Garcinia mangostana

  • T. K. Lim


This book continues as volume 2 of a multi-compendium on Edible Medicinal and Non-Medicinal Plants. It covers edible fruits and seeds used fresh, cooked or processed into other by-products, or used as vegetables, spices, stimulants, edible oils and beverages. It encompasses species from the following families: Clusiaceae, Combretaceae, Cucurbitaceae, Dilleniaceae, Ebenaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Ericaceae and Fabaceae. However, not all the edible species in these families are included for want of coloured illustrations. The edible species dealt with in this work include to a larger extent lesser-known, wild and underutilized crops and also common and widely grown crops.


Minimum Inhibitory Concentration Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus Grape Seed Extract Unripe Fruit Antiplasmodial Activity 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Selected References

  1. Ahmat N, Nik Azim NF, Ab Ghani N, Syed Aris SR, Sidek NJ, Abdullah S, Jasmani H (2010) Bioactive xanthones from the pericarp of Garcinia mangostana. Midde East J Sci Res 6(2):123–127Google Scholar
  2. Ajayi IA, Oderinde RA, Ogunkoya BO, Egunyomi A, Taiwo VO (2007) Chemical analysis and preliminary toxicological evaluation of Garcinia mangostana seeds and seed oil. Food Chem 101(3):999–1004Google Scholar
  3. Akao Y, Nakagawa Y, Iinuma M, Nozawa Y (2008) Anti-cancer effects of xanthones from pericarps of mangosteen. Int J Mol Sci 9(3):355–370Google Scholar
  4. Arunrattiyakorn P, Suksamrarn S, Suwannasai N, Kanzaki H (2011) Microbial metabolism of α-mangostin isolated from Garcinia mangostana L. Phytochemistry 72(8):730–734Google Scholar
  5. Asai F, Tosa H, Tanaka T, Iinuma M (1995) A xanthone from pericarps of Garcinia mangostana. Phytochemistry 39(4):943–944Google Scholar
  6. Backer CA, Bakhuizen van den Brink RC Jr (1963) Flora of Java, vol 1. Noordhoff, Groningen, 648 ppGoogle Scholar
  7. Balasubramanian K, Rajagopalan K (1988) Novel xanthones from Garcinia mangostana, structures of BR-xanthone-A and BR-xanthone-B. Phytochemistry 27(5):1552–1554Google Scholar
  8. Balunas MJ, Su B, Brueggemeier RW, Kinghorn AD (2008) Xanthones from the botanical dietary supplement mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana) with aromatase inhibitory activity. J Nat Prod 71(7):1161–1166Google Scholar
  9. Bennett GJ, Lee HH (1989) Xanthones from Guttiferae. Phytochemistry 28:967–998Google Scholar
  10. Bumrungpert A, Kalpravidh RW, Chitchumroonchokchai C, Chuang CC, West T, Kennedy A, McIntosh M (2009) Xanthones from mangosteen prevent lipopolysaccharide-mediated inflammation and insulin resistance in primary cultures of human adipocytes. J Nutr 139(6):1185–1191Google Scholar
  11. Bumrungpert A, Kalpravidh RW, Chuang CC, Overman A, Martinez K, Kennedy A, McIntosh M (2010) Xanthones from mangosteen inhibit inflammation in human macrophages and in human adipocytes exposed to macrophage-conditioned media. J Nutr 140(4):842–847Google Scholar
  12. Burkill IH (1966) A dictionary of the economic products of the Malay Peninsula, Revised reprint, 2 vols. Ministry of agriculture and co-operatives, Kuala Lumpur, vol 1 (A–H), pp 1–1240, vol 2 (I–Z), pp 1241–2444Google Scholar
  13. Chairungsrilerd N, Furukawa K, Ohta T, Nozoe S, Ohizumi Y (1996a) Histaminergic and serotonergic receptor blocking substances from the medicinal plant Garcinia mangostana. Planta Med 62(5):471–472Google Scholar
  14. Chairungsrilerd N, Furukawa KI, Ohta T, Nozoe S, Ohizumi Y (1996b) Pharmacological properties of a-mangostin, a novel histamine H1 receptor antagonist. Eur J Pharmacol 314(3):351–356Google Scholar
  15. Chairungsrilerd N, Furukawa KI, Ohta T, Nozoe S, Ohizumi Y (1998a) Gamma-mangostin, a novel type of 5-hydroxytryptamine 2A receptor antagonist. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol 357(1):25–31Google Scholar
  16. Chairungsrilerd N, Furukawa K, Tadano T, Kisara K, Ohizumi Y (1998b) Effect of γ-mangostin through the inhibition of 5-hydroxy-tryptamine 2A receptors in 5- fluoro-alpha-methyltryptamine-induced head-twitch responses of mice. Br J Pharmacol 123:855–862Google Scholar
  17. Chairungsrilerd N, Takeuchi K, Ohizumi Y, Nozoe S, Ohta T (1996c) Mangostanol, a prenyl xanthone from Garcinia mangostana. Phytochemistry 43(5):1099–1102Google Scholar
  18. Chaivisuthangkura A, Malaikaew Y, Chaovanalikit A, Jaratrungtawee A, Panseeta P, Ratananukul P, Suksamran S (2009) Prenylated xanthone composition of Garcinia mangostan (mangosteen) fruit hull. Chromatographia 69(3–4):315–318Google Scholar
  19. Chanarat P, Chanarat N, Fujihara M, Nagumo T (1997) Immunopharmacological activity of polysaccharide from the pericarb of mangosteen Garcinia: phagocytic intracellular killing activities. J Med Assoc Thai 80(Suppl 1):S149–S154Google Scholar
  20. Chang HF, Huang WT, Chen HJ, Yang LL (2010) Apoptotic effects of γ-mangostin from the fruit hull of Garcinia mangostana on human malignant glioma cells. Molecules 15(12):8953–8966Google Scholar
  21. Chen LG, Yang LL, Wang CC (2008) Anti-inflammatory activity of mangostins from Garcinia mangostana. Food Chem Toxicol 46(2):688–693Google Scholar
  22. Chen SX, Wan M, Loh BN (1996) Active constituents against HIV-1 protease from Garcinia mangostana. Planta Med 62(4):381–382Google Scholar
  23. Chin YW, Jung HA, Chai H, Keller WJ, Kinghorn AD (2008) Xanthones with quinone reductase-inducing activity from the fruits of Garcinia mangostana (mangosteen). Phytochemistry 69(3):754–758Google Scholar
  24. Chomnawang MT, Surassmo S, Nukoolkarn VS, Gritsanapan W (2005) Antimicrobial effects of Thai medicinal plants against acne-inducing bacteria. J Ethnopharmacol 101(1–3):330–333Google Scholar
  25. Chomnawang MT, Surassmo S, Nukoolkarn VS, Gritsanapan W (2007) Effect of Garcinia mangostana on inflammation caused by Propionibacterium acnes. Fitoterapia 78(6):401–408Google Scholar
  26. Chomnawang MT, Surassmo S, Wongsariya K, Bunyapraphatsara N (2009) Antibacterial activity of Thai medicinal plants against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Fitoterapia 80(2):102–104Google Scholar
  27. Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (1956) The wealth of India. A dictionary of Indian raw materials and industrial products. (Raw materials 4). Publications and Information Directorate, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  28. Cui J, Hu W, Cai Z, Liu Y, Li S, Tao W, Xiang H (2010) New medicinal properties of mangostins: analgesic activity and pharmacological characterization of active ingredients from the fruit hull of Garcinia mangostana L. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 95(2):166–172Google Scholar
  29. Daud S, Izadin SA, m Ee GCL, Rahmani M (2005) Active constituents from Garcinia mangostana. Malays J Sci 24(1):79–83Google Scholar
  30. Dharmaratne HR, Piyasena KG, Tennakoon SB (2005) A geranylated biphenyl derivative from Garcinia mangostana. Nat Prod Res 19(3):239–243Google Scholar
  31. Dignan CA, Burlingame BA, Arthur JM, Quigley RJ, Milligan GC (1994) The Pacific islands food composition tables. South Pacific Commission, Palmerston North, pp 147Google Scholar
  32. Dutta P, Sem A, Sarkar K, Banerji N (1987) Acid-catalysed cyclisations of xanthones: structure of a new xanthone from Garcinia mangostana Linn. Indian J Chem 26B:281–282Google Scholar
  33. Ee GC, Daud S, Izzaddin SA, Rahmani M (2008) Garcinia mangostana: a source of potential anti-cancer lead compounds against CEM-SS cell line. J Asian Nat Prod Res 10(5–6):475–479Google Scholar
  34. Ee GC, Daud S, Taufiq-Yap YH, Ismail NH, Rahmani M (2006a) Xanthones from Garcinia mangostana (Guttiferae). Nat Prod Res 20(12):1067–1073Google Scholar
  35. Ee GC, Izzaddin SA, Rahmani M, Sukari MA, Lee HL (2006b) Gamma-mangostin and rubraxanthone, two potential lead compounds for anti-cancer activity against CEM-SS cell line. Nat Prod Sci 12(3):138–143Google Scholar
  36. El-Seedi HR, El-Ghorab DM, El-Barbary MA, Zayed MF, Göransson U, Larsson S, Verpoorte R (2009) Naturally occurring xanthones; latest investigations: isolation, structure elucidation and chemosystematic significance. Curr Med Chem 16(20):2581–2626Google Scholar
  37. Fan C, Su J (1997) Antioxidative mechanism of isolated components from methanol extract of fruit hulls of Garcinia mangostana L. J Chin Agric Chem Soc 35(5):540–551Google Scholar
  38. Feng J, Yamakuni T, Katoh E, Hosada S, Ohizumi Y (2004) Potent antioxidant activity of unripe fruits of Garcinia mangostana L. Nat Med 58:156–159Google Scholar
  39. Fu C, Loo A, Chia FP, Huang D (2007) Oligomeric proanthocyanidins from mangosteen pericarps. J Agric Food Chem 55(19):7689–7694Google Scholar
  40. Furukawa K, Chairungsrilerd N, Ohta T, Nozoe S, Ohizumi Y (1997) Novel types of receptor antagonists from the medicinal plant Garcinia mangostana. Nippon Yakurigaku Zasshi 110(Suppl 1):153P–158P, In JapaneseGoogle Scholar
  41. Furukawa K, Shibusawa K, Chairungsrilerd N, Ohta T, Nozoe S, Ohizumi Y (1996) The mode of inhibitory action of alpha-mangostin, a novel inhibitor, on the sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-pumping ATPase from rabbit skeletal muscle. Jpn J Pharmacol 71(4):337–340Google Scholar
  42. Gopalakrishnan G, Balaganesan B (2000) Two novel xanthones from Garcinia mangostana. Fitoterapia 71(5):607–609Google Scholar
  43. Gopalakrishnan G, Banumathi B, Suresh G (1997) Evaluation of the antifungal activity of natural xanthones from the fruits of Garcinia mangostana and their synthetic derivatives. J Nat Prod 60:519–524Google Scholar
  44. Gopalakrishnan C, Shankaranarayanan D, Kameswaran L, Nazimudeen SK (1980) Effect of mangostin, a xanthone from Garcinia mangostana Linn. in immunopathological and inflammatory reactions. Indian J Exp Biol 18:843–846Google Scholar
  45. Govindachari TRKP, Muthukumaraswamy N (1971) Xanthones of Garcinia mangostana Linn. Tetrahedron 27:3919–3926Google Scholar
  46. Han AR, Kim JA, Lantvit DD, Kardono LB, Riswan S, Chai H, Carcache de Blanco EJ, Farnsworth NR, Swanson SM, Kinghorn AD (2009) Cytotoxic xanthone constituents of the stem bark of Garcinia mangostana (mangosteen). J Nat Prod 72(11):2028–2031Google Scholar
  47. Ho CK, Huang YL, Chen CC (2002) Garcinone E, a xanthone derivative, has potent cytotoxic effect against hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines. Planta Med 68(11):975–979Google Scholar
  48. Holloway DM, Scheinmann F (1975) Phenolic compounds from the heartwood of Garcinia mangostana. Phytochemistry 14:2517–2518Google Scholar
  49. Huang YL, Chen CC, Chen YJ, Huang RL, Shieh BJ (2001) Three xanthones and a benzophenone from Garcinia mangostana. J Nat Prod 64(7):903–906Google Scholar
  50. Hung SH, Shen KH, Wu CH, Liu CL, Shih YW (2009) Alpha-mangostin suppresses PC-3 human prostate carcinoma cell metastasis by inhibiting matrix metalloproteinase-2/9 and urokinase-plasminogen expression through the JNK signaling pathway. J Agric Food Chem 57(4):1291–1298Google Scholar
  51. Iinuma M, Tosa H, Tanaka T, Asai F, Kobayashi Y, Shimano R, Miyauchi K (1996) Antibacterial activity of xanthones from guttiferaeous plants against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. J Pharm Pharmacol 48(8):861–865Google Scholar
  52. Itoh T, Ohguchi K, Iinuma M, Nozawa Y, Akao Y (2008) Inhibitory effect of xanthones isolated from the pericarp of Garcinia mangostana L. on rat basophilic leukemia RBL-2H3 cell degranulation. Bioorg Med Chem 16(8):4500–4508Google Scholar
  53. Jefferson AQA, Scheimann F, Sim KY (1970) Isolation of γ-mangostin from Garcinia mangostana and preparation of the natural mangostins by selective demethylation. Aust J Chem 23:2539–2543Google Scholar
  54. Ji X, Avula B, Khan IA (2007) Quantitative and qualitative determination of six xanthones in Garcinia mangostana L. by LC-PDA and LC-ESI-MS. J Pharm Biomed Anal 43(4):1270–1276Google Scholar
  55. Jiang HZ, Quan XF, Tian WX, Hu JM, Wang PC, Huang SZ, Cheng ZQ, Liang WJ, Zhou J, Ma XF, Zhao YX (2010) Fatty acid synthase inhibitors of phenolic constituents isolated from Garcinia mangostana. Bioorg Med Chem Lett 20(20):6045–6047Google Scholar
  56. Jinsart W, Ternai B, Buddhasukh D, Polya GM (1992) Inhibition of wheat embryo calcium-dependent protein kinase and other kinases by mangostin and gamma-mangostin. Phytochemistry 31(11):3711–3713Google Scholar
  57. Jung H, Su B, Keller W, Mehta R, Kinghorn A (2006) Antioxidant xanthones from the pericarp of Garcinia mangostana (Mangosteen). J Agric Food Chem 54(6):2077–2082Google Scholar
  58. Kaomongkolgit R, Jamdee K, Chaisomboon N (2009) Antifungal activity of alpha-mangostin against Candida albicans. J Oral Sci 51(3):401–406Google Scholar
  59. Kikuchi H, Ohtsuki T, Koyano T, Kowithayakorn T, Sakai T, Ishibashi M (2010) Activity of mangosteen xanthones and teleocidin a-2 in death receptor expression enhancement and tumor necrosis factor related ­apoptosis-inducing ligand assays. J Nat Prod 73(3):452–455Google Scholar
  60. Kondo M, Zhang L, Ji H, Kou Y, Ou B (2009) Bioavailability and antioxidant effects of a xanthone-rich mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana) product in humans. J Agric Food Chem 57(19):8788–8792Google Scholar
  61. Krajewski D, Tóth G, Schreier P (1996) 2-Ethyl-3-methylmaleimide N-β-d-glucopyranoside from the leaves of mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana). Phytochemistry 43(1):141–143Google Scholar
  62. Li XW, Li J, Stevens P (2007) Garcinia Linnaeus. In: Wu ZY, Raven PH, Hong DY (eds.) Flora of China, vol 13, Clusiaceae through Araliaceae. Science Press/Missouri Botanical Garden Press, Beijing/St. LouisGoogle Scholar
  63. MacLeod AJ, Pieris NM (1982) Volatile flavour components of mangosteen, Garcinia mangostana. Phytochemistry 21:117–119Google Scholar
  64. Mahabusarakam W, Wiriyachitra P, Phongpaichit S (1986) Antimicrobial activities of chemical constituents from Garcinia mangostana Linn. J Sci Soc Thailand 12:239–242Google Scholar
  65. Mahabusarakam W, Wiriyachtra P, Taylor W (1987) Chemical constituents of Garcinia mangostana. J Nat Prod 50:474–478Google Scholar
  66. Mahabusarakam W, Kuaha K, Wilairat P, Taylor WC (2006) Prenylated xanthones as potential antiplasmodial substances. Planta Med 72(10):912–916Google Scholar
  67. Mahabusarakam W, Pakawatchai C, Wiriyachitra P, Taylor WC, Skleton BW, White AH (1998) Bicyclomangostin: a new acid-catalysed cyclization product from mangostin. Aust J Chem 51(3):249–254Google Scholar
  68. Mahabusarakam W, Proudfoot J, Taylor W, Croft K (2000) Inhibition of lipoprotein oxidation by prenylated xanthones derived from mangostin. Free Radic Res 33(5):643–659Google Scholar
  69. Matsumoto K, Akao Y, Kobayashi E, Ohguchi K, Ito T, Iinuma M, Nozawa Y (2003) Induction of apoptosis by xanthones from mangosteen in human leukemia cell lines. J Nat Prod 66:1124–1127Google Scholar
  70. Matsumoto K, Akao Y, Ohguchi K, Ito T, Tanaka T, Iinuma M, Nozawa Y (2005) Xanthones induce cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis in human colon cancer DLD-1 cells. Bioorg Med Chem 13(21):6064–6069Google Scholar
  71. Matsumoto K, Akao Y, Yi H, Ohguchi K, Ito T, Tanaka T, Kobayashi E, Iinuma M, Nozawa Y (2004) Preferential target is mitochondria in alpha-mangostin-induced apoptosis in human leukemia HL60 cells. Bioorg Med Chem 12(22):5799–5806Google Scholar
  72. Molesworth Allen B (1967) Malayan fruits. An introduction to the cultivated species. Moore, Singapore, 245 ppGoogle Scholar
  73. Moongkarndi P, Kosem N, Kaslungka S, Luanratana O, Pongpan N, Neungton N (2004a) Antiproliferation, antioxidation and induction of apoptosis by Garcinia mangostana (mangosteen) on SKBR3 human breast cancer cell line. J Ethnopharmacol 90(1):161–166Google Scholar
  74. Moongkarndi P, Kosem N, Luanratana O, Jongsomboonkusol S, Pongpan N (2004b) Antiproliferative activity of Thai medicinal plant extracts on human breast adenocarcinoma cell line. Fitoterapia 75(3–4):375–377Google Scholar
  75. Moongkarndi P, Srisawat C, Saetun P, Jantaravinid J, Peerapittayamongkol C, Soi-ampornkul R, Junnu S, Sinchaikul S, Chen ST, Charoensilp P, Thongboonkerd V, Neungton N (2010) Protective effect of mangosteen extract against beta-amyloid-induced cytotoxicity, oxidative stress and altered proteome in SK-N-SH cells. J Proteome Res 9(5):2076–2086Google Scholar
  76. Morton JF (1987) Mangosteen. In: Julia F (ed.) Fruits of warm climates. Julia F. Morton, Miami, pp 301–304Google Scholar
  77. Munawaroh E, Purwanto Y (2009). Studi hasil hutan non kayu di Kabupaten Malinau, Kalimantan Timur. Paper presented at the 6th basic science national seminar, Universitas Brawijaya, Indonesia, 21 Feb 2009.
  78. Nabandith V, Suzui M, Morioka T, Kaneshiro T, Kinjo T, Matsumoto K, Akao Y, Iinuma M, Yoshimi N (2004) Inhibitory effects of crude alpha-mangostin, a xanthone derivative, on two different categories of colon preneoplastic lesions induced by 1, 2-dimethylhydrazine in the rat. Asia Pac J Cancer Prev 5(4):433–438Google Scholar
  79. Nainwal P, Nanda D, Kalra K, Tripathi SM (2010) Antiulcerogenic effect on the ethanol extract of the fruits of Garcinia mangostana on experimental gastric ulcer in rats. Int J Toxicol Pharmacol Res 2(1):6–9Google Scholar
  80. Nakagawa Y, Iinuma M, Naoe T, Nozawa Y, Akao Y (2007) Characterized mechanism of alpha-mangostin-induced cell death: caspase-independent apoptosis with release of endonuclease-G from mitochondria and increased miR-143 expression in human colorectal cancer DLD-1 cells. Bioorg Med Chem 15(16):5620–5628Google Scholar
  81. Nakatani K, Atsumi M, Arakawa T, Oosawa K, Shimura S, Nakahata N, Ohizumi Y (2002a) Inhibitions of histamine release and prostaglandin E2 synthesis by mangosteen, a Thai medicinal plant. Biol Pharm Bull 25(9):1137–1141Google Scholar
  82. Nakatani K, Nakahata N, Arakawa T, Yasuda H, Ohizumi Y (2002b) Inhibition of cyclooxygenase and prostaglandin E2 synthesis by gamma-mangostin, a xanthone derivative in mangosteen, in C6 rat glioma cells. Biochem Pharmacol 63(1):73–79Google Scholar
  83. Nakatani K, Yamakuni T, Kondo N, Arakawa T, Oosawa K, Shimura S, Inoue H, Ohizumi Y (2004) Gamma-mangostin inhibits inhibitor-kappaB kinase activity and decreases lipopolysaccharide-induced cyclooxygenase-2 gene expression in C6 rat glioma cells. Mol Pharmacol 66(3):667–674Google Scholar
  84. National Academy of Sciences (1975) Underexploited tropical plants with promising economic value. National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC, 188 ppGoogle Scholar
  85. Ngawhirunpat T, Opanasopi P, Sukma M, Sittisombut C, Kat A, Adachi I (2010) Antioxidant, free radical-scavenging activity and cytotoxicity of different solvent extracts and their phenolic constituents from the fruit hull of mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana). Pharm Biol 48(1):55–62Google Scholar
  86. Nilar, Harrison LJ (2002) Xanthones from the heartwood of Garcinia mangostana. Phytochemistry 60(5):541–548Google Scholar
  87. Nguyen LH, Venkatraman G, Sim KY, Harrison LJ (2005) Xanthones and benzophenones from Garcinia griffithii and Garcinia mangostana. Phytochemistry 66(14):1718–1723Google Scholar
  88. Norizan A, Nike Fatini NA, Nurunajab AG, Sharipah Ruzaina SA, Norrizah JS, shamsiah A, Halila J (2010) Bioactive xanthones from the pericarp of Garcinia mangostana. Middle East J Sci Res 6(2):123–127Google Scholar
  89. Ochse JJ, Bakhuizen van den Brink RC (1931) Fruits and fruitculture in the Dutch East Indies. G. Kolff & Co, Batavia-C, 180 ppGoogle Scholar
  90. Ong CY, Ling SK, Ali RM, Chee CF, Samah ZA, Ho AS, Teo SH, Lee HB (2009) Systematic analysis of in vitro photo-cytotoxic activity in extracts from terrestrial plants in Peninsula Malaysia for photodynamic therapy. J Photochem Photobiol B 96(3):216–222Google Scholar
  91. Osman MB, Milan AR (2006) Mangosteen – Garcinia mangostana. University of Southampton, Southampton Centre for Underutilised Crops, Southampton, 186 ppGoogle Scholar
  92. Palakawong C, Sophanodora P, Pisuchpen S, Phongpaichit S (2010) Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of crude extracts from mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L.) parts and some essential oils. Int Food Res J 17:583–589Google Scholar
  93. Palapol Y, Ketsa S, Stevenson D, Cooney JM, Allan AC, Ferguson IB (2009) Colour development and quality of mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L.) fruit during ripening and after harvest. Posth Biol Technol 51(3):349–353Google Scholar
  94. Parveen M, Khan NU-D (1988) Two xanthones from Garcinia mangostana. Phytochemistry 27(11):3964–3966Google Scholar
  95. Parveen M, Khan NU-D, Achari B, Dutta PK (1991) A triterpene from Garcinia mangostana. Phytochemistry 30(1):361–362Google Scholar
  96. Pedraza-Chaverri J, Cárdenas-Rodríguez N, Orozco-Ibarra M, Pérez-Rojas JM (2008) Medicinal properties of mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana). Food Chem Toxicol 46(10):3227–3239Google Scholar
  97. Peres V, Nagem TJ, de Oliveira FF (2000) Tetraoxygenated naturally occurring xanthones. Phytochemistry 55:683–710Google Scholar
  98. Phongpaichit S, Ongsakul M, Nilrat L, Tharavichitkul P, Bunchoo S, Chuaprapaisilp T, Wiriyachitra P (1994) Antibacterial activities of extracts from Garcinia mangostana pericarps on methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus species. Songklanakarin J Sci Technol 16:399–405Google Scholar
  99. Pothitirat W, Chomnawang MT, Supabphol R, Gritsanapan W (2009) Comparison of bioactive compounds content, free radical scavenging and anti-acne inducing bacteria activities of extracts from the mangosteen fruit rind at two stages of maturity. Fitoterapia 80(7):442–447Google Scholar
  100. Pothitirat W, Chomnawang MT, Supabphol R, Gritsanapan W (2010) Free radical scavenging and anti-acne activities of mangosteen fruit rind extracts prepared by different extraction methods. Pharm Biol 48(2):182–186Google Scholar
  101. Quan G-H, Oh S-R, Kim J-H, Lee H-K, Kinghorn AD, Chin Y-W (2010) Xanthone constituents of the fruits of Garcinia mangostana with anticomplement activity. Phytother Res 24:1575–1577Google Scholar
  102. Rassameemasmaung S, Sirikulsathean A, Amornchat C, Hirunrat K, Rojanapanthu P, Gritsanapan W (2007) Effects of herbal mouthwash containing the pericarp extract of Garcinia mangostana L on halitosis, plaque and papillary bleeding index. J Int Acad Periodontol 9(1):19–25Google Scholar
  103. Rassameemasmaung S, Sirikulsathean A, Amornchat C, Maungmingsook P, Rojanapanthu P, Gritsanaphan W (2008) Topical application of Garcinia mangostana L. pericarp gel as an adjunct to periodontal treatment. Complement Ther Med 16(5):262–267Google Scholar
  104. Richards AJ (1990) Studies in Garcinia, dioecious tropical forest trees: the origin of the mangosteen (G. mangostana L.). Bot J Linn Soc 103:301–308Google Scholar
  105. Ryu HW, Curtis-Long MJ, Jung S, Jin YM, Cho JK, Ryu YB, Lee WS, Park KH (2010) Xanthones with neuraminidase inhibitory activity from the seedcases of Garcinia mangostana. Bioorg Med Chem 18(17):6258–6264Google Scholar
  106. Sakagami Y, Iinuma M, Piyasena KG, Dharmaratne HR (2005) Antibacterial activity of alpha-mangostin against vancomycin resistant Enterococci (VRE) and synergism with antibiotics. Phytomedicine 12(3):203–208Google Scholar
  107. Sampath PD, Kannan V (2009) Mitigation of mitochondrial dysfunction and regulation of eNOS expression during experimental myocardial necrosis by alpha-mangostin, a xanthonic derivative from Garcinia mangostana. Drug Chem Toxicol 32(4):344–352Google Scholar
  108. Sampath PD, Vijayaraghavan K (2007) Cardioprotective effect of alpha-mangostin, a xanthone derivative from mangosteen on tissue defense system against isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction in rats. J Biochem Mol Toxicol 21(6):336–339Google Scholar
  109. Sampath PD, Vijayaraghavan K (2008) Ameliorative prospective of alpha-mangostin, a xanthone derivative from Garcinia mangostana against beta-adrenergic cathecolamine-induced myocardial toxicity and anomalous cardiac TNF-alpha and COX-2 expressions in rats. Exp Toxicol Pathol 60(4–5):357–364Google Scholar
  110. Sato A, Fujiwara H, Oku H, Ishiguro K, Ohizumi Y (2004) Alpha-mangostin induces Ca2+−ATPase-dependent apoptosis via mitochondrial pathway in PC12 cells. J Pharmacol Sci 95(1):33–40Google Scholar
  111. Sen AK, Sarkar KK, Majumder PC, Banerji N (1981) Minor xanthones of Garcinia mangostana. Phytochemistry 20(1):183–185Google Scholar
  112. Sen AK, Sarkar KK, Majumder PC, Banerji N (1986) Garcinone-D, a new xanthone from Garcinia mangostana Linn. Indian J Chem 25B:1157–1158Google Scholar
  113. Sen AK, Sarkar KK, Mazumder PC, Banerji N, Uusvuori R, Hase TA (1982) The structures of garcinones a, b and c: three new xanthones from Garcinia mangostana. Phytochemistry 21(7):1747–1750Google Scholar
  114. Sen AK, Uusvuori R, Hase TA, Banerji N, Sarkar KK, Mazumder PC (1980) A xanthone from Garcinia mangostana. Phytochemistry 19:2223–2225Google Scholar
  115. Shankaranarayan D, Gopalakrishnan C, Kameswaran L (1979) Pharmacological profile of mangostin and its derivatives. Arch Int Pharmacodyn Thér 239:257–269Google Scholar
  116. Sobir, Poerwanto R, Santosa E, Sinaga S, Mansyah E (2008) Genetic variability of mangosteen an apomictic Garcinia. Paper presented at the 4th international symposium on tropical & subtropical fruits, Bogor, 3–7 Nov 2008Google Scholar
  117. Suksamrarn S, Komutiban O, Ratananukul P, Chimnoi N, Lartpornmatulee N, Suksamrarn A (2006) Cytotoxic prenylated xanthones from the young fruit of Garcinia mangostana. Chem Pharm Bull Tokyo 54(3):301–305Google Scholar
  118. Suksamrarn S, Suwannapoch N, Phakhodee W, Thanuhiranlert J, Ratananukul P, Chimnoi N, Suksamrarn A (2003) Antimycobacterial activity of prenylated xanthones from the fruits of Garcinia mangostana. Chem Pharm Bull Tokyo 51(7):857–859Google Scholar
  119. Suksamrarn S, Suwannapoch N, Ratananukul P, Aroonlerk N, Suksamrarn A (2002) Xanthones from the green fruit hulls of Garcinia mangostana. J Nat Prod 65(5):761–763Google Scholar
  120. Sundaram BM, Gopalakrishnan C, Subramanian S, Shankaranarayanan D, Kameswaran L (1983) Antimicrobial activities of Garcinia mangostana. Planta Med 48:59–60Google Scholar
  121. Tangpong J, Miriyala S, Noel T, Sinthupibulyakit C, Jungsuwadee P, St Clair DK (2011) Doxorubicin-induced central nervous system toxicity and protection by xanthone derivative of Garcinia mangostana. Neuroscience 175:292–299Google Scholar
  122. Tee ES, Noor MI, Azudin MN, Idris K (1997) Nutrient composition of Malaysian foods, 4th edn. Institute for Medical Research, Kuala Lumpur, p 299 ppGoogle Scholar
  123. Tewtrakul S, Wattanapiromsakul C, Mahabusarakam W (2009) Effects of compounds from Garcinia mangostana on inflammatory mediators in RAW264.7 macrophage cells. J Ethnopharmacol 121(3):379–382Google Scholar
  124. Torrungruang K, Vichienroj P, Chutimaworapan S (2007) Antibacterial activity of mangosteen pericarp extract against cariogenic Streptococcus mutans. CU Dent J 30:1–10Google Scholar
  125. Tosa H, Iinuma M, Tanaka T, Nozaki H, Ikeda S, Tsutsui K, Tsutsui K, Yamada M, Fujimori S (1997) Inhibitory activity of xanthone derivatives isolated from some Guttiferous plants against DNA topoisomerases I and II. Chem Pharm Bull 45(2):418–420Google Scholar
  126. Udani JK, Singh BB, Barrett ML, Singh VJ (2009) Evaluation of mangosteen juice blend on biomarkers of inflammation in obese subjects: a pilot, dose finding study. Nutr J 8:48Google Scholar
  127. Verheij EWM (1992) Garcinia mangostan L. In: Verheij EWM, Coronel RE (eds.) Plant resources of South-East Asia No 2. Edible fruits and nuts. PROSEA, Bogor, pp 177–181Google Scholar
  128. Vishnu Priya V, Jainu M, Mohan SK, Karthik B, Saraswathi P, Chandra Sada GVS (2010a) Toxicity study of Garcinia mangostana Linn. pericarp extract in rats. Asian J Exp Biol Sci 1(3):633–637Google Scholar
  129. Vishnu Priya V, Jainu M, Mohan SK, Saraswathi P, Chandra Sada GVS (2010b) Antimicrobial activity of pericarp extract of Garcinia mangostana Linn. Int J Pharma Sci Res 1(8):278–281Google Scholar
  130. Voravuthikunchai SP, Kitpipit L (2005) Activity of medicinal plant extracts against hospital isolates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Clin Microbiol Infect 11(6):510–512Google Scholar
  131. Walker EB (2007) HPLC analysis of selected xanthones in mangosteen fruit. J Sep Sci 30:1229–1234Google Scholar
  132. Watanapokasin R, Jarinthanan F, Jerusalmi A, Suksamrarn S, Nakamura Y, Sukseree S, Uthaisang-Tanethpongtamb W, Ratananukul P, Sano T (2010) Potential of xanthones from tropical fruit mangosteen as anti-cancer agents: caspase-dependent apoptosis induction in vitro and in mice. Appl Biochem Biotechnol 162(4):1080–1094Google Scholar
  133. Weecharangsan W, Opanasopit P, Sukma M, Ngawhirunpat T, Sotanaphun U, Siripong P (2006) Antioxidative and neuroprotective activities of extracts from the fruit hull of mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana Linn.). Med Princ Pract 15(4):281–287Google Scholar
  134. Whitmore TC (1972) Guttiferae. In: Whitmore TC (ed.) Tree flora of Malaya, vol 2. Longman, Kuala Lumpur, pp 162–236Google Scholar
  135. Williams P, Ongsakul M, Proudfoot J, Croft K, Beilin L (1995) Mangostin inhibits the oxidative modification of human low density lipoprotein. Free Radic Res 23(2):175–184Google Scholar
  136. Wong LP, Klemmer PJ (2008) Severe lactic acidosis associated with juice of the mangosteen fruit Garcinia mangostana. Am J Kidney Dis 51:829–833Google Scholar
  137. Yu L, Zhao M, Yang B, Bai W (2009) Immunomodulatory and anticancer activities of phenolics from Garcinia mangostana fruit pericarp. Food Chem 116(4):969–973Google Scholar
  138. Yu L, Zhao M, Yang B, Zhao Q, Jiang Y (2007) Phenolics from hull of Garcinia mangostana fruit and their antioxidant activities. Food Chem 104(1):176–181Google Scholar
  139. Zhang Y, Song Z, Hao J, Qiu S, Xu Z (2010) Two new prenylated xanthones and a new prenylated tetrahydroxanthone from the pericarp of Garcinia mangostana. Fitoterapia 81(6):595–599Google Scholar
  140. Zhao Y, Liu JP, Lu D, Li PY, Zhang LX (2010) A new antioxidant xanthone from the pericarp of Garcinia mangostana Linn. Nat Prod Res 24(17):1664–1670Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • T. K. Lim
    • 1
  1. 1.ChisholmAustralia

Personalised recommendations