Environmental Change and Violent Conflict

Growing scarcities of renewable resources can contribute to social instability and civil strife
  • Thomas F. Homer-Dixon
  • Jeffrey H. Boutwell
  • George W. Rathjens
Conference paper
Part of the NATO Science for Peace and Security Series C: Environmental Security book series (NAPSC)


Within the next 50 years, the human population is likely to exceed nine billion, and global economic output may quintuple. Largely as a result of these two trends, scarcities of renewable resources may increase sharply. The total area of highly productive agricultural land will drop, as will the extent of forests and the number of species they sustain. Future generations will also experience the ongoing depletion and degradation of aquifers, rivers and other bodies of water, the decline of fisheries, further stratospheric ozone loss and, perhaps, significant climatic change.


Renewable Resource External Debt South African City Occupied Territory Productive Agricultural Land 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Copyright information

© 1993 SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN, a division of Nature 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Thomas F. Homer-Dixon
    • 1
  • Jeffrey H. Boutwell
  • George W. Rathjens
  1. 1.College of Natural ResourcesUniversity of IdahoMoscowUSA

Personalised recommendations