• Richard S. Krannich
  • A. E. Luloff
  • Donald R. Field
Part of the Landscape Series book series (LAEC, volume 14)


Over the last several decades of the twentieth century America’s rural communities were confronted by an array of major economic, demographic, and social transformations. Historically, close linkages between natural resource-based industries and social, cultural, and economic structures had been crucial determinants of regional and local development contexts and trajectories throughout rural America. For the most part the economic and social character and development trajectories of its rural and small communities were closely tied to resource extraction and commodity-production industries, with jobs in agriculture, ranching, forestry, mining, and fisheries dominating local economies. However, technological changes in the patterns of resource-based activities, the emergence of the global economy, and shifting societal values have in combination dramatically altered the qualitative and quantitative nature of these historic linkages. By the start of the twenty-first century, relatively few rural and small communities in the United States exhibited sustenance organization patterns reflecting traditional forms or levels of dependence upon resource-based rural industries.


Public Land Community Satisfaction Recreation Opportunity Seasonal Resident High Natural Amenity 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V.  2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Richard S. Krannich
    • 1
  • A. E. Luloff
    • 2
  • Donald R. Field
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Sociology, Social Work & AnthropologyUtah State UniversityLoganUSA
  2. 2.Department of Agricultural Economics & Rural SociologyPennsylvania State UniversityUniversity ParkUSA
  3. 3.Department of Forest & Wildlife EcologyUniversity of WisconsinMadisonUSA

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