Advertisement

Engineering of Materials by Swift Heavy Ion Beam Mixing

  • D. K. Avasthi
  • G. K. Mehta
Chapter
  • 791 Downloads
Part of the Springer Series in Materials Science book series (SSMATERIALS, volume 145)

Abstract

Ion beam mixing (IBM) is a phenomenon, at interface between two layers, in which the atoms of one layer mingle with the atoms of the other elements under the influence of ion beam traversal through them. When a thin film deposited on a substrate is subjected to ion irradiation, intermixing of the atoms in the film with that of in the substrate takes place. Such atomic mixing at the interface forced by the energetic ion beam is referred to as ion beam mixing. It can be understood by the schematic given in Fig. 4.1. The two layers after ion exposure get mixed at the interface resulting in the mixed region of the properties different from that of the individual two layers. If one of the two layers is very thin, say about ten nm or smaller, it can result in complete mixing of the layer. At low energies, of the order of keV to a few hundreds of keV, irradiation causes a mixing at the interface due to elastic collision cascades, which is primarily a result of ballistic effects. The kinetic energies of ions are transferred to target atoms on collision. Ion energies are sufficiently high to break molecular bonds and initiate relocations within an atomic lattice. During this ballistic process, impinging ions displace atoms and electrons of the target material several lattice sites away, resulting in relocations there and interface mixing.

Keywords

Rutherford Backscatter Spectrometry Conversion Electron Mossbauer Spectroscopy Conversion Electron Mossbauer Spectroscopy Perpendicular Magnetic Anisotropy Immiscible System 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    M.M. Mitan, D.P. Pivin, T.L. Alford and J.W. Mayer, Thin Solid Films, 411 (2002) 219.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    René Pretorius, Christiaan C. Theron, André C. Vantomme and James W. Mayer, Critical Reviews in Solid State and Materials Sciences, 24 (1999) 1.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    M. Nastasi and J.W. Mayer, Materials Science and Engineering: R: Reports, 12 (1994) 1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    S. Matteson, B.M. Paine and M.-A. Nicolet, Nucl. Instr. and Meth., 182–183 (1981) 53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Tamou Yoshitaka, Li Jian, Stephen W. Russell and James W. Mayer, Nucl. Instr. and Meth., B 64 (1992) 130.ADSGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    J.-P. Hirvonen, M.A. Elve, J.W. Mayer and H.H. Johnson, Materials Science and Engineering, 90 (1987) 13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    L.S. Hung and J.W. Mayer, Nucl. Instr. and Meth., B 7–8 (1985) 676.ADSGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    A.H. Hamdi and M-A. Nicolet, Thin Solid Films, 119 (1984) 357.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    S. Dhar, P. Schaaf, K.P. Lieb, N. Bibic, M. Milosavljevic, T. Sajavaara, J. Keinonen and A. Traverse, Nucl. Instr. and Meth., B 205 (2003) 741.ADSGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Y.V. Kudryavtsev, Y.P. Lee, J. Dubowik, B. Szymañski, J.Y. Rhee, Phys. Rev., B 65, (2002) 104417.ADSGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    R.L. Fleischer, P.B. Price and R.M. Walker, J. Appl. Phys., 36 (1965) 3645.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    G. Szenes, Phys. Rev., B 51 (1995) 8026.ADSGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Z.G. Wang, C. Dufour, E. Paumier and M. Toulemomde, J. Phys: Condensed Matter, 6 (1994) 6733.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    C. Dufour, Ph. Bauer, G. Marchal, J. Grilhe, C. Jaouen, J. Pacaud and J.C. Jousset, Euro. Phys. Lett., 21 (1993) 671.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Nita Dilawar, S. Sah, B.R. Mehta, V.D. Vankar, D.K. Avasthi and G.K. Mehta, Vacuum, 47 (1996) 1269.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    D.K. Avasthi et al. Proc. of DAE Symp. on Solid State Physics, 1996.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    M. Mäenpää, L.S. Hung, M.G. Grimaldi, I. Suni, J.W. Mayer, M.-A. Nicolet and S.S. Lau, Thin Solid Films, 82 (1981) 347.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    L.S. Hung, Q.Z. Hong and J.W. Mayer, Nucl. Instr. and Meth., B 37–38 (1989) 414.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    J.O. Olowolafe, E.G. Colgan, C.J. Palmstr and J.W. Mayer, Thin Solid Films, 138 (1986) 245.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    K. Tao, C.A. Hewett, S.S. Lau, Ch. Buchal and D.B. Poker, Appl. Phys. Lett., 50 (1987) 1343.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    R.S. Averback, L.J. Thompson, J.J. Moyle and M. Schalit, J. Appl. Phys., 53 (1982) 122.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    W.K. Chu, J.W. Mayer and M.A. Nicolet, Backscatt. Spectrometry, Academic Press, NY 1978.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    J.L'Ecuyer, C. Brassard, C. Cardinal and B. Terreault, Nucl. Instr. and Meth., 149 (1978) 271.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    J. Sun, W. Bolse, K.P. Lieb and A. Traverse, Mater. Sci. Eng., A 196 (1995) 229.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    L. Wang, N. Angert, D. Ruck, C. Trautmann and J. Vetter, Nucl. Instr. and Meth., B 83 (1993) 503.ADSGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    D.M. Ruck, Nucl. Instr. and Meth., B 166–167 (2000) 602.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    M. Ekman and V. Ozolins, Phys. Rev., B 57 (1998) 4419.ADSGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    S. Dhar, T. Som and V.N. Kulkarni, J. Appl. Phys., 83 (1998) 2363.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    S.A. Wolf, D.D. Awschalom, R.A. Buhrman, J.M. Daughton, S. von Moinar, M.L. Roukes, A.Y. Chtchelkanova and D.M. Treger, Science 294(2001) 1488.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Sankar Dhar and V.N. Kulkarni, Thin Solid Films, 333 (1998) 20.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    S. Chaudhary, S. Biswas, A. Gupta, D.K. Avasthi, D. Bhattacharyya, S. Teichert and D.K. Sarkar, Nucl. Instr. and Meth., B 217 (2004) 589.ADSGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    K. Diva, D. Kabiraj, B.R. Chakraborty, S.M. Shivaprasad and D.K. Avasthi, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. Phys. Res., B 222 (2004) 169.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    B.R. Chakraborty, S.K. Halder, N. Karar, D. Kabiraj and D.K. Avasthi, J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys., 38 (2005) 2836.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Pratima Dhuri, Ajay Gupta, S.M. Chaudhari, D.M. Phase and D.K. Avasthi, Nucl. Instr. and Meth., B 156 (1999) 148.ADSGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    W. Assmann, M. Dobler, D.K. Avasthi, S. Kruijer, H.D. Mieskes and H. Nolte, Nucl. Instr. and Meth., B 146 (1998) 271.ADSGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    S.K. Sinha, D.C. Kothari, A.K. Balmuragan, A.K. Tyagi and D. Kanjilal, Surface and Coating Techn., 158–159 (2002) 214.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Ph. Bauer, C. Dufour, C. Jaouen, G. Marchal, J. Pacaud, J. Grilhe and J.C. Jousset, J. Appl. Phys., 81 (1997) 116.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    D.K. Avasthi, W. Assmann, H. Nolte, H.D. Mieskes, S. Ghosh and N.C. Mishra, Nucl. Instr. and Meth., B 166–167 (2000) 345.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    D.K. Avasthi, S. Ghosh, S.K. Srivastava and W. Assmann, Nucl. Instr. and Meth., B 219–220 (2004) 206.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    D.K. Avasthi, W. Assmann, H. Nolte, H.D. Mieskes, H. Huber, E.T. Subramaniyam, A. Tripathi and S. Ghosh, Nucl. Instr. and Meth., B 156 (1999) 143.ADSGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    D.K. Avasthi, W. Assmann, A. Tripathi, S.K. Srivastava, S. Ghosh, F. Gruner and M. Toulemonde, Phy. Rev., B 68 (2003) 153106.ADSGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    S.K. Srivastava, D.K. Avasthi, W. Assmann, Z.G. Wang, H. Kucal, E. Jacquet, H.D. Carstanjen and M. Toulemonde, Phys. Rev., B 71 (2005) 193405.ADSGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    V. Sisodia, D. Kabiraj, W. Bolse and I.P. Jain, Appl. Surf. Sci., 252 (2006) 4016.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    V. Sisodia, R.K. Jain, D. Bhattacharya, D. Kabiraj and I.P. Jain, Radiation Measurements, 36 (2003) 657.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    K. Zhang, K.P. Lieb, V. Milinovic, M. Uhrmacher and S. Klaumunzer, Nucl. Instr. and Meth., B 249 (2006) 167.ADSGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    P.C. Srivastava, M.K. Srivastava and P.S. Pandey, Appl. Surf. Sci., 254 (2008) 5116.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    M.K. Srivastava, T. Shripathi, M.M. Phase and P.C. Srivastava, Appl. Surf. Sci., 256 (2010) 1664.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    D. Bhattacharya, G. Principi, A. Gupta and D.K. Avasthi, Nucl. Instr. and Meth., B 244 (2006) 198.ADSGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Garima Agarwal, Vaibhav Kulshrestha, Pratibha Sharma and I.P. Jain, J. Colloid and Inter. Sci., 351 (2010) 570.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    B.R. Chakraborty, D. Kabiraj, K. Diva, J.C. Pivin and D.K. Avasthi, Nucl. Instr. and Meth., B 244 (2006) 209.ADSGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    D. Bhattacharya, S.K. Srivastava, P.K. Sahoo, T. Som, V.N. Kulkarni and D.K. Avasthi, Surface and Coating Technology, 158–159 (2002) 59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    K. Diva, Ph.D. Thesis, Agra University, India.Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    K. Diva, B.R. Chakraborty, R.S. Chauhan, J.C. Pivin and D.K. Avasthi, J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys., 41 (2008) 185305.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    K. Zhang, K.P. Leib, V. Melinovic and P.K. Sahoo, J. Appl. Phys., 100 (2006) 053501.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    S.K. Ghose, B.N. Dev and Ajay Gupta, Phys. Rev., B 64 (2001) 233403.ADSGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Ajay Gupta, Carlo Meneghini, Amit Saraiya, Giovanni Principi and D.K. Avasthi, Nucl. Instr. and Meth., B 212 (2003) 458.ADSGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Ajay Gupta, Parasmani Rajput and Carlo Meneghini, Phys. Rev., B 76 (2007) 195401.ADSGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Ajay Gupta and D.K. Awasthi, Phys. Rev., B 64 (2001) 155407.ADSGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Parasmani Rajput, Ajay Gupta, Carlo Meneghini, D.K. Avasthi, Nora Darowski, I. Zizak and A. Erko, Hyperfine Interactions, 185 (2008) 689.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    A. Gupta, N. Darowski, I. Zizak, C. Meneghini, G. Schumacher and A. Erko, Spectrochimica Acta, B 62 (2007) 622.ADSGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    T. Som, B. Satpati, P.V. Satyam, D. Kabiraj, P. Ayyub, S. Ghosh, Ajay Gupta, B.N. Dev and D.K. Avasthi, Nucl. Instr. and Meth., B 212 (2003) 206.ADSGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    T. Som, B. Satpati, and P.V. Satyam, Ajay Gupta and N.C. Mishra, J. Appl. Phys., 96 (2004) 7141.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    T. Som, B. Satpati, P. V. Satyam, P. Ayyub and D. Kabiraj, Nucl. Instr. and Meth., B 212 (2003) 151.ADSGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Sarvesh Kumar, R.S. Chauhan, R.P. Singh, D. Kabiraj, P.K. Sahoo, C. Rumbolz, S.K. Srivastava, W. Bolse and D.K. Avasthi, Nucl. Instr. and Meth., B 212 (2003) 242.ADSGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    S. Kumar, R.S. Chauhan, D.C. Agarwal, M. Kumar, A. Tripathi, W. Bolse and D.K. Avasthi, Nucl. Instr. and Meth., B 266 (2008) 1759.ADSGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    K. Asokan, S.K. Srivastava, D. Kabiraj, S. Mookerjee, D.K. Avasthi, J.C. Jan, J.W. Chiou, W.F. Pong, L.C. Ting and F.Z. Chien, Nucl. Instr. and Meth., B 193 (2002) 324.ADSGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    S.K. Srivastava, D. Kabiraj, B. Schattat, H.D. Carstanjen and D.K. Avasthi, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. B 219 (2004) 815 and S.K. Srivastava and D.K. Avasthi, Defence Science Journal, 59 (2009) 425.ADSGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    R. Sreekumar, P.M. Ratheesh Kumar, C. Sudha Kartha, K.P. Vijayakumar, D. Kabiraj, S.A. Khan and D.K. Avasthi, Nucl. Instr. and Meth., B 244 (2006) 190.ADSGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    R. Sreekumar, P.M. Ratheesh Kumar, C. Sudha Karth, K.P. Vijayakumar, D. Kabiraj, S.A. Khan, D.K. Avasthi, Y. Kashiwaba and T. Abe, Semiconductor Science and Technology, 21 (2006) 382.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    R.K. Mangal, M.K. Singh, Y.K. Vijay and D.K. Avasthi, Bull. Mater. Sci., 29 (2006) 653.Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Ajay Gupta, Vacuum, 58 (2000) 16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Sarvesh Kumar, R.S. Chauhan, S.A. Khan, W. Bolse and D.K. Avasthi, Nucl. Instr. and Meth., B 244 (2006) 194.ADSGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Z.G. Wang, C. Dufour, S. Euphrasie and M. Toulemonde, Nucl. Instr. and Meth., B 209 (2003) 194.ADSGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    R. Leguay, A. Dunlop, F. Dunstetter, N. Lorenzelli, A. Braslau, F. Bridou, J. Corno, B. Pardo, J. Chevallier, C. Colliex, A. Menelle, J.L. Rouvière and L. Thomé, Nucl. Instr. and Meth., B 122 (1997) 481.ADSGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    S.K. Srivastava, Ravi Kumar, A. Gupta, R.S. Patel, A.K. Majumdar and D.K. Avasthi, Nucl. Instr. and Meth., B 243 (2006) 304.ADSGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    C. Jaouen, A. Michel, J. Pacaud, C. Dufour, Ph. Bauer and B. Gervais, Nucl. Instr. and Meth., B 148 (1999) 176.ADSGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Amitesh Paul, A. Gupta, S.M. Chaudhari, D.M. Phase, S. Ghose and D.K. Avasthi, Nucl. Instr. and Meth., B 156 (1999) 158.ADSGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    A. Gupta, Amitesh Paul, R. Gupta, D.K. Avasthi and G. Principi, J. Phys. Cond. Matt, 10 (1998) 9669.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    F. Richomme, A. Fnidiki, J. Teillet and M. Toulemonde, Nucl. Instr. and Meth., B 107 (1996) 374.ADSGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    F. Richomme, J. Teillet, A. Fnidiki and M. Toulemonde, Nucl. Instr. and Meth., B 122 (1997) 507.ADSGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    J. Juraszek, A. Fnidiki, J. Teillet, F. Richomme, M. Toulemonde and W. Keune, Nucl. Instr. and Meth., B 146 (1998) 244.ADSGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    J. Juraszek, A. Grenier, J. Teillet, E. Cadel, N. Tiercelin, I. Monnet and M. Toulemonde, Nucl. Instr. and Meth., B 267 (2009) 912.ADSGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Ajay Gupta, Parasmani Rajput, Amit Saraiya, V.R. Reddy, Sigrid Bernstorff and H. Amenitsch, Phys. Rev., B 72 (2005) 075436.ADSGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Parasmani Rajput, Ajay Gupta, V.R. Reddy, Vasant Sathe and D.K. Avasthi, J. Phys.: Cond. Matt., 19 (2007) 036221.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Parasmani Rajput, Ajay Gupta and D.K. Avasthi, Nucl. Instr. and Meth., B 266 (2008) 1680.ADSGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Ajay Gupta, Suneel Pandita, D.K. Avasthi, G.S. Lodha and R.V. Nandedkar, Nucl. Instr. and Meth., B 146 (1998) 265.ADSGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    A. Gupta, R.S. Chauhan, D.C. Agarwal, S. Kumar, S.A. Khan, A. Tripathi, D. Kabiraj, S. Mohapatra, T. Som and D.K. Avasthi, J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys., 41 (2008) 215306.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    C. Rumbolz, W. Bolse, S. Kumar, R.S. Chauhan, D. Kabiraj and D.K. Avasthi, Nucl. Instr. and Meth., B 245 (2006) 145.ADSGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Amrithapandian, B.K. Panigrahi, S. Rajgopalan, A. Gupta, K.G.M. Nair, A.K. Tyagi and A. Narayanasamy, Phys. Rev., B 69 (2004) 165411.ADSGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Jai Prakash, A. Tripathi, S.A. Khan, J.C. Pivin, F. Singh, Jalaj Tripathi, Sarvesh Gupta and D.K. Avasthi, Vacuum, 84 (2010) 1275.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Jai Prakash, A. Tripathi, J.C. Pivin, Jalaj Tripathi, A.K. Chawla, R. Chandra, S.S. Kim, K. Asokan and D.K. Avasthi, Adv. Mat. Lett. (2011), DOI: 10.5185/ amlett.2010.(2187).Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    B. Schattat, W. Bolse, S. Klaumünzer, F. Harbsmeier and A. Jasenek, Nucl. Instr. and Meth., B 191 (2002) 577.ADSGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Wolfgang Bolse and Beate Schattat, Nucl. Instr. and Meth., B 190 (2002) 173.ADSGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Wolfgang Bolse and Beate Schattat, Nucl. Instr. and Meth., B 209 (2003) 32.ADSGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    B. Schattat and W. Bolse, Nucl. Instr. and Meth., B 225 (2004) 105.ADSGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    B. Schattat, W. Bolse, A. Elsanousi and T. Renz, Nucl. Instr. and Meth., B 230 (2005) 240.ADSGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    R. Nakatani, R. Taniguchi, Y. Chimi, N. Ishikawa, M. Fukuzumi, Y. Kato, H. Tsuchida, N. Matsunami and A. Iwase, Nucl. Instr. and Meth., B 230 (2005) 234.ADSGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    H. Paulus, T. Bolse and W. Bolse, Nucl. Instr. and Meth., B 245 (2006) 117.ADSGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Capital Publishing Company 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • D. K. Avasthi
    • 1
  • G. K. Mehta
    • 1
  1. 1.Inter University Accelerator CentreNew DelhiIndia

Personalised recommendations