Advertisement

Biological Processes

  • Sergey M. GovorushkoEmail author
Chapter

Abstract

Biology is a natural science concerned with the study of living organisms, including their coexistence in the environment. The habitats of humans and other living organisms coincide, and their activities influence one another. The value of other living organisms to human beings is immense, and without them, the existence of humanity on earth would be impossible. Indeed, we must remember that all nutrients (proteins, fats and carbohydrates) are derived from other living organisms, and our only inorganic foods are salt and water. This chapter focuses on species that have the most adverse effects (at some point through their life history) on human beings. Negative influences can be attributed to feeding activities, diverse defence actions, or just simply the struggle for coexistence with mankind.

Keywords

Biology Animals Plants Microorganisms Mortality Economic loss Damage Biological processes Rates Origins Impacts Human activity 

References

  1. Abuladze KI, Demidov NV, Nepoklonov AA et al (1990) Parasitology and invasive diseases of livestock animals. Agropromizdat, Moscow, 464pp (in Russian)Google Scholar
  2. Adhikari MK, Devkota S, Tiwari RD (2005) Ethnomycological knowledge on uses of wild mushrooms in western and central Nepal. Our Nat 3:13–19Google Scholar
  3. Ado V, Astafyeva NG (1991) Pollen diseases: hypersensitization to pollen. Znaniye, Moscow, 224pp (in Russian)Google Scholar
  4. Adrianov AV (2007) Environmental safety of the far-eastern seas of Russian Federation. In: Nature without Borders. Far Eastern State University, Vladivostok, pp 13–19 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  5. Agricultural entomology (1955) Selkhozgiz, Moscow, 616 pp (in Russian)Google Scholar
  6. Agricultural entomology (1976) Kolos, Moscow, 448 pp (in Russian)Google Scholar
  7. Akbayev MS, Vasilevich FI, Rossiitseva FR (1992) Parasitology and individual diseases of agricultural animals. Agropromizdat, Moscow, 447pp (in Russian)Google Scholar
  8. Akimova TA, Khaskin VV (1999) Ecology. VINITI, Moscow, 454 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  9. Allan JR, Orosz AP (2001) The costs of bird strikes to commercial aviation. In: Proceedings of third joint annual meeting of bird strike committee-USA, Canada, Calgary. http://digitalcommons.unl.edu/birdstrike2001/2/
  10. Allen VG, Segarra E (2001) Anti-quality components in forage: overview, significance, and economic impact. J Range Manage 54(4):409–412Google Scholar
  11. Anderson K (1964) Black panther of Sivanipalli. Nauka, Moscow, 175 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  12. Anderson DM, Hoagland P, Kaoru Y, White AW (2000) Estimated annual economic impacts from harmful algal blooms (HABs) in the United States. Technical report, September 2000, 96 pp. http://www.doh.state.fl.us/environment/medicine/aquatic/pdfs/WHOI_RedTideEconomicsReport.pdf
  13. Andreyuk EI, Kopteva ZhP, Zanina VV (1990) Cyanobacteriae. Naukova dumka, Kiev, 195pp (in Russian)Google Scholar
  14. Anuchin NPП (1991) Forest management. Ekologiya, Moscow, 399pp (in Russian)Google Scholar
  15. Arnold T (2007a) Spider envenomation, brown recluse. http://www.emedicine.medscape.com/article/772295, overview, updated 7 June 2007
  16. Arnold T (2007b) Toxicity, ciguatera. http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/813869-overview. Updated 7 June 2007
  17. Arnold T (2007c) Toxicity, shellfish. http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/818505-overview. Updated 7 June 2007
  18. Atlas of oceans: Pacific ocean. (1974). Editor Gorshkov SG. Ministry of defence, Moscow, 302 pp (in Russian)Google Scholar
  19. Azbukina ZM (2005) Inferior plants, fungi and bryophytics of Far East of Russia. In: Fungi, vol 5. Rust fungi. Dalnauka, Vladivostok, 616pp (in Russian)Google Scholar
  20. Baldé MC, Dieng B, Inapogui AP, Barry AO, Bah H, Kondé K (2002) Problems with envenomations in Guinea. Bull Soc Pathol Exot 95(3):157–159Google Scholar
  21. Bandara R, Tisdell C (2003) Wildlife damage, insurance/compensation for farmers and conservation: Sri Lankan elephants as a case. Working Paper No. 77. University of Queensland, Brisbane, 44 ppGoogle Scholar
  22. Bannikov AG, Darevsky IS, Rustamov AK (1971) Amphibians and reptiles of the USSR. Reference–key. Mysl, Moscow, 303 pp (in Russian)Google Scholar
  23. Barbier M (1978) Introduction to chemical ecology. Mir, Moscow, 229 pp (in Russian)Google Scholar
  24. Bartram S, Boland W (2001) Chemistry and ecology of toxic birds. Chembiochem 2:809–811Google Scholar
  25. Bawaskar HS, Bawaskar PH (1998) Scorpion sting. J Assoc Physicians India 46(4):388–392Google Scholar
  26. Bebler JL, King FW (1979) The Audubon Society field guide to North American reptiles and amphibians. Alfred A. Knopf, New York, 743 ppGoogle Scholar
  27. Behram AJ (2002) Schistosomiasis. eMedicine J 3(1). http://emedicine.com/emerg.topic857.htm
  28. Bergman NJ (1997) Clinical description of Parabuthus transvaalicus scorpionism in Zimbabwe. Toxicon 35(5):759–771Google Scholar
  29. Berryman A (1990) Protection of forests against destructive insects. Agropromizdat, Moscow, 288pp (in Russian)Google Scholar
  30. Bertolini J (2001) Rabies // eMedicine Journal. August 10, vol. 2. No. 8. http://www.emedicine.com/emerg/topic493.htm
  31. Biological invasions in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems (2004) KMK, Moscow, 436 pp (in Russian)Google Scholar
  32. Biology of woodland choir and beasts (1975) Vysshaya shkola, Moscow, 384 pp (in Russian)Google Scholar
  33. Bolotin EI (1999) Ixodic ticks of the Russian Far East. FEB RAS, Vladivostok, 112pp (in Russian)Google Scholar
  34. Bondarenko NV, Pospelov SV, Persov MP (1991) General and agricultural entomology. Agropromizdat, Leningrad, 431pp (in Russian)Google Scholar
  35. Bondarenko NV, Guskova LA, Pegelman SG (1993) Harmful nematodes, ticks and rodents. Kolos, Moscow, 269pp (in Russian)Google Scholar
  36. Bondarev LG (2003) Locusta in Europe. Herald of Moscow University. Ser. 5, Geography 1:67–70Google Scholar
  37. Bondarev AI, Soldatov VV (1999) Monitoring of Siberian silk moth population in Krasnoyarsk Krai. In: Ecological monitoring of the forest ecosystems. KNTs RAS, Petrozavodsk, 70 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  38. Bronstein AC, Spyker DA, Cantilena LR Jr et al (2008) 2007 annual report of the American Association of Poison Control Centers. National Poison Data System (NPDS), 25th Annual Report. Clin Toxicol 46(10):927–1057Google Scholar
  39. Brooks DE (2008) Plant poisoning, hemlock. http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/821362-overview. Updated 7 Nov 2008
  40. Brusle J (1995) The impact of harmful algal blooms on finfish: mortality, pathology and toxicology. Reperes ocean 10:75Google Scholar
  41. Butry DT, Mercer DE, Prestemon JR, Pye JM, Holmes TP (2001) What is the price of catastrophic wildfire? J Forest 99(11):9–17Google Scholar
  42. Carmichael W (2008) A world overview – One-hundred twenty-seven years of research on toxic cyanobacteria – where do we go from here?. In: International symposium on cyanobacterial harmful algal blooms (ISOC-HAB). Springer, New York, pp 105–125Google Scholar
  43. Cheng D, Dattaro JA, Yakobi R (2007) Scorpion sting. http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/168230-overview. Updated 8 Nov 2007
  44. Chippaux JP (1998) Snakebites: appraisal of the global situation. Bull World Health Organ 76:515–523Google Scholar
  45. Chippaux JP (2001) Prevention of snakebites and management of envenomations in Africa. Afr Newsl 1:12–15Google Scholar
  46. Conrad L, Balison J (1994) Bison goring injuries: Penetrating and blunt trauma. J Wild Med 5:371–381Google Scholar
  47. Concomitant of forester: handbook (1990) Agropromizdat, Moscow, 416 pp (in Russian)Google Scholar
  48. Conover MR (1998) Perceptions of American agricultural producers about wildlife on their farms and ranches. Wildl Soc B 26(3):597–604Google Scholar
  49. Conover MR, Dubow TJ (1997) Alligator attacks on humans in the United States. Herpetological Rev 28(3):120–124Google Scholar
  50. Conover MR, Pitt WC, Kessler KK, DuBow TJ, Sanborn WA (1995) Review of human injuries, illnesses, and economic losses caused by wildlife in the United States. Wildl Soc B 23:407–414Google Scholar
  51. Cophen M, Ochumba PBO, Kaufman LS (1995) Some aspects of perturbation in the structure and biodiversity of the ecosystem of Lake Victoria (East Africa). Aquat Living Resour 8:27–41Google Scholar
  52. Corbett J (1991) The man-eating leopard of Rudraprayag. Tropa, Moscow, 173pp (in Russian)Google Scholar
  53. Daniel M (1990) Secret paths of death bearers. Progress, Moscow, 416pp (in Russian)Google Scholar
  54. Davis P, Grimm M (no. 25/2003) Red imported fire ant (RIFA), Farmnote, Department of Agriculture, Perth. www.soe.wa.gov.au/site/.../5_WA_SOE2007_BIODIVERSITY.pdf
  55. Deal I (2006) Scorpions of medical concern. Am J Trop Med Hyg 62(2):277–283Google Scholar
  56. Dezhkin VV (1977) Hunting and nature preservation. Fizkultura i sport (Physical culture and sport), Moscow, 104pp (in Russian)Google Scholar
  57. Diaz JH (2007) Common spider bites. Am Fam Physician 75(6):869–873Google Scholar
  58. DiNubile MJ, Hokama Y (1995) The ciguatera poisoning syndrome from farm-raised salmon. Ann Intern Med. 122(2):113–114Google Scholar
  59. Diseases of arable crops, vol 1 (1989) Diseases of cereal and leguminous plants. Urozhai, Kiev, 213 pp (in Russian)Google Scholar
  60. Diseases of arable crops, vol 2 (1990) Diseases of technical crops and potato plants. Urozhai, Kiev, 247 pp (in Russian)Google Scholar
  61. Diseases of arable crops, vol 3 (1991) Diseases of vegetables and fruit crops. Urozhai, Kiev, 207 pp (in Russian)Google Scholar
  62. Dorst Zh (1968) Before nature will die. Progress, Moscow, 416pp (in Russian)Google Scholar
  63. Dossier T (1985) Dangerous marine creations. Mir, Moscow, 129pp (in Russian)Google Scholar
  64. Dupouy-Camet J (2000) Trichinellosis: a worldwide zoonosis. Vet Parasitol 93:191–200Google Scholar
  65. Durrheim DN, Leggat PA (1999) Risk to tourists posed by wild mammals in South Africa. J Travel Med 6(3):172–179Google Scholar
  66. Dynamics of marine ecosystems and current problems of the conservation of the biological potential of Russian seas (2007) Dalnauka, Vladivostok, 512 pp (in Russian)Google Scholar
  67. Economic impacts of harmful algal blooms (HABs) (2008). http://www.cop.noaa.gov/stressors/extremeevents/hab/current/HAB_Econ.html
  68. Eddleston M, Ariaratnam CA, Meyer WP et al (1999) Epidemic of self-poisoning with seeds of the yellow oleander tree (Thevetia peruviana) in northern Sri Lanka. Trop Med Int Health 4(4):266–273Google Scholar
  69. Edward R and Mill AE (1986) Termites in buildings. Their ­biology and control. The Rentokil Limited, East Grinstead. 261 ppGoogle Scholar
  70. Ehrhardt JP, Seguin G (1984) Plankton. Gidrometeoizdat, Leningrad, 255pp (in Russian)Google Scholar
  71. Elbers ARW (2002) Local and global impact of disease outbreaks. Adv Pork Prod 13:17–27Google Scholar
  72. Elephants against people (2003) EKO 6:42 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  73. Elliott JM (1994) Quantitative ecology and the brown trout. Oxford University Press, Oxford, 286 ppGoogle Scholar
  74. Elton CS (2000) The ecology of invasions by animals and plants. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 192 ppGoogle Scholar
  75. Emelyanova IA, Danilkina LL (1983) Harmful activity of rodents on aerodromes. In: Insects and rodents – destructors of materials and engineering devices. Nauka, Moscow, pp 220–222 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  76. Emelyanova IA, Deryagina MA (1983) Study of cable resistance to damage by rodents. In: Insects and rodents – destructors of materials and engineering devices. Nauka, Moscow, pp 190–205 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  77. Environment. Encyclopaedic reference book (1999) Progress, Moscow, vol 1, 304 pp, vol 2, 304 ppGoogle Scholar
  78. Epizootic situation in the world and Russian Federation in 2001–2002 (2003). http://www.veterinary.spb.ru/epizodicheskaja_situacija_2001_2002.htm 2003
  79. Epizootological dictionary-reference book (1976) Rossel­khozizdat, Moscow, 189 pp (in Russian)Google Scholar
  80. Epizootology (1974) Kolos, Moscow, 536 pp (in Russian)Google Scholar
  81. Farb P (1971) Popular ecology. Mir, Moscow, 189 pp (in Russian)Google Scholar
  82. Fedoskova TG (2004) Allergy to non-biting insects. Allergol 3:49–56Google Scholar
  83. Fedoskova TG (2007) Allergy to non-biting insects. Rossisky allergologichesky zhurnal 2:17–26Google Scholar
  84. Fenner PJ (1987) Marine envenomations. Aust Fam Physician 16:93–104Google Scholar
  85. Filippov VV (1988) Epizootology of helminthiases of agricultural animals. Agropromizdat, Moscow, 207 pp (in Russian)Google Scholar
  86. Finnov V (1997) Locusts attack. Civ Prot 7:34–35Google Scholar
  87. Flerov BK (1972) Biodeterioration of industrial materials and products of them. In: The problem of biodeterioration and fouling of materials, products and structures. Nauka, Moscow, pp 3–18 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  88. Fry BG, Vidal N, Norman JA et al (2006) Early evolution of the venom system in lizards and snakes. Nature (Letters) 439: 584–588Google Scholar
  89. Furbee B, Wermuth M (1997) Life-threatening plant poisoning. Med Toxicol 13(4):849–888Google Scholar
  90. Gajadhar AA, Gamble HR (2000) Historical perspectives and current global challenges of Trichinella and trichinellosis. Vet Parasitol 93:183–189Google Scholar
  91. Gaughan DJ, Mitchell RW, Blight SJ (2000) Impact of mortality, possibly to herpesvirus, on pilchard Sardinops sadax stocks along the south coast of western Australia in 1998–1999. Mar Freshwater Res 51:601–612Google Scholar
  92. Gee EP (1968) Wild animals of India. Progress, Moscow, 196 pp (in Russian)Google Scholar
  93. Geldhauser F (1997) Ways and possibilities to reduce damage from great cormorant in the pond carp farm. Fischer Teichwirt 48(8):326–330 (in German)Google Scholar
  94. Gilyarov MS (ed) (1986) Biological encyclopaedic dictionary. Soviet encyclopaedia, Moscow, 831 pp (in Russian)Google Scholar
  95. Gisneros-Heredia DF, Touzet J-M (2004) Distribution and conservation status of Bothrops asper (Garman, 1884) in Ecuador. Herpetozoa 17(3/4):135–141Google Scholar
  96. Gorshkov SP (2001) Basics of geoecology. Zeldorizdat, Moscow, 592 pp (in Russian)Google Scholar
  97. Goryunova SV, Demina NS (1974) Algae producers of toxic substances. Nauka, Moscow, 256 pp (in Russian)Google Scholar
  98. Goudie A (1997) Human impact on the natural environment. Blackwell Publishers, Oxford, UK, 454 ppGoogle Scholar
  99. Govorushko SM (2009a) Environment and humanity. Drofa, Moscow, 96 pp (in Russian)Google Scholar
  100. Govorushko SM (2009b) Medical and veterinary importance of spiders: global situation. Siberian Med J 4:139–142 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  101. Govorushko SM (2009c) Environmental significance of forest fires. Probl Reg Ecol 5:9–14 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  102. Govorushko SM (2010a) Human mortality from scorpions: global situation. Toxicologichesky vestnik 1:11–16 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  103. Govorushko SM (2010b) Medical and veterinary importance of venomous insects. Siberian Med J 2:107–110 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  104. Great medicinal encyclopaedia (1975–1988) Soviet Encyclopaedia, Moscow, (vol 3, 1976, vol 5, 1977, vol 6, 1977, vol 8, 1978, vol 10, 1979, vol 13, 1980, vol 15, 1981, vol 17, 1981, vol 18, 1982, vol 20, 1983, vol 22, 1984, vol 23, 1984, vol 24, 1985, vol 25, 1985, vol 27, 1986, vol 28, 1986, vol 28, 1987) (in Russian)Google Scholar
  105. Grigoryev A (2003) Forest and peat-bog fires of 2002. Forest Bulletin No. 21–22. http://www.forest.ru/rus/bulletin/21-21/2.html
  106. Gruzdev GS (1980) Chemical protection of plants. Kolos, Moscow, 448 pp (in Russian)Google Scholar
  107. Gubler DJ (1998) Resurgent vector-borne diseases as a global health problem. Emerg Infect Dis 4(3):442–450Google Scholar
  108. Gusynin IA (1951) Toxicology of noxious plants. Selkhozgiz, Moscow, 295 pp (in Russian)Google Scholar
  109. Haddad V Jr, Cardoso JLC, Rotta O, Eterovic A (2000) Accidents provoked by millipede with dermatological manifestations: report of two cases. Dermatology 75(4):471–474Google Scholar
  110. Hale A (2009) Boring sponges (Cliona spp.) in oysters of Eastern NC. http://www.unc.edu/depts/our/students/fellowship_supp/surf/2009/hale09.pdf
  111. Hallegraeff GM (1993) A review of harmful algal blooms and their apparent global increase. Phycologia 32(2):79–99Google Scholar
  112. Halstead BW (1970) Dangerous marine animals. Gidrometeoizdat, Leningrad, 160 ppGoogle Scholar
  113. Handbook of agronomist on plant protection (1990) Agropromizdat, Moscow, 366 pp (in Russian)Google Scholar
  114. Handbook of forester (1980) Lesnaya promyshlennost, Moscow, 399 pp (in Russian)Google Scholar
  115. Harrison SR (1996) Cost-benefit analysis with applications to animal health programmes. Animal health programmes and information systems. University of Queensland, Brisbane, 30 ppGoogle Scholar
  116. Heinrich D, Hergt M (2003) Ecology: dtv – atlas. Rybari, Moscow, 287 pp (in Russian)Google Scholar
  117. Heptner VG, Sludsky AA (1972) Mammals of the Soviet Union. vol 2, part 2. Predators (hyenas and cats). Vysshaya shkola, Moscow, 551 ppGoogle Scholar
  118. Herman MI, Chyka P (2008) Toxicity, Mushrooms – Muscarine. http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1011799-overview Updated: Feb 12, 2008
  119. Hoebeke ER (2003) Invasive insects as major pests in the United States. Encyclopaedia of pest management. doi:  10.1081/E-EPM-120009998. http://www.informaworld.com/smpp/content~content=a713568446~db=all~order=title
  120. Holsten EN, Hennon PE, Werner RA (1985) Insects and diseases of Alaska forests. Alaska region report. USDA Forest Service, Anchorage, 181:207Google Scholar
  121. Hooker KR, Caravati EM (1994) Gila monster envenomation. Ann Emerg Med 24(4):731–735Google Scholar
  122. Horrors of nature: animals-man-eaters, sharks, poisonous plants and insects (1997) Literatura, Minsk, 496 pp (in Russian)Google Scholar
  123. Human occupies Mother Earth (1997) Institute of Geography, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, 302 pp (in Russian)Google Scholar
  124. Ilyichev VD (1984) Ecological aspects of protection against biodeterioration caused by birds. In: Protection of materials and engineering devices against birds. Nauka, Moscow, pp 7–72 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  125. Ilyichev VD (2003) Urbobiodeterioration in Moscow – vertical and horizontal encrustations. Vestnik (Herald) of Russian University of Peoples’ Friendship. Ser Ecol Life Saf 7:116–118 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  126. Ilyichev VD, Bocharov BV, Anisimov AA et al (1987) Biodeterioration. Vysshaya shkola, Moscow, 352 pp (in Russian)Google Scholar
  127. Ilyichev VD, Biryukov VYa, Nechval NA (1995) Techno-economic strategy of protection against biodeterioration. Nauka, Moscow, 248 pp (in Russian)Google Scholar
  128. Ilyichev VD, Silayeva OL, Kozlov YuP (2006) System approaches to aerodrome ecology. Vestnik of Russian University of Peoples’ Friendship. Ser Ecol Life Saf 1:124–127 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  129. Ilyin IN (1992) Marine borers in the USSR and control measures. In: Fouling and biodeterioration: ecological problems. Nauka, Moscow, pp 21–56 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  130. Ilyina NI, Fedoskova TG (2004) A role of allergic diseases in the general clinical practice. Russky meditsinsky zhurnal, 14. http://www.rmj.ru/articles_240.htm (in Russian)
  131. Innes J (2001) Advances in New Zealand mammalogy 1990–2000: European rats. J Roy Soc New Zeal 31(1):111–125Google Scholar
  132. Inozemtsev AA (1987) Birds and forest. Agropromizdat, Moscow, 302 pp (in Russian)Google Scholar
  133. Insects and ticks – crop pests, vol 1 (1972) Nauka, Leningrad, 323 pp (in Russian)Google Scholar
  134. Insects and ticks – crop pests, vol 3, Part 2 (1999) Nauka, Leningrad, 407 pp (in Russian)Google Scholar
  135. Insects and ticks of the Far East being of medico-veterinary importance (1987) Nauka, Leningrad, 311 pp (in Russian)Google Scholar
  136. Isayev VV (1990) Prediction and mapping of weeds. Agropromizdat, Moscow, 193 pp, (in Russian)Google Scholar
  137. Ishihara Y, Yamaura Y (1992) Descriptive epidemiology of mushroom poisoning in Japan. Nippon Eiseigaku Zasshi 46(6):1071–1078Google Scholar
  138. Isla BAS (2001) Impacts of harmful algal blooms in Chile. IAEA planning meeting, Monaco, 5–9 November 2001. http://mareasrojas.med.uchile.cl
  139. Isnar H (2001) Plant poisonings, resins. eMedicine J 2(6) www.emedicine.com/emerg/topic445.htm
  140. Izmailov I (2005) Poisonous evolution. Round World 10:63–65Google Scholar
  141. Izrailsky VP (ed) (1979) Bacterioses of plants. Kolos, Moscow, 288 pp (in Russian)Google Scholar
  142. Jadkowski TK, Wiltsie EA (1985) Biodeterioration of concrete piling in the Arabian Gulf. Proceedings of middle east oil technical conference and exhibition. Society of petroleum engineers, Bahrain. 6 pp. doi: 10.2118/13687-MSGoogle Scholar
  143. James LF, Nielsen DB, Panter KE (1992) Impact of poisonous plants on the livestock industry. J Range Manage 45(1):3–8Google Scholar
  144. Jarrar BM, Al-Rowaily MA (2008) Histology and histochemistry of the venom apparatus of the black scorpion Androctonus crassicauda (Olivier, 1807) (scorpiones: Buthidae). J Venom Anim Toxins Trop Dis 14(3):514–526Google Scholar
  145. Jaspersen-Schib R, Theus L, Guirguis-Oeschger M, Gossweiler B, Meier-Abt PJ (1996) Serious plant poisonings in Switzerland 1966–1994. Case analysis from the Swiss Toxicology Information Center. Schweiz Med Wochenschr 126(25):1085–1098Google Scholar
  146. Johnson NP, Mueller J (2002) Updating of accounts: global mortality of the 1918–1920 ‘Spanish’ influenza pandemic. Bull Hist Med 76(1):105–115Google Scholar
  147. Jones JB, Hyatt AD, Hine PM et al (1997) Special topic review: Australasian pilchard mortalities. World J Microbiol Biotechnol 13:383–392Google Scholar
  148. Jorge MT, Sano-Martins IS, Tomy SC, Castro SC, Ferrari RA, Ribeiro LA, Warrell DA (1997) Snakebite by the bushmaster (Lachesis muta) in Brazil: case report and review of the literature. Toxicon 35(4):545–554Google Scholar
  149. Jubanyik K, Nicoll KL (2009) Toxicity, mushrooms. http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/821250-overview. Updated 8 Apr 2009
  150. Karasev VS (1983) Insects – destructors of timber and their ­control. In: Insects and rodents – destructors of materials and engineering devices. Nauka, Moscow, pp 133–146 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  151. Khaitov RM (ed) (2002) Clinical allergology: manual for ­practicing physicians. Medpress-inform, Moscow, 624 pp (in Russian)Google Scholar
  152. Khristoforova NK (1999) Foundations of ecology. Dalnauka, Vladivostok, 515 pp (in Russian)Google Scholar
  153. Kieran M (1998) Eaten alive. New Sci 159(2143):12Google Scholar
  154. Kiryanova ES, Krall EL (1971) Parasitic nematodes of plants and their control, vol 2. Nauka, Leningrad, 522 pp (in Russian)Google Scholar
  155. Kondratyev KYa, Losev KS, Ananicheva MD, Chesnokova IV (2003) Natural-science foundations of life stability. CS AGO, Moscow, 240 pp (in Russian)Google Scholar
  156. Kovalevsky YuN (1986) Natural disasters and catastrophes. Avots, Riga, 216 pp (in Russian)Google Scholar
  157. Krenzelok EP, Jacobsen TD (1997) Plant exposures: a national profile of the most common plant genera. Vet Hum Toxicol 39(4):248–249Google Scholar
  158. Kromi U (1971) Inhabitants of abyss. Gidrometeoizdat, Leningrad, 343 ppGoogle Scholar
  159. Krutov VI, Minkevich II (2002) Fungal disease of the wood species. Karelian Scientific Center of Russian Academy of Sciences, Petrozavodsk, 196 pp (in Russian)Google Scholar
  160. Kulinich OA, Kozareva NN (2004) Pine wood nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus: study in Russia and abroad. In: Parasitic nematodes of plants and insects. Nauka, Moscow, pp 100–118 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  161. Kurbatova AS, Myagkov SM, Shnyparkov AL (1997) Natural risk for cities of Russia. Institute of Town Ecology, Moscow, 240 pp (in Russian)Google Scholar
  162. Kutsik RV, Zuzuk BM, Nedostup AT, Petsko T (2003) Deadly nightshade. Atropa belladonna L. (Analytic review). Provizor, 21. http://www.provisor.com.ua/archive/2003/N21/art_24.php
  163. Kuznetsov VN (1997) On a problem of gipsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.) and Siberian moth (Dendrolimus superans Bult.) in Promorsky Krai. Vestn Far East Branch RAS 3:24–30 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  164. Langley R (1999) Physical hazards of animal handlers. Occup Med 14:181–193Google Scholar
  165. Langley RL, Morrow WE (1997) Deaths resulting from animal attacks in the United States. Wild Environ Med 8:8–16Google Scholar
  166. Larsson T (2004) Some history and effects of Conium maculatum L. Uppsala University, Sweden, p 36. http://fkogserver.bmc.uu.se/course/essays/conium_maculatum.pdf
  167. Last PR, Stevens JD (2009) Sharks and rays of Australia. CSIRO, Perth, 644 ppGoogle Scholar
  168. Lebedev EM (1992) Marine rock borers and protection against them. In: Fouling and biodeterioration: ecological problems. Nauka, Moscow, pp 57–65 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  169. Leksakov SA (2006) Influence of mold on the ecological situation in living accommodation. Territory and planning, 1(3). http://ecoreal.ru/content/view/149/29/ (in Russian)
  170. Liebhold AM, Gottschalk KW, Mason DA, Bush RR (1997) Forest susceptibility to the gypsy moth. J Forest 95(5):20–24Google Scholar
  171. Likharev IM, Izzatulayeva Z (1983) Slugs – pests of Tajikistan. Donish, Dushanbe, 40 pp (in Russian)Google Scholar
  172. Likharev IM, Viktor AJ (1980) Slugs of the USSR and adjacent countries fauna (Gastropoda terrestria nuda). Fauna of the USSR. Molluscs, vol 3, Issue 5. Nauka, Leningrad, 438 pp (in Russian)Google Scholar
  173. Lipnitsky SS, Piluy AF (1991) Medicinal poisons in veterinary medicine. Uradzhay, Minsk, 303 pp (in Russian)Google Scholar
  174. Lockey TC (2007) Imported fire ants. http://ipmworld.umn.edu/chapters/lockley.htm
  175. Lomonosov KM, Ignatyev DV (2007) Allergic contact dermatitis. Dermatology 2. http://www.consilium-medicum.com/magazines/cm/dermotology/article/15754 (in Russian)
  176. Luss LV (2003) Aetiology, pathogenesis, problems of diagnostics and therapy of allergic rhinitis. Russky meditsinsky zhurnal 12. http://rmj.ru/articles_668.htm
  177. Mack RN, Lonsdale WM (2001) Humans as global plant dispersers: getting more than we bargained for. Bioscience 51:53–65Google Scholar
  178. Mack RN, Simberloff D, Lonsdale WM et al (2000) Biotic invasions: causes, epidemiology, global consequences, and control. Ecol Appl 10(3):689–710Google Scholar
  179. MacKinnon B (ed) (2001) Sharing the skies. An aviation industry guide to the management of wildlife hazards. Transport Canada, Ottawa, 357 ppGoogle Scholar
  180. Manual for general epizootology (1979) Kolos, Moscow, 424 pp (in Russian)Google Scholar
  181. Manual for zoonoses (1983) Meditsina, Leningrad, 320 pp (in Russian)Google Scholar
  182. Marine fouling and its control (1957) Voyennoye izdatelstvo MO SSSR, Moscow, 502 pp (in Russian)Google Scholar
  183. Marsh LM, Slack-Smith SM (1986) Sea-stingers – and other venomous and poisonous marine invertebrates of western Australia. Western Australian Museum, Perth, 133 ppGoogle Scholar
  184. Maryushkina VYa (1986) Ragweed and foundations of its biological control. Naukova dumka, Kiev, 119 pp (in Russian)Google Scholar
  185. Mavrischev VV (2000) Fundamentals of general ecology. Vysheishaya shkola, Minsk, 317 pp (in Russian)Google Scholar
  186. McCormick HW, Young WE, Allen TB (1992) Shadows in the sea: the sharks, skates and rays. Gidrometeoizdat, St. Petersburg, 232 ppGoogle Scholar
  187. McCubbin K, Weiner J (2002) Fire ants in Australia: a new medical and ecological hazard. Med J Aust 176(11):518–519Google Scholar
  188. Medical theriology: rodents, predatory animals, cheiroptera (1989) Nauka, Moscow, 272 pp (in Russian)Google Scholar
  189. Meier J, White J (ed) (1995) Handbook of clinical toxicology of animal venoms and poisons. CRC Press, Boca Raton, 752 ppGoogle Scholar
  190. Messieh SN, El-Sabh MI (1990) The marine killers: dinoflagellates in estaurine and coastal waters. Nat Hazards 3(1):69–86Google Scholar
  191. Migas EA, Popova GA (1988) First aid handbook for sufferers from ‘burn’ by Gonionemus vertens of the Sea of Japan. Far-Eastern Scientific Centre, USSR Academy of Sciences, Vladivostok, 10 pp (in Russian)Google Scholar
  192. Mikhopadhyay D (2006) Causes, impact and management of forest fires in India. In: Proceedings of the international disaster reduction conference, vol 3, Extended abstracts S–Z. Davos, Switzerland, pp 860–861Google Scholar
  193. Mikulich LV, Naumov DV (1974) Gonionemus vertens, its systematic position, morphology, life cycle, biology and area of distribution. In: Study of Gonionemus vertens. Far-Eastern Scientific Centre, USSR Academy of Sciences, Vladivostok, pp 9–22 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  194. Minchin D, Lucy F, Sullivan M (2005) Ireland: a new frontier for the zebra mussel Dreissena polymorpha (Pallas), Ocean. Hydrob Stud 34(Supl. 1):19–30Google Scholar
  195. Mironova MK, Izhevsky SS (2007) Paths of invasions of the strange insects-phytophagus (by example of quarantine species). http://83.149.228.85/invasive/publications/mir_izh_02.html
  196. Mitchell P (2001) 101 fundamental ideas: ecology. FAIR-PRESS, Moscow, 224 pp (in Russian)Google Scholar
  197. Modern medical encyclopaedia (2002) Norint, St. Petersburg, 1236 pp (in Russian, transl. from English)Google Scholar
  198. Momen H (2002) Emerging infectious diseases – Brasil. International Editors Update 14(1). http:www.cdc.gov/ncidod/eid/vol14no1/momen.htm
  199. Monastyrsky OA (2002) A role of cultivated plants in the evolution of toxigenic fungi. In: Modern mycology in Russia. National Academy of Mycology, Moscow, 267 pp (in Russian)Google Scholar
  200. Mueller UR (1990) Insect sting allergy. Clinical picture, diagnosis and treatment. Fischer, Stuttgart, 183 ppGoogle Scholar
  201. Murray AG, O’Callaghan M, Jones B (2001) Simple models of massive epidemics of herpesvirus in Australian (and New Zealand) pilchards. Environ Int 27:243–248Google Scholar
  202. Myagkov SM (1995) Geography of natural risk. Moscow University, Moscow, 222 pp (in Russian)Google Scholar
  203. Nabatov NM (1997) Forestry. MGUL, Moscow, 188 pp (in Russian)Google Scholar
  204. Natural-anthropogenic processes and environmental risk (2004) Geography, society, environment, vol IV. Gorodets, Moscow, 615 pp (in Russian)Google Scholar
  205. Narcotic drugs and poisons: psychodelics and toxic substances, poisonous animals and plants (1996) Literatura, Minsk, 592 pp (in Russian)Google Scholar
  206. Naumov NP, Ilyichev VD (1965) Acoustic repellents and their use. Moscow State University, Moscow, 48 pp (in Russian)Google Scholar
  207. Naumov DV, Propp MV, Rybakov SN (1985) The world of corals. Gidrometeoizdat, Leningrad, 359 ppGoogle Scholar
  208. Nebel B (1993) Environmental science, vol 1. Mir, Moscow, 256 pp (in Russian)Google Scholar
  209. Neffen HE (2003) Rhinitis and quality of life in South America. The impact of allergy on our lives. EAACI Newsl 6(2):35Google Scholar
  210. Newman A (1989) Lungs of our planet. Mir, Moscow, 335 pp (in Russian)Google Scholar
  211. Nielsen DB (2009) Economic impact of poisonous plants on the rangeland livestock industry. Downloaded from jas.fass.org on 20 April 2009Google Scholar
  212. Nikanorov AM, Khoruzhaya TA (1999) Ecology. PRIOR, Moscow, 304 pp (in Russian)Google Scholar
  213. Nikitin VV (1983) Weeds of the USSR flora. Nauka, Leningrad, 453 pp (in Russian)Google Scholar
  214. Norris R (2001) Lizard envenomation. eMedicine J 2(7). http://www.emedicine.com/emerg/topic302.htm
  215. Novikov YuV (1999) Ecology, environment and humanity. FAIR-PRESS, Moscow, 320 pp (in Russian)Google Scholar
  216. Oberle M (1997) Enclosing of ponds in the trout farms of Germany with wire for their protection against fish-eating birds. Fischer Teichwirt 48(8):330–334 (in German)Google Scholar
  217. Ogutu-Ohwayo R (2004) Management of the Nile perch, Lates niloticus fishery in Lake Victoria in light of the changes in its history characteristics. Afr J Ecol 42:306–314Google Scholar
  218. Orlov DV (1998) Look out! Dangerous marine animals! Moscow State University, Moscow, 128 pp (in Russian)Google Scholar
  219. Orlov BN, Gelashvili DB (1985) Zootoxinology (venomous animals and their poisons). Vysshaya shkola, Moscow, 280 pp (in Russian)Google Scholar
  220. Orlov BN, Gelashvili DB, Ibragimov AK (1990) Poisonous animals and plants of the USSR. Vysshaya shkola, Moscow, 272 pp (in Russian)Google Scholar
  221. Ostapenko MM, Shernazarov E, Ayupov AN, Goncharov GF (1984) Collisions of airplanes with birds in Tashkent airport. In: Protection of materials and engineering devices against birds. Nauka, Moscow, pp 163–168 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  222. Otero R, Navio E, Cespedes FA et al (2004) Scorpion envenoming in two regions of Colombia: clinical, epidemiological and therapeutic aspects. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 98(12):742–750Google Scholar
  223. Our common future (1989) Progress, Moscow, 372 pp (in Russian, transl. from English)Google Scholar
  224. Pagnoni GA (1997) Effect of the forest fauna on agricultural activities in the Ferrara province. Suppl Ric Biol Selvagg 27:685–691Google Scholar
  225. Painter R (1953) Plant resistance to insects. Izdat. Inostran. Liter, Moscow, 443 ppGoogle Scholar
  226. Panter KE, Baker DC, Kechele PO (1996) Water hemlock (Cicuta douglasii) toxicoses in sheep: pathologic description and prevention of lesions and death. J Vet Diagn Invest 8:474–480Google Scholar
  227. Parasitology and invasive diseases of livestock animals (1975) Abuladze KI, Nikolsky SN, Kolabsky NA et al. Kolos, Moscow, 471 pp (in Russian)Google Scholar
  228. Paudel R, Palaian S, Ravi Shankar P et al (2008) Aconite poisoning: a clinical review of the first four cases from Nepal. J Clin Diagn Res 2:651–655. http://www.jcdr.net/back_issues.asp?issn=0973–709x&year=2008&month=February&volume=2&issue=1&page=651–655&id=199 Google Scholar
  229. Pavlov MP (1990) Wolf. Agropromizdat, Moscow, 351 pp (in Russian)Google Scholar
  230. Pazhetnov VS (1990) Brown bear. Agropromizdat, Moscow, 215 pp (in Russian)Google Scholar
  231. Paydas S, Kocak R, Erturk F, Erken E, Zaksu HS, Gurcay A (1990) Poisoning due to amatoxin-containing Lepiota species. Brit J Clin Pract 44(11):450–453Google Scholar
  232. Peredkova EV (2009) Pollen allergy. Consilium medicum 11(3):7–11Google Scholar
  233. Physico-geographical atlas of the world (1964) GUGK, Moscow, 298 pp (in Russian)Google Scholar
  234. Pierce RH, Henry MS (2008) Harmful algal toxins of the Florida red tide (Karenia brevis): natural chemical stressors in south Florida coastal ecosystems. Ecotoxicology 17(7):623–631Google Scholar
  235. Pigulevsky SV (1964) Fishes dangerous for humans. Meditsina, Leningrad, 115 pp (in Russian)Google Scholar
  236. Pimentel D (2001) Ethanol fuels: energy, economics and environmental impacts. Int Sugar J 103:491–494Google Scholar
  237. Pimentel D, Wilson C, McCullum C et al (1997) Economic and environmental benefits of biodiversity. Bioscience 47(11):747–755Google Scholar
  238. Pimentel D, Bailey O, Kim P et al (1999) Will limits of the Earth’s resources control human numbers? Environ Dev Sustain 1:19–39Google Scholar
  239. Pimentel D, Lach L, Zuniga R, Morrisson D (2000) Environ­mental and economic costs of nonindigenous species in the United States. Bioscience 50:53–65Google Scholar
  240. Pimentel D, McNair S, Janeska J et al (2001) Economic and environmental threats of alien plant, animal, and microbe invasions. Agric Ecosyst Environ 24:1–20Google Scholar
  241. Polenov BV (2008) Protection of human life and health in the twenty-first century. In: Eight major sources of danger for mankind. Gruppa IDT, Moscow, 720 pp (in Russian)Google Scholar
  242. Polyakov AN, Nabatov NM (1992) Forestry and forest inventory. Ekologiya, Moscow, 335 pp (in Russian)Google Scholar
  243. Popkova KV (1989) General phytopathology. Agropromizdat, Moscow, 399 pp (in Russian)Google Scholar
  244. Preobrazhensky BV (1986) Recent refs. Nauka, Moscow, 244 pp (in Russian)Google Scholar
  245. Protection against corrosion, ageing and biodeterioration of machines, equipment and structures (1987) In: Gerasimenko AA (ed) Reference book in vol 2. Mashinostroryenie, Moscow, vol 1, p 688, vol 2, 783 ppGoogle Scholar
  246. Protection against fouling (1989) Nauka, Moscow, 271 pp (in Russian)Google Scholar
  247. Protection of forest against pests and diseases: reference book (1988) In: Maslov AD (ed) Agropromizdat, Moscow, 414 pp (in Russian)Google Scholar
  248. Protection of plants against diseases (2001) Kolos, Moscow, 248 pp (in Russian)Google Scholar
  249. Pukhlik BM (2002) Elementary allergology. Veles, Vinnytsia, 148 pp (in Russian)Google Scholar
  250. Punde DP (2005) Management of snakebite in rural Maharashtra: a 10-year experience. Natl Med J India 18(2):71–75Google Scholar
  251. Pytsky VI, Adrianova NV, Artomasova AV (1991) Allergic diseases. Meditsina, Moscow, 368 pp (in Russian)Google Scholar
  252. Raine R, Joyce B, Richard J, Pazos Y, Moloney M, Jones KJ, Patching JW (1993) The development of a bloom of the dinoflagellate [Gyrodinium aureolum (Hulbert)] on the south-west Irish coast. ICES J Mar Sci 50(4):461–469Google Scholar
  253. Rajpurohit KS (1999) Child lifting: wolves in Hazaribagh, India. Ambio 28(2):162–166Google Scholar
  254. Rajpurohit KS, Krausman PR (2000) Human-sloth-bear conflicts in Madhya Pradesh, India. Wildl Soc Bull 28(2):393–399Google Scholar
  255. Ramsay G (1997) Calculating the production loss avoided by disease control. Working paper 35, University of Queensland, Brisbane, 32 ppGoogle Scholar
  256. Reisman RE (1998) Stinging insect allergy. Allergol Int 47:247–254Google Scholar
  257. Rejmanek M (2000) Invasive plants: approaches and predictions. Austral Ecol 25:497–506Google Scholar
  258. ReVelle P, ReVelle C (1995) Our environment, Book 2. Contami­nation of water and air. Mir, Moscow, 296 pp (in Russian)Google Scholar
  259. Revyako TI (1998) Poachers. Literatura, Minsk, 704 ppGoogle Scholar
  260. Ricciardi A, Neves RJ, Rasmussen JB (1998) Impending extinctions of North American freshwater mussels (Uniomoda) following the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) invasion. J Anim Ecol 67:613–619Google Scholar
  261. Ricciuti ER (1979) Dangerous residents of the sea. Gidrometeoizdat, Leningrad, 175 pp (in Russian)Google Scholar
  262. Rice EDL (1986) Natural agents of plant protection against pests. Mir, Moscow, 194 ppGoogle Scholar
  263. Richardson DM, Pysek P, Rejmanek M et al (2000) Naturalisation and invasion of alien plants: concepts and definitions. Divers Distrib 6:93–107Google Scholar
  264. Riklefs R (1979) Fundamentals of general ecology. Mir, Moscow, 424 ppGoogle Scholar
  265. Rodriguez-Lainz A, Fritz CL, McKenna WR (1999) Animal and human health risks associated with Africanized honeybees. J Am Vet Med Assoc 215:1799–1804Google Scholar
  266. Russell FE (1984) Marine toxins and venomous marine plants and animals (invertebrates). Adv Mar Biol 21:59–217Google Scholar
  267. Russell FE, Eden NB (1991) Ciguaterric fishes, ciguatoxin (CTX) and ciguatera poisoning. J Toxicol Toxin Rev 10(1):37–62Google Scholar
  268. Russell FE, Nagabhushanam R (1996) The venomous and poisonous marine invertebrates of the Indian Ocean. Science Publishers, Enfield, 276 ppGoogle Scholar
  269. Ryabchikov PI (1957) Distribution of teredos in the USSR seas. AN SSSR, Moscow, 230 pp (in Russian)Google Scholar
  270. Sangidorz V (2004) Allergenic plants of Mongolia: floristic composition, geography, ecology and biomedical implication. Ulan-Bator, 337 pp (in Russian)Google Scholar
  271. Schexnayder SM, Schexnayder RE (2000) Bites, stings, and other painful things. Pediatr Ann 29(6):354–388Google Scholar
  272. Second Congress of Allergists (2006) Meditsinsky Vestnik Ukrainy 39–40:1–3 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  273. Sellner KG, Doucette GJ, Kirkpatrick GJ (2003) Harmful algal blooms: causes, impacts and detection. J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol 30:383–406Google Scholar
  274. Sergeev BF (1990) Life of ocean deeps. Molodaya gvardiya, Moscow, 300 pp (in Russian)Google Scholar
  275. Serinken M, Erdur B, Sener S, Kabay B, Cevik AA (2005) A case of mortal necrotizing fasciitis of the trunk resulting from a centipede (Scolopendra mortans) bite In: Internet J Emerg Med. 2005. vol 2, No. 2. www.pjms.com.pk
  276. Sessa R, Palagiano C, Scifoni MG, di Pietro M, Del Piano M (1999) The major epidemic infections: a gift from the old world to the new? Panminerva Med 41:78–84Google Scholar
  277. Sharma GP, Raghubanshi AS, Singh JS (2005) Lantana ­invasion: an overview. Weed Biol Manage 5(4):157–165Google Scholar
  278. Shepherd S (11 May 2001) Plant poisoning, hypoglicemics. eMedicine J 2(5). www.emedicine.com/emerg/topic448.htm
  279. Shevchenko SV (1978) Forest phytopathology. Vishcha shkola, Kiev, 319 ppGoogle Scholar
  280. Shishkin IB (1972) Essays of Kesri Singh ‘Tiger of Rajasthan’ and fortune of Indian tiger. Singh K. tiger of Rajasthan. Nauka, Moscow, pp 138–156 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  281. Shteinmann G (1984) Weapons of animals. Lesnaya promyshlennost, Moscow, 144 pp (in Russian)Google Scholar
  282. Simberloff D, Dayan T, Jones C, Ogura G (2000) Character displacement and release in the small Indian mongoose, Herpestes javanicus. Ecology 81(8):2086–2099Google Scholar
  283. Skorer R (1980) Aerohydrodynamics of environment. Mir, Moscow, 549 pp (in Russian)Google Scholar
  284. Smith K (1978) Principles of applied meteorology. Gidrometeoizdat, Leningrad, 422 pp (in Russian)Google Scholar
  285. Smith UH (1985) Forest and atmosphere. Progress, Moscow, 429 pp (in Russian)Google Scholar
  286. Sokolov VI (2008) Natural resources of USA: peculiarities of location, evaluations, application. ISL RAS, Moscow, 148 pp (in Russian)Google Scholar
  287. Spurr SH, Barnes BV (1984) Forest ecology. Lesnaya promyshlennost, Moscow, 477 pp (in Russian)Google Scholar
  288. Steffensen DA (2008) Economic cost of cyanobacterial blooms. International Symposium on Cyanobacterial Harmful Algal Blooms (ISOC-HAB). Springer, New York, pp 855–867Google Scholar
  289. Stenko YuM, Mikhelson DA, Rodnikov AV (1984) Dangerous maritime animals. Light and food industry, Moscow, 64 pp (in Russian)Google Scholar
  290. Stepanyan IL (1996) On the problem of damage to power systems by birds. In: Biodeterioration, biofouling and protection against it: climatic, biochemical and ecotoxicological factors. Nauka, Moscow, pp 31–36 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  291. Stepanyuk VD, Litvin VP (1976) Epizoological dictionary. Urozhai, Kiev, 120 pp (in Russian)Google Scholar
  292. Stewart I, Seawright AA, Shaw GR (2008) Cyanobacterial poisoning in livestock, wild mammals and birds – an overview. In: International symposium on cyanobacterial harmful algal blooms (ISOC-HAB). Springer, New York, pp 613–639Google Scholar
  293. Stoiko SM, Tretyak PR (1983) Nature–element–human. Vishcha shkola, Lvov, 120 pp (in Russian)Google Scholar
  294. Su N-Y (2002) Novel technologies for subterranean termite control. Sociobiology 40:95–101Google Scholar
  295. Su N-Y (2003) Overview of the global distribution and control of the Formosan subterranean termite. Sociobiology 41:7–16Google Scholar
  296. Tansky VI (1988) Biological principles of insect harmfulness. Agropromizdat, Moscow, 182 pp (in Russian)Google Scholar
  297. Tarasov NI (1943) Biology of sea and navy. Voyenizdat, Moscow, 224 pp (in Russian)Google Scholar
  298. Tarasov VV (1996) Medical entomology. Moscow State University, Moscow, 352 pp (in Russian)Google Scholar
  299. Tarnani IK (1907) Our venomous animals (biology, damage, and control measures). St. Petersburg, 127 pp (in Russian)Google Scholar
  300. Tarshis MG (1988) Elemental harm of evolution. Agropromizdat, Moscow, 237 pp (in Russian)Google Scholar
  301. Tchoua R, Raouf AO, Ogandaga A, Mouloungui C, Loussou JB, Kombila M, Nsafu DN (2002) Analysis of snakebite envenomations in Gabon. Bull Soc Pathol Exot 95(3):188–190Google Scholar
  302. Teixeira MG, Costa MC, de Carvalho VL, Pereira MS, Hage E (1993) Gastroenteritis epidemic in the area of the Itaparica Dam, Bahia, Brazil. Bull Pan Am Health Organ 27(3):244–253Google Scholar
  303. The economic impact of allergic disease in Australia: not to be sneezed at (2007) Report by Access Economics Pty Limited for the Australasian Society of Clinical Immunology and Allergy (ASCIA), 123 pp. http://www.allergy.org.au/content/view/324/76/
  304. Thirty years of UNEP. Environment for development: planet, people, prosperity (2003) Probl Environ Nat Resour 7:55–88 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  305. Thygerson A (2006) First Aid, CPR And AED Standard. Jones & Bartlett Learning, 151 ppGoogle Scholar
  306. Timofeeva EK (1985) Roe. State University, Leningrad, 224 pp (in Russian)Google Scholar
  307. Tisdell CA, Xiang Z (1995) Protected areas, agricultural pests and economic damage: a study of elephants and other pests from Xishuangbanna State Nature Reserve. Working paper No. 16. The University of Queensland, Brisbane, 18 ppGoogle Scholar
  308. Tsukerman AM (1983) Strategy of control of biological deterioration of materials and products. In: Insects and rodents are destructors of materials and engineering devices. Nauka, Moscow, pp 258–268 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  309. Tsukerman AM, Rukhadze EG (1996) Current ways of creating the effective and environmentally safe antifouling coatings based on organic silicon compounds. Biodeterioration, fouling and protection against it. Climatic, biochemical and ecotoxicological factors. Nauka, Moscow, pp 96–107 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  310. Tsurikov MN (2005) Invertebrates: should we be afraid of them?. http://humane.evol.nw.ru/popbp3.html (in Russian)
  311. Valendik EN, Matveev PM, Sofronov MA (1979) Large forest fires. Nauka, Moscow, 198 pp (in Russian)Google Scholar
  312. Van Dolah FM (2000) Marine algal toxins: origins, health effects, and their increased occurrence. Environ Health Perspect 108(suppl 1):133–141Google Scholar
  313. Vazirianzadeh B, Rahmanei A, Moravvej SA (October–December 2007 [Part II]) Two cases of chilopoda (centipede) biting in humans from Ahwaz, Iran. Pak J Med Sci 23(6):956–958Google Scholar
  314. Veltischev YuE, Svyatkina OB (1995) Atopic allergy of children. Ros Vestn perinatologii pediatrii 40(1):4–10 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  315. von Eickstedt VRD, Ribeiro LA, Candido DM, Albuquerque MJ, Jorge MT (1996) Evolution of scorpionism by Tityus bahiensis (perty) and Tityus serrulatus lutz and mello and geographical distribution of the two species in the state of São Paulo – Brazil. J Venom Anim Toxins 2(2):123–131Google Scholar
  316. Voronov AG (1981) Medical geography. Moscow State University, Moscow, 161 pp (in Russian)Google Scholar
  317. Vorontsov AI (1982) Forest entomology. Vysshaya shkola, Moscow, 384 pp (in Russian)Google Scholar
  318. White J (1995) Clinical toxicology of sea snakes. In: Clinical toxicology of animal venoms. CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp 159–170Google Scholar
  319. Wild cats (1981) Mir, Moscow, 129 pp (in Russian)Google Scholar
  320. Williamson JA, Fenner PJ, Burnett JW (1996) Venomous and poisonous marine animals: a medical and biological handbook. University of South Wales Press, Sydney, 504 ppGoogle Scholar
  321. Wittenberg R, Cock MJW (2001) Invasive alien species: a toolkit of best prevention and management practices. CABI Bioscience Centre, Delemont, 240 ppCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  322. Wolf. Origin. Taxonomy. Morphology. Ecology (1985) Nauka, Moscow, 606 pp (in Russian)Google Scholar
  323. Worthley LIG (2002) Clinical toxicology: Part II. Diagnosis and management of uncommon poisonings. Critical care and resuscitation 4:216–230Google Scholar
  324. Würthrich B, Schindler C, Leuenberger P, Ackermann-Liebrich U (1995) Prevalence of atopy and pollinosis in the adult population of Switzerland (SAPALDIA study). Int Arch Allergy Immunol 106:149–156Google Scholar
  325. Xu Mei-Qing (2003) Brief hystory of the development of forest pathology and main forest diseases in China. In: Proceedings of second IUFRO rusts of forest trees working party conference. Yangling, China, pp 17–32Google Scholar
  326. Yakobi VE (1972) Damage to aircraft from collisions with birds. In: Problems of biologic deterioration and fouling of materials, articles and structures. Nauka, Moscow, pp 150–155 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  327. Yakovlev YuM, Vaskovsky VE (1993) Gonionemus vertens. Biologiya morya 5–6:3–16 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  328. Yanai O, Goldin L, Hiss J (1999) Fatal rat bites. Harefuah 136(3):611–613Google Scholar
  329. Zavgorodnaya EG, Prozorovskaya KN, Chelidze ND (2000) Some aspects of epidemiology, pathogenesis and conservative therapy of allergic rhinitis. Vestn Otorinolaringol 5:73–75 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  330. Zevina GB (1972) Biofouling in the USSR seas. Moscow State University, Moscow, 214 pp (in Russian)Google Scholar
  331. Zevina GB (1994) Biology of biofouling. Moscow State University, Moscow, 133 pp (in Russian)Google Scholar
  332. Zevina GB, Negashev SE (1995) Maximum biomass of coastal biofouling in the South China Sea. In: Hydrobionts of South Vietnam. Nauka, Moscow, pp 157–162 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  333. Zhokhov PI (1975) Forest protection manual. Lesnaya promyshlennost, Moscow, 295 pp (in Russian)Google Scholar
  334. Zhuravlev II, Sokolov DV (1969) Forest pathology. Lesnaya promyshlennost, Moscow, 368 pp (in Russian)Google Scholar
  335. Zhuravlev II, Krangauz RA, Yakovlev VG (1974) Diseases of forest trees. Lesnaya promyshlennost, Moscow, 157 pp (in Russian)Google Scholar
  336. Zhurba OV, Dmitriyev MYa (2006) Medicinal, noxious and harmful plants. Koloss, Moscow, 512 pp (in Russian)Google Scholar
  337. Zhuzhikov DP (1983) Termites of the USSR. Moscow University, Moscow, 224 pp (in Russian)Google Scholar
  338. Ziselson AD (1986) Grass pollen as an allergen. Medicinal and noxious plants and their significance in pediatry. Leningrad Pediatric Medical Institute, Leningrad, pp 68–73Google Scholar
  339. Zorikov PS, Zorikova SP, Chernyak DM (2007) Poisonings by phytogenous products. Dalnauka, Vladivostok, 143 pp (in Russian)Google Scholar
  340. Zvyagintsev AYu (2005) Marine fouling in the north-western Pacific Ocean. Dalnauka, Vladivostok, 432 pp (in Russian)Google Scholar

Internet Resources

  1. http://www.bioinform.ru)Google Scholar
  2. http://www.csa.com?hottopics/ern/99nov/biodv-26f.htmlGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Pacific Geographical InstituteRussian Academy of SciencesVladivostokRussia

Personalised recommendations