A group of studies on the diversity of endophytic bacteria in forest trees is presented in terms of host plant species variety and the number of reports. Many host tree species are underrepresented in these studies: Trees in the tropics as well as some important temperate tree species, such as those belonging to the genera of Alnus and Fagus, have not yet been investigated.
Endophytic bacterial diversity, on the other hand, covers a wide range of bacterial phyla including Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria and Firmicutes. The endophytic bacteria related to the genus Acinetobacter occur more frequently in forest trees than in agricultural crops.
Population densities of endophytic bacteria in trees vary from 101 to 106 per gram of sample. The genera Pseudomonas and Bacillus comprise the major groups of the endophytic bacterial community, and the genera Actinobacteria, Acinetobacter and Sphingomonas make up a significant proportion of the community in many trees.
More studies are required, particularly through cultivation-independent approaches, to obtain a better picture of the diversity of endophytic bacteria in forest trees.
Forest Tree Endophytic Bacterium Host Plant Species Forest Tree Species Bacterial Endophyte
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
This work was financially supported by by a postdoc grant from the Department of Forest Mycology and Pathology, SLU.
Anand R, Paul L, Chanway C (2006) Research on endophytic bacteria: recent advances with forest trees. In: Schulz B, Boyle C, Sieber TN (eds) Soil biology, vol 9, Microbial root endophytes. Springer, Berlin, pp 89–106Google Scholar
Araujo WL, Marcon J, Maccheroni W Jr et al (2002) Diversity of endophytic bacterial populations and their interaction with Xylella fastidiosa in citrus plants. Appl Environ Microbiol 68: 4906–4914PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bal A (2003) Isolation of endophytic bacteria from lodgepole pine (Pinus contrata var. latifolia (Dougl.) Engelm.) and western red cedar (Thuja plicata Donn.) and determination of their nitrogen fixing ability. MSc thesis. The University of British ColumbiaGoogle Scholar
Bell CR, Dickie GA, Harvey WLG et al (1995) Endophytic bacteria in grapevine. Can J Microbiol 41:46–53CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bent E, Chanway CP (2002) Potential for misidentification of spore-forming Paenibacillus polymyxa isolate as an endophyte by using culture-based methods. Appl Environ Microbiol 68:4650–4652PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Brooks D, Gonzalez CF, Appel DN et al (1994) Evaluation of endophytic bacteria as potential biological control agents for oak wilt. Biol Control 4:373–381CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bulgari D, Casati P, Brusetti L et al (2009) Endophytic bacterial diversity in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) leaves described by 16 S rRNA gene sequence analysis and length heterogeneity-PCR. J Microbiol 47:393–401PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cambours MA, Nejad P, Granhall U et al (2005) Frost-related dieback of willows. Comparison of epiphytically and endophytically isolated bacteria from different Salix clones, with emphasis on ice nucleation activity, pathogenic properties and seasonal variation. Biomass Bioenergy 28:15–27CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cankar K, Kraigher H, Ravnikar M et al (2005) Bacterial endophytes from seed of Norway spruce (Picea abies L. Karst). FEMS Microbiol Lett 244:341–345PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Doty SL, Oakley B, Xin G et al (2009) Diazotrophic endophytes of native cottonwood and willow. Symbiosis 47:23–33CrossRefGoogle Scholar
FAO (2006) Global forest resources assessment 2005. FAO forestry paper 147. FAO Rome, pp 37–56Google Scholar
Ferreira A, Quecine MC, Lacava PT et al (2008) Diversity of endophytic bacteria from Eucalyptus species seeds and colonization of seedlings by Pantoea agglomerans. FEMS Microbiol Lett 287:8–14PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Filteau M, Lagace L, LaPointe G et al (2010) Seasonal and regional diversity of maple sap microbiota revealed using community PCR fingerprinting and 16 S rRNA gene clone libraries. Syst Appl Microbiol 33:165–173PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gardner JM, Feldman AW, Zablotowicz RM (1982) Identity and behavior of xylem-residing bacteria in rough lemon roots of Florida citrus trees. Appl Environ Microbiol 43:1335–1342PubMedGoogle Scholar
Hallmann J, QuadtHallmann A, Mahaffee WF et al (1997) Bacterial endophytes in agricultural crops. Can J Microbiol 43:895–914CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hunter GC, van der Merwe NA, Burgess TI et al (2008) Global movement and population biology of Mycosphaerella nubilosa infecting leaves of cold-tolerant Eucalyptus globulus and E. nitens. Plant Pathol 57:235–242CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Izumi H, Anderson IC, Killham K et al (2008) Diversity of predominant endophytic bacteria in European deciduous and coniferous trees. Can J Microbiol 54:173–179PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kuffner M, De Maria S, Puschernreiter M et al (2010) Culturable bacteria from Zn- and Cd-accumulating Salix caprea with differential effects on plant growth and heavy metal availability. J Appl Microbiol 108:1471–1484PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mocali S, Bertelli E, De Cello F et al (2003) Fluctuation of bacteria isolated from elm tissues during different seasons and from different plant organs. Res Microbiol 154:105–114PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mogge B, Loferer C, Agerer R et al (2000) Bacterial community structure and colonization patterns of Fagus sylvatica L-ectomycorrhizospheres as determined by fluorescence in situ hybridization and confocal laser scanning microscopy. Mycorrhiza 9:271–278CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Moore FP, Barac T, Borremans B et al (2006) Endophytic bacterial diversity in poplar trees growing on a BTEX-contaminated site: the characterisation of isolates with potential to enhance phytoremediation. Syst Appl Microbiol 29:539–556PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
O’Neill GA, Chanway CP, Axelrood PE et al (1992) Growth response specificity of spruce inoculated with coexistent rhizosphere bacteria. Can J Bot 70:2347–2353CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pardatscher R, Schweigkofler W (2009) Microbial biodiversity associated with walnut Juglans regia L. in south Tyrol (Italy). Mitt Klosterneuburg 59:17–23Google Scholar
Pirttilä AM, Laukkanen H, Pospiech H et al (2002) Detection of intracellular bacteria in buds of Scotch pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) by in situ hybridization. Appl Environ Microbiol 66:3073–3077CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Procopio REL, Araujo WL, Maccheroni W Jr et al (2009) Characterization of an endophytic bacterial community associated with Eucalyptus spp. Genet Mol Res 8:1408–1422PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rosenblueth M, Martinez-Romero E (2006) Bacterial endophytes and their interactions with hosts. Mol Plant Microbe Interact 19:827–837PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sardi P, Saracchi M, Quaroni S et al (1992) Isolation of endophytic Streptomyces strains from surface-sterilized roots. Appl Environ Microbiol 58:2691–2693PubMedGoogle Scholar
Shishido M, Loeb BM, Chanway CP (1995) External and internal root colonization of lodgepole pine seedlings by two growth-promoting Bacillus strains originated from different root microsites. Can J Microbiol 41:707–713CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Strzelczyk E, Li C-Y (2000) Bacterial endobionts in the big non-mycorrhizal roots of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.). Microbiol Res 155:229–232PubMedGoogle Scholar
Sturz AV, Christie BR, Nowak J (2000) Bacterial endophytes: potential role in developing sustainable systems of crop production. Crit Rev Plant Sci 19:1–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Taghavi A, Garafola C, Monchy S et al (2009) Genome survey and characterization of endophytic bacteria exhibiting a beneficial effect on growth and development of poplar trees. Appl Environ Microbiol 75:748–757PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Torres AR, Araujo WL, Cursino L et al (2008) Diversity of endophytic enterobacteria associated with different host plants. J Microbiol 46:373–379PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Torsvik V, Oveås L (2002) Microbial diversity and function in soil: from genes to ecosystems. Curr Opin Microbiol 5:240–245PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tower K (2006) The genus acinetobacter. In: Falkow S, Rosenberg E, Schleifer K-H, Stackebrandt E, Dworkin M (eds) Prokaryotes, vol 6, 3rd edn. Springer, Berlin, pp 746–758CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ulrich K, Ulrich A, Ewald D (2008a) Diversity of endophytic bacterial communities in poplar grown under field conditions. FEMS Microbiol Ecol 63:169–180PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ulrich K, Ulrich A, Ewald D (2008b) Paenibacillus – a predominant endophytic bacterium colonizing tissue cultures of woody plants. Plant Cell Tiss Organ Cult 93:347–351CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Van der Lelie D, Taghavi S, Monchy S et al (2009) Poplar and its bacterial endophytes: coexistence and harmony. Crit Rev Plant Sci 28:346–358CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Vega F, Pava-Ripoll M, Pasoda F et al (2005) Endophytic bacteria in Coffea arabica L. J Basic Microbiol 45:371–380PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wang ET, Tan ZY, Guo XW et al (2006) Diverse endophytic bacteria isolated from a leguminous tree Conzattia multiflora grown in Mexico. Arch Microbiol 186:251–259PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
West ER, Cother EJ, Steel CC et al (2010) The characterization and diversity of bacterial endophytes of grapevine. Can J Microbiol 56:209–216PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Yrjälä K, Mancano G, Fortelius C et al (2010) The incidence of Burkholderia in epiphytic and endophytic bacterial cenoses in hybrid aspen grown on sandy peat. Boreal Environ Res 15: 81–96Google Scholar