Biological Processes

  • Sergey M. GovorushkoEmail author


Biology is a natural science concerned with the study of living organisms, including their coexistence in the environment. The habitats of humans and other living organisms coincide, and their activities influence one another. The value of other living organisms to human beings is immense, and without them, the existence of humanity on earth would be impossible. Indeed, we must remember that all nutrients (proteins, fats and carbohydrates) are derived from other living organisms, and our only inorganic foods are salt and water. This chapter focuses on species that have the most adverse effects (at some point through their life history) on human beings. Negative influences can be attributed to feeding activities, diverse defence actions, or just simply the struggle for coexistence with mankind.


Biology Animals Plants Microorganisms Mortality Economic loss Damage Biological processes Rates Origins Impacts Human activity 


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  1. 1.Pacific Geographical InstituteRussian Academy of SciencesVladivostokRussia

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