• Sergey M. GovorushkoEmail author


The term transport has different meanings. In the narrow sense, it is an aggregate of facilities that are meant for the relocation of people and cargo. In the wider sense, it is the whole aggregate of infrastructure, management, transport facilities, and transporting enterprises. To get a driving force, all kinds of transport use mechanical devices to transform various sorts of energy into mechanical energy. When cartage is used, the muscular power of animals is employed, which is based on the transformation of chemical energy. Transport can be categorized by the type of conveyance (cargo or passengers) and by the ‘age’ (the most ancient ones are water transport and cartage, followed by railway, motor, pipeline, and air transport). The importance of different kinds of transport changes with the course of time. For instance, the significance of cartage has been declining steadily, and at present, its importance is extremely low. For a very long time (at least until intercontinental railroads appeared in the second half of the nineteenth century), water transport was the most significant. As for now, identification of the most important kind of transport is not very relevant, as each of them has its own ‘niche’ with regard to the nature of a cargo, the terms of delivery, and so on.


Environmental impact Natural components Transport Mortality Pollution Transportation Cargo Cargo handling Transport infrastructure 


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© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Pacific Geographical InstituteRussian Academy of SciencesVladivostokRussia

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