Abstract

In all likelihood, the earliest tools employed by humankind for crushing or grinding seeds, nuts, and other food-stuffs consisted of little more than a flat rock, upon which the material was crushed by pounding with a stone or tree branch. The archaeological records show that as early as 30,000 years ago, Cro-Magnon artists employed the mortar and pestle to grind and mix the pigments they used to create their magnificent “cave-art”.

Keywords

Iron Casting Tangential Opening German Mathematician Water Turbine Rotary Mill 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Fellmann, E.A.: Leonhard Euler. In: Gautschi, E., Gautschi, W. (trans.). Birkhäuser Verlag, Berlin (2007)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
  3. 3.
    Hodge, A.T.: A Roman factory. Scientific American, 106 (November 1990)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Kaiser, W.: Johann Andreas Segner: Der ‘Vater der Turbine’, Leipzig (1977)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Netherlands 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. S. Rao

    There are no affiliations available

    Personalised recommendations