Science before the Medieval Period

  • J. S. Rao
Part of the History of Mechanism and Machine Science book series (HMMS, volume 20)


Greeks took the elementary mathematics of the Egyptians and developed it into tools to serve the physicist and the engineer of the day. About 600 BC geometry from Egypt was imported and Greeks began to develop it and arithmetic into separate branches of mathematical science. In the next several hundred years, Hippocrates (460-  BC), Aristotle (384–322 BC), Euclid (323–285 BC), and others systematized what was then known about geometry and arithmetic [2].


Separate Branch Elementary Mathematics Medieval Period Exhaust Pipe Introductory Chapter 
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  1. 1.
    Crombie, A.C.: Augustine to Galileo. Harvard University Press, Cambridge (1979)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Girvin, H.F.: A Historical Appraisal of Mechanics, International Textbook Company, Scranton, PA (1948)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Heath, T.L.: The Works of Archimedes, edited in modern notation, with introductory chapters. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge (1897)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Pedersen, O.: Early Physics and Astronomy: A Historical Introduction, 2nd edn. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge (1993)Google Scholar

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© Springer Netherlands 2011

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