Advertisement

National Policies on Skilled Labour and the Cross-border Student Market, with a Focus on Vietnam

  • Cate Gribble
Chapter
Part of the Higher Education Dynamics book series (HEDY, volume 36)

Abstract

Rapid socio-economic change in Vietnam has resulted in increasing numbers of Vietnamese pursuing overseas study. The dramatic rise in self-funded students is largely the result of Vietnam’s increasingly affluent middle-class choosing overseas study over a domestic tertiary system that is lacking in both capacity and quality. A key consequence of this rise in international student mobility is the trend for Vietnamese students to remain abroad post graduation. This trend poses significant challenges for the Vietnamese government which must develop policy that will allow the country to capitalize on the many positive consequences associated with increased international student mobility, while minimizing any potential negative ramifications. This chapter considers the factors that have led to the growth in overseas study in Vietnam and examines various policy responses that aim to manage international student mobility.

Keywords

International Student World Trade Organization Return Migration Foreign Student High Education Sector 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Anh, B. (2008). More Vietnamese students look to study abroad. Look at Vietnam. http://www.lookatvietnam.com. Accessed 7 Jan 2010.
  2. Ashwill, M. A., & Le, N. M. (2004). A look at nonpublic higher education in Vietnam. International Higher Education. http://www.bc.edu/bc_org./avp/soe/cihe/. Accessed 12 Aug 2008.Google Scholar
  3. Australian Education International (AEI). (2007). International student enrolments in higher education in 2006. http://www.aei.ogv.au. Accessed 21 Sept 2008.Google Scholar
  4. Australian Education International (AEI). (2009). AEI international student data YTD July 2008. http://www.aei.gov.au. Accessed 9 Oct 2009.Google Scholar
  5. Batalova, J. (2007). The ‘brain gain’ race begins with foreign students. Migration Policy Institute. http://www.migrationinformation.org. Accessed 1 Oct 2008.Google Scholar
  6. Berkhout, A., Brink, M., & Hello, E. (2005). Return migration and employment: The possibilities for support investigated. Amsterdam: Regionplan Policy Research.Google Scholar
  7. China Daily. (2003). Plan to reverse brain drain. http://www.chinadaily.com.cn. Accessed 2 Sept 2008Google Scholar
  8. Down, D. (2009). Vietnam: Persuading overseas students to return. University World News. http://www.universityworldnews.com. Accessed 15 Jan 2010.
  9. Fangchao, L. (2007). China hit by brain drain, report says. China Daily. http://www.chinadaily.cn. Accessed 9 Oct 2008.Google Scholar
  10. Gentleman, A. (2008). ‘Brain gain’ for India as elite return. The Observer. http://www.guardian.co.uk. Accessed 28 Aug 2008.Google Scholar
  11. German Research Foundation. (2005). Switzerland: The national research funding system. German Research Foundation. http://www.dfg.de. Accessed 2 Oct 2008.Google Scholar
  12. Gribble, C. (2008). Policy options for managing international student migration: The sending country’s perspective. Journal of Higher Education Policy and Management, 30 (1), 25–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Hang, T. (2009). Government moves to curtail students studying abroad. Vietnews. http://www.vietnewsonline.vn. Accessed 14 Jan 2010.Google Scholar
  14. Hayden, M., & Thiep, L. Q. (2006). A 2020 vision for higher education in Vietnam. International Higher Education, 44, 11–13. http://www.bc.edu/bc_org/avp/soe/cihe/newsletter. Accessed 11 Sept 2008.Google Scholar
  15. Hugo, G. (2003). Circular migration: Keeping development rolling? Migration Information Source. http://www.migrationinformationsource.org. Accessed 2 Oct 2008.Google Scholar
  16. Hung, N. N. (2007) VN-NZ educational cooperation. Paper presented at the 16th Annual New Zealand International Education Conference, AucklandGoogle Scholar
  17. IAC. (2004). Realizing the promise and potential of African agriculture. InterAcademy Council. http://www.interacademycouncil.net. Accessed 20 Aug 2008.Google Scholar
  18. John, K. (2007). Vietnam’s WTO hopes and dreams. Asia Times Online. http://www.atimes.com. Accessed 1 Oct 2008.Google Scholar
  19. Kelly, K. (2000). The higher education system in Vietnam. World Education Services. http://www.wes.org. Accessed 2 Sept 2008.Google Scholar
  20. Lasanowski, V. (2008). Are the pieces of the puzzle falling into place? World Education Services. http://www.wes.org. Accessed 2 Sept 2008.Google Scholar
  21. Le, H. (2008). Long way to go before Vietnam has globally recognized schools. Thanh Nien News. http://www.thanhniennews.com. Accessed 20 Sept 2008.Google Scholar
  22. Lowel, B. L., Findlay, A., & Stewart, E. (2004). Brain strain, optimizing highly skilled migration from developing countries. Asylum and Migration Working Paper 3. London: Institute for Public Policy Research. http://www.ippr.org. Accessed 2 Oct 2008.Google Scholar
  23. McBurnie, G., & Ziguras, C. (2001) The regulation of transnational higher education in Southeast Asia: case studies of Hong Kong, Malaysia and Australia. Higher Education 42(1), 85–105.Google Scholar
  24. MOFA. (2008). Project seeks to lure overseas Vietnamese scientists back. Ministry of Foreign Affairs. http://www.mofk.ov.vn. Accessed 9 Oct 2008.Google Scholar
  25. O’Neil, K. (2003). Brain drain and gain: The case of Taiwan. Migration Information Source. http://www.migrationinformation.org. Accessed 1 Oct 2008.Google Scholar
  26. Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, OECD. (2006). OECD science, technology and industry outlook 2006. Paris: OECD.Google Scholar
  27. OVIBA. (2005). The Overseas Vietnamese Business Association in Ho Chi Minh City. Overseas Vietnamese Business Association. http://www.oviba.com. Accessed 9 Oct 2008.Google Scholar
  28. OVS-Club. (2005) Overseas Vietnamese Club for Science and Technology. http://www.ovsclub.com.vn. Accessed 18 Oct 2009.Google Scholar
  29. Padma, T. V. (2008). Indian government boosts science spending. Science and Development Network. http://www.scidev.net. Accessed 28 Aug 2008.Google Scholar
  30. Pelzion, C. (2002). Is the Italian brain drain becoming a flood? Science Careers. http://sciencecareers.sciencemag.org. Accessed 28 Aug 2008.Google Scholar
  31. Saxenian, A. (2006). The new Argonauts: Regional advantage in a global economy. Cambridge: Harvard University PressGoogle Scholar
  32. Seguin, B., Singer, P. A., & Daar, A. S. (2006). Scientific diasporas. Science, 312(5780), 1602–1603.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Szelenyi, K. (2006). Students without borders? Migratory decision-making among international graduate students in the U.S. Knowledge, Technology, and Policy, 19(3), 64–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Teferra, D. (2005). Brain circulation: Unparalleled opportunities, underlying challenges, and outmoded presumptions. Journal of Studies in International Education, 9(3), 229–250.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Thanh Nien News. (2005). Vietnam overseas studies and graduate destinations. Thanh Nien News. http://www.thanhniennews.com. Accessed 14 Sept 2008.Google Scholar
  36. Thanh Nien News. (2008a). A brain drain that is bleeding state coffers. Thanh Nien News. www.thanhniennews.com. Accessed 14 Sept2008.Google Scholar
  37. The Economist. (2008). Flu symptoms. The Economist.www.economist.com. Accessed 2 Oct 2008.Google Scholar
  38. The OV Business Club. (2007). The Overseas Vietnamese Business Club. http://www.ov-club.com. Accessed 9 Oct 2009.Google Scholar
  39. UNESCO. (2007). Data Centre UNESCO Institute of Statistics. http://www.uis.unesco.org. Accessed 2 Oct 2008.Google Scholar
  40. Vallely, T. J., & Wilkinson, B. (2008). Vietnamese higher education: Crisis and response. Cambridge: Harvard Kennedy School.Google Scholar
  41. Varghese, N. V. (2007). GATS and higher education: The need for regulatory policy. Paris: UNESCOGoogle Scholar
  42. VGAC. (2008). Vietnamese Graduates from Australia Club. Vietnamese Graduates from Australia Club. http://www.vgac.net. Accessed 2 Oct 2008Google Scholar
  43. Vietabroader. (2008). Vietabroader mission statement. Vietabroader. www.vietabroader.org. Accessed 16 October 2008.Google Scholar
  44. Vietnam Net Bridge. (2006). Challenges, opportunities await Vietnam as WTO member. http://english.vietnamnet.vn. Accessed 2 Oct 2008.Google Scholar
  45. Vietnam Net Bridge. (2006a). PM describes advantages, challenges of joining WTO. Vietnam Net Bridge. http://english.vietnamnet.vn. Accessed 15 Sept 2008.Google Scholar
  46. Vietnam Net Bridge. (2006b). Increase in study abroad in WTO period. Vietnam Net Bridge. http://english.vietnamnet.vn. Accessed 16 Oct 2008.Google Scholar
  47. Vietnam Net Bridge. (2006c). Skill shortage causes Vietnam to lose out. Vietnam Net Bridge. http://english.vietnamnet.vn. Accessed 16 Oct 2008.Google Scholar
  48. Vietnam Net Bridge. (2008a). University exams will not be overly tense. Vietnam Net Bridge. http://english.vietnamnet.vnleducation. Accessed 24 Sept 2008.Google Scholar
  49. Vietnam Net Bridge. (2008b). Overseas Vietnamese students, potential human resource. Vietnam Net Bridge. http://english.vietnamnet.vn. Accessed 15 Sept 2008.Google Scholar
  50. VIR. (2004). Resolution welcomes help from Viet Kieu. Vietnam Investment Review. www.vir.com.vn. Accessed 2 Oct 2008.Google Scholar
  51. VIR. (2005). Shopping around for right way to join WTO. Vietnam Investment Review. www.vir.com.vn. Accessed 2 Oct 2008.Google Scholar
  52. VIR. (2009). Knowledge tree is not bearing fruit. Vietnam Investment Review. www.vir.com.vn. Accessed 6 Jan 2010.Google Scholar
  53. Welch, A. R. (2006). Ho Chi Minh meets the market: Public and private higher education in Vietnam. Paper presented at The Australian and New Zealand Comparative and International Education Society 2006 Annual Conference, Canberra.Google Scholar
  54. Wheeler, C. (2009). Journey to the east as scholars return home. The Times Higher Education. http://www.timeshighereducation.co.uk. Accessed 10 Jan 2010.
  55. World Bank. (2007). World development report 2007: Development and the next generation. Washington: World Bank.Google Scholar
  56. Ziguras, C., & Law, S. F. (2006). Recruiting international students as skilled migrants: The global ‘skills race’ as viewed from Australia and Malaysia. Globalisation, Societies and Education, 4(1), 59–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of Arts and EducationDeakin UniversityMelbourneAustralia

Personalised recommendations