae (Homonoia, Lasiococca, Spathiostemon) and Clonostylis, Ricinus, and Wetria. Blumea 43:131–164Google Scholar
  75. Vieira C, Fetzer S, Sauer SK, Evangelista S, Averbeck B, Kress M, Reeh PW, Cirillo R, Lippi A, Maggi CA, Manzini S (2001) Pro- and anti-inflammatory actions of ricinoleic acid: similarities and differences with capsaicin. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol 364(2):87–95Google Scholar
  76. Visen PKS, Shukla B, Patnaik GK, Tripathi SC, Kulshreshtha DK, Srimal RC, Dhawan BN (1992) Hepatoprotective activity of Ricinus communis leaves. Pharm Biol 30(4):241–250Google Scholar
  77. Weiss EA (1983) Oilseed Crops. Longman, London, 660 ppGoogle Scholar
  78. Wilson R, Smith M (1998a) A three-generation reproduction study on polyglycerol polyricinoleate (PGPR) in Wistar rats. Food Chem Toxicol 36(9–10):739–741Google Scholar
  79. Wilson R, Smith M (1998b) Human studies on polyglycerol polyricinoleate (PGPR). Food Chem Toxicol 36(9–10):743–745Google Scholar
  80. Wilson R, van Schie BJ, Howes D (1998) Overview of the preparation, use and biological studies on polyglycerol polyricinoleate (PGPR). Food Chem Toxicol 36(9–10):711–718Google Scholar
  81. Wu AM, Wu JH, Singh T, Hwang PY, Tsai MS, Herp A (2005) Lectinochemical studies on the binding properties of a toxic lectin (ricin) isolated from the seeds of Ricinus communis. Chang Gung Med J 28(8):530–542Google Scholar
  82. You WK, Kasman I, Hu-Lowe DD, McDonald DM (2010) Ricinus communis agglutinin I leads to rapid down-regulation of VEGFR-2 and endothelial cell apoptosis in tumor blood vessels. Am J Pathol 176(4):1927–1940Google Scholar
  83. Zahir AA, Rahuman AA, Bagavan A, Santhoshkumar T, Mohamed RR, Kamaraj C, Rajakumar G, Elango G, Jayaseelan C, Marimuthu S (2010) Evaluation of botanical extracts against Haemaphysalis bispinosa Neumann and Hippobosca maculata Leach. Parasitol Res 107(3):585–592Google Scholar
  84. Zhang X, Han F, Gao P, Yu D, Liu S (2007) Bioassay-guided fractionation of antifertility components of castorbean (Ricinus communis L.) seed extracts. Nat Prod Res 21(11):982–989Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • T. K. Lim
    • 1
  1. 1.ChisholmAustralia

Personalised recommendations