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The Endophytic Trichoderma hamatum Isolate DIS 219b Enhances Seedling Growth and Delays the Onset of Drought Stress in Theobroma cacao

  • Bryan A. Bailey
  • Hanhong Bae
  • Rachel Melnick
  • Jayne Crozier
Chapter
Part of the Forestry Sciences book series (FOSC, volume 80)

Abstract

Theobroma cacao (cacao) is a tropical understory tree with sensitivity to drought. Cacao responds to drought by decreases in net photosynthesis, PS II efficiency, stomatal conductance, water potential and changes in leaf florescence. Drought also alters cacao gene expression as well as leaf glucose and free amino acid content. In recent years an incredible diversity of fungal endophytes has been identified in association with cacao. These endophytes are being studied for the benefits they provide to cacao including tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses. During establishment of the endophytic association between cacao and fungal endophytes both plant and fungal gene expression are altered. The endophytic Trichoderma hamatum isolate DIS 219b delays the onset of drought stress in cacao. This delay manifests itself through enhanced root growth, maintenance of stomatal conductance, water potential, net photosynthesis, and PSII efficiency, changes in free amino acid concentrations, and a delay in drought-induced changes in leaf gene expression. The cacao plant and DIS 219b adapt to each other and this adaptation may contribute to the observed plant growth promotion and the delay in onset of drought stress. The increase in root growth is thought to increase water uptake and availability, delaying the time point where the water supply becomes limiting and drought stress occurs.

Keywords

Drought Stress Endophytic Fungus Plant Growth Promotion Drought Response Trichoderma Species 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Abbreviations

MIP

major intrinsic protein

BGF

blue-green fluorescence

PA

polyamine

EST

expression sequence tag

TcODC

ornithine decarboxylase

TcADC

arginine decarboxylase

TcSAMDC

S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase

TcTPP

trehalose-6-phosphatase

TcSOT

putative sorbitol transporter

TcPR5

osmotin-like protein

TcNI

putative alkaline/neutral invertase

TcCESA3

putatively encoding a cellulose synthase

TcLOX

13-lipoxygenase

AOC

allene oxide cyclase

TcTIP

a tonoplast intrinsic protein

TcRPK

receptor-like protein kinase

TcMKK4

putative mitogen-activated protein

TcSTK

serine/threonine protein kinase

NR

nitrate reductase

HK

histidine kinase

TcHK

sensor type histidine kinase

TcMAPK3

mitogen-activated protein kinase

TcPP2C

protein phosphatase

TcZFP

C2H2 zinc finger protein

ABA

abscisic acid

VAM

vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhiza

ASP

asparagine

HIS

histidine

ARG

arginine

PRO

proline

GABA

gamma-aminobutyric acid

VAL

valine

LEU

leucine

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Bryan A. Bailey
    • 1
  • Hanhong Bae
    • 2
  • Rachel Melnick
    • 1
  • Jayne Crozier
    • 3
  1. 1.United States Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service, Sustainable Perennial Crops Laboratory (USDA-ARS)BARC-WestBeltsvilleUSA
  2. 2.School of BiotechnologyYeungnam UniversityGyeongsanRepublic of Korea
  3. 3.CABI Caribbean & Latin America – CATIE Office, Centro Agronómico Tropica de Investigación y Enseñanza (CATIE)CartagoCosta Rica

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