Advertisement

Agriculture and Forestry

  • Sergey M. GovorushkoEmail author
Chapter

Abstract

Agriculture and forest management are two closely related fields. Their similarity can be found both in their aims (to a greater or lesser degree, they are oriented on food provision for the population and raw materials supply for different industries) and in their basic operating principles (based on the growth of living organisms in the process of their development). This similarity can be seen the best when plant growing is compared to forest management. In both cases, practically identical methods of growing, enhancement and increase of productivity, using fertilizers, and protection from weeds (herbicides) and pests (pesticides) are used. The differences lay primarily in the duration of the production cycle: half a year for crop farming, 3–5 years for horticulture, but not less than 10 years for forestry. Besides, the object of agriculture greatly depends on human involvement. For many countries and international organizations (e.g., Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations), forestry is a part of the agricultural sector.

Keywords

Livestock Grazing Forest Restoration Agricultural Equipment Timber Processing Plant Community Succession 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Afanasyev VN, Sukhanov PA, Afanasyev AV et al (2005) Practical guidance for agricultural enterprises on environmental conservation. SZNIIMESKh, St. Petersburg, 272 pp (in Russian)Google Scholar
  2. Agricultural ecosystems (1987) Agropromizdat, Moscow, 223 pp (in Russian)Google Scholar
  3. Alekseenko VA (2005) Vital activities and atmosphere. Logos, Moscow, 232 pp (in Russian)Google Scholar
  4. Anuchin NP (1991) Forest management. Ekologiya, Moscow, 399 pp (in Russian)Google Scholar
  5. Berryman A (1990) Protection of forests against destructive insects. Agropromizdat, Moscow, 288 pp (in Russian)Google Scholar
  6. Bock MD, Van Rees KCJ (2002) Forest harvesting impacts on soil properties and vegetation communities in the Northwest Territories. Can J For Res 32(4):713–724CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Cornell JD (2003) Pollution of the environment. Encyclopaedia of pest management. doi: 10.1081/E-EPM-120009929Google Scholar
  8. Czerwinski Z, Kozlowska J, Pinowski J, Traczyk T (1987) Influence of spot disposals of liquid manure on the environment. Pol Ecol Stud 12(1–2):243–252Google Scholar
  9. Deconchat M (2001) Effects of logging techniques on the soil surface. Ann For Sci 56(6):653–661CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Denisov A, Semizhon A (2008) Ecological problems of large pig-breeding complexes. Farm Mach Maint Repair 5:67–70Google Scholar
  11. Doncheva AV, Pokrovsky SG (1999) Foundations of ecological manufacturing techniques (environmental evaluation of techniques). Moscow State University, Moscow, 107 pp (in Russian)Google Scholar
  12. Dyakonov KN, Anoshko VS (1995) Reclamation geography. Moscow State University, Moscow, 254 pp (in Russian)Google Scholar
  13. Ecological encyclopaedia (1999) Noosphere, Moscow, 930 pp (in Russian)Google Scholar
  14. Ecological sketches of nature and humans (1988) Progress, Moscow, 640 pp (in Russian)Google Scholar
  15. Environment. Encyclopaedic reference book (1999) Progress, Moscow, vol 1, 304 pp, vol 2, 304 ppGoogle Scholar
  16. Environmental assessment sourcebook (1994) Sectoral guidelines, vol 2. The World Bank, Washington, 282 ppGoogle Scholar
  17. Ferrer A, Cabral R (1995) Recent epidemics of poisoning by pesticides. Toxicol Lett 82–83:55–63CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Fomintsev MK (1990) Protection of nature and timber rafting. In: Mechanization of activities during timber rafting. Timber Industry, Moscow, pp 4–18 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  19. Fomintsev MK, Kulesjova TV, Osipov RI (1990) Investigation of possibility of change from loose to rafting floatage. In: Mechanization of floatage works. Timber Industry, Moscow, pp 22–31 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  20. Geoecological principles of designing of natural-engineering geosystems (1987) Institute of Geography of the USSR Academy of Sciences, Moscow, 322 pp (in Russian)Google Scholar
  21. Golubev GN (1999) Geoecology. Geos, Moscow, 338 pp (in Russian)Google Scholar
  22. Gonzalez E, Ruiz-Suarez LG (1995) Methane emissions from cattle in Mexico: methodology and mitigation issues. Interciencia 20(6):370–372Google Scholar
  23. Gorshkov SP (1982) Exodynamic processes of the developed territories. Nedra, Moscow, 286 pp (in Russian)Google Scholar
  24. Gorshkov SP (1992) Ecologo-geographic principles of nature conservation. Moscow State University, Moscow, 124 pp (in Russian)Google Scholar
  25. Gorshkov SP (2001) Basics of geoecology. Zeldorizdat, Moscow, 592 pp (in Russian)Google Scholar
  26. Govorushko SM (1999) Influence of economic activities on the environment. Dalnauka, Vladivostok, 171 pp (in Russian)Google Scholar
  27. Grinevich VI, Kupriyanovskaya AP, Nikiforov AYu (1995) Environmental preservation and sustainable naryre management. State Chemico-technological Academy, Ivanovo, 287 pp (in Russian)Google Scholar
  28. Gruzdev GS (1988) Scientific principles of developing the complex measures of weed control in the intense technologies of crop cultivation. Weed control in cultivation of crops. Agropromizdat, Moscow, pp 3–8 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  29. Handbook of forester (1980) Lesnaya promyshlennost, Moscow, 399 pp (in Russian)Google Scholar
  30. Hart KA, Pimentel D (2002) Environmental and economic costs of pesticide use. Encyclopaedia of pest management. Marcel Dekker, New York, pp 237–239Google Scholar
  31. Hartung J (1992) Emissions of airborne substances from livestock buildings. Pneumologie 46:196–202Google Scholar
  32. Heiko G, Gerold R (2002) Wildlife protection. Bundes­for­schungsanst. Landwirt, Braunschweig, 122 pp (in German)Google Scholar
  33. Heinrich D, Hergt M (2003) Ecology: dtv – atlas. Rybari, Moscow, 287 pp (in Russian)Google Scholar
  34. Humprey JW, Patterson GS (2000) Effects of late summer cattle grazing on the diversity of riparian pasture vegetation in an upland conifer forest. J Appl Ecol 37(6):986–996CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Kazansky YuA, Kryshev II, Rabotnov NS et al (1992) Introduction to ecology. IzdAT, Moscow, 109 pp (in Russian)Google Scholar
  36. Khazan MA, Meskhi BCh, Pavlov AV (2005) Ecological necessity and economic expediency of poultry dung processing. Izvestiya vuzov Severo-Kavlazskogo regiona 9:76–79 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  37. Kholina VN, Naumov AS, Rodionova IA (2009) Atlas-guide to social and economic geography of the world. Drofa, Moscow, 72 ppGoogle Scholar
  38. Kovalev AP (2004) Ecologo-silvicultural principles of felling in the Far-Eastern forests. DalNIILKH, Khabarovsk, 267 pp (in Russian)Google Scholar
  39. Kwun S-K, Shin YK, Eom K (2003) Estimation of methane emission from rice cultivation in Korea. J Environ Sci Heal 38(11):2549–2563CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Litvin LF (2002) Geography of soil erosion of the agricultural lands of Russia. Akademkniga, Moscow, 255 pp (in Russian)Google Scholar
  41. Liu SR, Li XM, Niu LM (1998) The degradation of soil fertility in pure larch plantations in northeastern China. Ecol Eng 10(1):75–86CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Maksakovsky VP (2006) Geographic picture of the world. Book 1. General characteristic of the world. Drofa, Moscow, 495 pp (in Russian)Google Scholar
  43. Manukovsky FYu, Patyakin VI (2004) Influence of supplied by water timber and log-floating fleet on the ecological state of water bodies. Voronezh State University, Voronezh, 69 pp (in Russian)Google Scholar
  44. Mavrischev VV (2000) Fundamentals of general ecology. Vysheishaya shkola, Minsk, 317 pp (in Russian)Google Scholar
  45. Meules EW, Williams AG, Ternan GL, Anderson JM (2001) Effects of grazing on soil properties and hydrology of a small Dartmoor catchment, southwest England. IAHS Publ 268:279–286Google Scholar
  46. Mitchell P (2001) 101 fundamental ideas: ecology. FAIR-PRESS, Moscow, 224 pp (in Russian)Google Scholar
  47. Mitrofanov AA (1999) Scientific substantiation and development of environmentally safe rafting of timber. Abstract of doctoral thesis. Arkhangelsk State Technical University, Arkhangelsk, 47 pp (in Russian)Google Scholar
  48. Modern global changes in the natural environment (2006) Nauchny mir, Moscow, vol 1, 696 pp, vol 2, 775 pp (in Russian)Google Scholar
  49. Mordkovich VG (1982) Steppe ecosystems. Nauka, Novosibirsk, 204 pp (in Russian)Google Scholar
  50. Munson AD, Margolis HA, Brand DG (1993) Intensive silvicultural treatment – impacts on soil fertility and planted conifer response. Soil Sci Soc Am J 57(1):246–255CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Mwendera EJ, Saleem MAM, Dibabe A (1997) The effect of livestock grazing on surface runoff and soil erosion from sloping pasture lands in the Ethiopian highlands. Aust J Exp Agr 37(4):421–430CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Nabatov NM (1997) Forestry. MGUL, Moscow, 188 pp (in Russian)Google Scholar
  53. Nastea S, Dumitru M (1986) Pollution of the environment by animal husbandry wastes. Valorificarea Peutru productic vegetala Namurilor si apelor Urate de la complexele zootehnice, pp 21–28Google Scholar
  54. Newman A (1989) Lungs of our planet. Mir, Moscow, 335 pp (in Russian)Google Scholar
  55. Ngowi AVF, Wesseling K, London L (2006) Pesticide health impacts in developing countries. Encyclopedia of pest management. www.informaworld.com/index/758545698.pdf
  56. Nikolaikin NI, Nikolaikina NE, Melekhova OP (2003) Ecology. Drofa, Moscow, 621 pp (in Russian)Google Scholar
  57. Nikonov MV (2001) Dendrology and forestry. Veliky Novgorod, 314 pp (in Russian)Google Scholar
  58. Novikov YuV (1999) Ecology, environment and humanity. FAIR-PRESS, Moscow, 320 pp (in Russian)Google Scholar
  59. Oztas T, Ozbek AK, Turan M (2002) The cost of soil lost from fields due to removal on harvested sugar beet: a case study in Turkey. Soil Use Manage 18(3):236–237CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Palmborg M (2002) Human pesticide poisoning. Encyclopedia pest manag. doi: 10.1081/E-EPM-100000640
  61. Preobrazhensky VS (editor-in-chief. CV) (1985) Evaluation of economy effect on nature. Effect-variation-consequences: intern. Monograph, Brno, vol 1, 379 pp, vol 2, 61 pp (in Russian)Google Scholar
  62. Ramade F (1981) Fundamentals of applied ecology: influence of humans on the biosphere. Gidrometeoizdat, Leningrad, 543 pp (in Russian)Google Scholar
  63. Resources and environment. World atlas (1998) Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Geography. Ed. Holzel: Vienna, Austria: vol 1, 93 pp, vol 2, 112 ppGoogle Scholar
  64. Riklefs R (1979) Fundamentals of general ecology. Mir, Moscow, 424 pp (in Russian)Google Scholar
  65. Rosnovsky IN (1999) Evaluation of the effect of logging equipment on the soils of forest ecosystems. Ecol Assess 6:2–29 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  66. Rozhentsov AP (2003) Improvement of techniques of lifting of submerged logs. Water resources: problems and ways of their solution. MarGTU, Yoshkar-Ola, pp 43–46 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  67. Rudsky VV, Sturman VI (2006) Principles of nature management. Madzhenta, Smolensk, 320 pp (in Russian)Google Scholar
  68. Ruhl JB (2000) Farms, their environmental harms, and environmental law. Ecol Law Quart 27(2):263–349Google Scholar
  69. Russia and countries of the world (2008) Rosstat, Moscow, 361 pp (in Russian)Google Scholar
  70. Savenko VS (1991) Natural and anthropogenic sources of atmosphere contamination. Results of science and technics. In: Ser. Nature conservation and reproduction of natural resources, vol 31. VINITI, Moscow, 210 pp (in Russian)Google Scholar
  71. Schmidt MG, Macdonald SE, Rothwell RL (1996) Impacts of harvesting and mechanical site preparation on soil properties of mixed-wood boreal forest sites in Alberta. Can J Soil Sci 76(4):531–540CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Sedlag U (1975) The animal kingdom of the Earth. Mir, Moscow, 208 pp (in Russian)Google Scholar
  73. Semenov AM (2001) Influence of skidding systems on the environment state. State and problems of continuous ecological education and environmental conservation. Pomorsky State University, Arkhangelsk, pp 158–159 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  74. Semenova-Tyan-Shanskaya AM (1986) The world of plants and humans. Nauka, Leningrad, 174 pp (in Russian)Google Scholar
  75. Shelgunov YuV, Goryunov AK, Yartsev IV (1989) Forest exploitation and timber transport. Timber industry, Moscow, 520 pp (in Russian)Google Scholar
  76. Sokolov VI (2008) Natural resources of USA: peculiarities of location, evaluations, application. ISL RAS, Moscow, 148 pp (in Russian)Google Scholar
  77. Spurr SH, Barnes BV (1984) Forest ecology. Lesnaya promyshlennost, Moscow, 477 pp (in Russian)Google Scholar
  78. Suprunenko JuP (1999) Mountain nature-use. Trabant, Moscow, 496 pp (in Russian)Google Scholar
  79. Taddese G, Saleem MAM, Abyie A, Wagnew A (2002) Impact of grazing on plant species richness, plant biomass, plant attributes, and soil physical and hydrological properties of vertisol in east African highlands. Environ Manage 29(2):279–289CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Tatarinov KP (2002) Ecology and clear-cutting. Ecological principles of the sustainable forest exploitation in the middle Volga region. MarGTU, Yoshkar-Ola, pp 83–85 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  81. Tisdell C (1998) Asia’s (especially China’s) livestock industries: changes and environmental consequences. University of Queensland, Brisbane, 24 ppGoogle Scholar
  82. Vavilova EV (2003) Economic and social geography of the world. Gardariki, Moscow, 175 pp (in Russian)Google Scholar
  83. West PW (2006) Growing plantation forests. Springer, Heidelberg, 317 ppGoogle Scholar
  84. Yamaji K, Ohara T, Akimoto H (2003) A country-specific, high-resolution emission inventory for methane from livestock in Asia in 2000. Atmos Environ 37(31):4393–4406CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Pacific Geographical InstituteRussian Academy of SciencesVladivostokRussia

Personalised recommendations