Teacher Feedback in Formative Classroom Assessment

  • Susan M. Brookhart
Part of the Studies in Educational Leadership book series (SIEL, volume 15)


This chapter seeks to answer the question, “What kinds of teacher feedback are most effective?” It begins by defining formative assessment, the context in which most classroom feedback is given, and the role of the teacher in it. Then, building from literature, 11 aspects of the decisions teachers make while giving feedback are identified: decisions about the feedback’s timing, amount, mode, audience, focus, function, comparison, valence, clarity, specificity, and tone. For each, recommendations from literature are presented and then discussed in terms of classroom practice.


Formative Assessment Average Effect Size Feedback Message Classroom Assessment Teacher Feedback 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Center for Advancing the Study of Teaching and LearningSchool of Education at Duquesne UniversityPittsburghUSA

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