Bioaccumulation and Trophic Transfer

Chapter

Abstract

Sediments are not simply a passive sink for contaminants, on the contrary, benthic animals can both act as accumulators with subsequent transfer of materials to their predators, and through their physiological processes can transport contaminants either in solution or adsorbed to sediment particles. Worms can accumulate metals and have metabolic routes that are able to eliminate them via excretion or store them in subcellular fractions that are not toxic to the organism. Body burdens of essential metals are physiologically regulated, and show other uptake-elimination models than non-essential metals. Bioavailability of metals through adsorption on organic particles or due to the formation of sulphides, pH, or dissolved oxygen levels has been studied and may explain the frequent lack of correlation between body burden and sediment or pore water toxicant concentration. Surface adsorption of some metals into the mucous layer covering the body and contaminants in food that passes through the gut without being absorbed are confounding factors in bioaccumulation assessment that must be considered to the extent possible. Worms exposed to pesticides, PCBs, HCB, or metals, proved to be toxic to crayfish, leech and fish feeding on them, thus worms play a role in the transfer of toxicants through the food chain. Worms are also important bioturbators in the aquatic systems through their burrowing, feeding and respiratory activities, making toxicants more available to animals at higher trophic levels, even if they are not prey for those species. These results are important for environmental risk assessment when the potential for a chemical to bioaccumulate or biomagnify through the food chain is suspected. There is a considerable amount of work required to develop a full understanding of the toxicokinetics, uptake routes, assimilation efficiencies, detoxification processes, elimination rates, and organs responsible for bioaccumulation and depuration in aquatic oligochaetes.

Keywords

Pore Water Sediment Concentration Body Burden Acid Volatile Sulphide Bioaccumulation Factor 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Zoology and Animal Cell Biology Faculty of Science and TechnologyUniversity of the Basque CountryBilbaoSpain
  2. 2.Acadia Centre for Estuarine Research National Water Research Institute Environment CanadaAcadia UniversityWolfvilleCanada

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