In all likelihood, the earliest tools employed by humankind for crushing or grinding seeds, nuts, and other food-stuffs consisted of little more than a flat rock, upon which the material was crushed by pounding with a stone or tree branch. The archaeological records show that as early as 30,000 years ago, Cro-Magnon artists employed the mortar and pestle to grind and mix the pigments they used to create their magnificent “cave-art”.
KeywordsIron Casting Tangential Opening German Mathematician Water Turbine Rotary Mill
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