Sources Regions Affecting Chemical Composition of Aerosols and Precipitation in the Eastern Mediterranean Atmosphere Determined Using Trajectory Statistics

  • G. C. Günaydin
  • G. Tuncel
Conference paper
Part of the NATO Science Series book series (NAIV, volume 30)

Abstract

Although fair amount of data on the levels of atmospheric pollutants, such as SO42-,NO3-, NH4+, trace elements, O3 and recently VOC’s had been generated in both eastern and western parts of the Mediterranean basin, information on the source regions of these pollutants is scarce. In this study, source regions affecting chemical composition of atmospheric aerosols and precipitation at two sampling locations, which are located on the Mediterranean and Black Sea costs of Turkey, are investigated using trajectory statistics. Concentrations of major ions and trace elements in both aerosols and precipitation are high compared to literature data reported for comparable sites in Europe and North America. Multivariate statistics have revealed that aerosol in these two sites is composed of crustal, marine and two separate anthropogenic components. Analysis that bases on residence times of upper atmospheric air masses and emissions have demonstrated different potential source regions that can affect eastern, western Mediterranean and the Black Sea. True source regions affecting eastern Mediterranean atmosphere is investigated using three commonly used approached in trajectory statistics. Results have shown that the main source regions are the countries on the western coast of the Mediterranean and Balkans. The contributions of central and eastern European countries are not as significant. All of the three trajectory statistics methods give similar general features of distribution of source regions. However, distant source regions are more heavily weighted in redistributed concentration fields and 3D PSCF.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Al-Agha, O. (2000) Chemical Composition of precipitation in Black Sea region, Ph.D. Thesis, Middle East Technical University, Ankara, Turkey.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Al-Momani, I. F., Aygun, S., and Tuncel G. (1998) Wet deposition of major ions and trace elements in the eastern Mediterranean basin, J. Geophysical Research 103, 8287–8299.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Ashbourg, L. L., Malm, C. and Sadeh, W. Z. (1985) A residence time probability analysis of sulfur concentrations at Grand Canyon National Park, Atmospheric Environment 19, 1263–1270.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Cheng, M., Hopke, P. K., Barrie, L., Rippe, A., Olson, M. and Landsberger, S. (1993) Qualitative determination of source regions of aerosol in Canadian High Arctic, Environmental Science and Technology 27, 2063–2071.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Dayan, U. (1986) Climatology of backtrajectories from Israel, based on synoptic analysis, J. Climatology and Applied Meteorology 25, 591–595.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Dulac, F., Buart Menard, P., Ezat, U., Melki, S. and Begametti, G. (1989) Atmospheric input of trace metals to the Western Mediterranean: Uncertainties in modeling and dry deposition from cascade impactor data, Tellus 41B, 362–378.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Ganor, E., Levin, Z. and Van Grieken, R. (1998) Composition of individual aerosol particles above the Israelian Mediterranean coast during the summer time, Atmospheric Environment 32, 1631–1642.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    GESAMP (IMO/FAO/UNESCO/IAEA/UN/UNEP Joint group of experts on the scientific aspects of marine pollution), Atmospheric transport of contaminants into the Mediterranean region, UNEP Regional Seas Reports and Studies No. 68 (1985).Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Glavas, S. (1988) A Wet 006Fnly precipitation study in a Mediterranean site, Patras, Greece. Atmospheric Environment 22, 1505–1507.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Guerzoni, S, Chester, R., Dulac, F., Herut, B., Loye-Pilot, M., Measures, C., Migon, C., Molinaroli, E., Moulin, C., Rossini, P., Saydam, C., Soudine, S. and Ziveri, P. (1999) The role of atmospheric deposition in the biogeochemistry of the Mediterranean Sea, Progress in Oceanography 44, 147–190.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Guieu, C., Chester, R., Nimmo, M., Martin, J. M., Guerzoni, S., Nicolas, E., Mateu, J. and Keyse, S. (1997) Atmospheric input of dissolved and particulate metals to the Northwestern Mediterranean, Deep- Sea Research Part II-Topical Studies In Oceanography 44, 655–674.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Güllü, G. (1996) Long range transport of aerosols, Ph. D. Thesis, Middle East Technical University.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Gullu, G., Ölmez, I. and Tuncel, G. (2000) Temporal variability of atmospheric trace element concentrations over the eastern Mediterranean Sea, Spectrochimica Acta Part B: Atomic Spectroscopy 55, 1133–1148.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Gullu, G., Olmez, I., Aygun, S. and Tuncel, G. (1998) Atmospheric trace element concentrations over the Eastern Mediterranean sea: factors affecting temporal variability, J. Geophysical Research 103, 21943–21954.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Hacisalihoglu, G., Eliyakut, F., Balkas, T. I. and Tuncel, G. (1992) Chemical composition of particles in the Black Sea aerosols, Atmospheric Environment 26, 3207–3218.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Herut, B., Krom, M. D., Pan, G. and Mortimer, R. (1999) Atmospheric input of nitrogen and phosphorus to the Southeast Mediterranean: Sources, fluxes, and possible impact, Limnology and Oceanography 44, Issue 7, 1683–1692.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Herut, B., Starinsky, A., Katz, A. and Rosenfeld, D. (2000) Relationship between the acidity and chemical composition of rainwater and climatological conditions along a transition zone between large deserts and Mediterranean climate, Israel, Atmospheric Environment 34, 1281–1292.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Karakas, D. (1999) Determination of European contribution on the aerosol composition in the Black Sea basin and investigation of transport mechanisms, Ph. D. Thesis, Middle East Technical University, Ankara, Turkey.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Katsoulis, B. D. and Whelpdale, D. M. (1993) A climatological analysis of four day backtrajectories from Aliartos, Greece, Theoretical and Applied Climatology 47, 93–103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Katsoulis, B. D. (1999) The potential for long-range transport of air pollutants into Greece a climatological analysis, The Science of the Total Environment 231, 101–113.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Kubilay, N. and Saydam, A. C. (1995) Trace elements in the atmospheric particulates over the eastern Mediterranean; Concentrations, sources and temporal variability, Atmospheric Environment 29, 2289–2300.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Kubilay, N. (1996) The composition of atmospheric aerosol over the Eastern Mediterranean; sources and temporal variability, Ph. D. Thesis, Middle East Technical University, Ankara.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Kuloglu, E. (1998) Dry deposition fluxes and size distribution of elements in Eastern Mediterranean, M.Sc. Thesis, Middle East Technical University, Ankara, Turkey.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Lebolloch, O. and Guerzoni, S. (1995) Acid and alkaline deposition in precipitation on the western coast of Sardinia, Central Mediterranean (40-Degrees-N, 8-Degrees-E), Water Air And Soil Pollution 85, 2155–2160.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Loye-Pilot, M. D., Martin, J. M. and Morelli J. (1986) Influence of Saharan dust on the rain acidity and atmospheric input to the Mediterranean, Nature 321, 427–428.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Luria, M., Peleg, M., Sharf, G., Tovalper, D. S., Spitz, N., Benami, Y., Gawii, Z., Lifschitz, B., Yitzchaki, A. and Seter, I. (1996) Atmospheric sulfur over the East Mediterranean region, J. Geophysical Research-Atmospheres 101, 25917–25930.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Mihalopoulos, N., Stephanou, E., Kanakidou, M., Pilitsidis, S. and Bousquet, P. (1997) Tropospheric aerosol ionic composition in the Eastern Mediterranean region, Tellus 49, 314–326.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Olmez, I. (1989) Instrumental neutron activation analysis of atmospheric particulate matter in: Methods of Air Sampling and Analysis, Lodge J. P, ed., pp 143–150.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Piazzola, J. and Despiau, S. (1997) Contribution of marine aerosols in the particle size distributions observed in Mediterranean coastal zone, Atmospheric Environment 31, 2991–3009.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Polissar, A. V., Hopke, P. K., Paatero, P., Kaufmann, Y. J., Hall, D. K., Bodhaine, B. A., Dutton, E. G. and Harris, J. M. (1999) The aerosol at Borrow, Alaska: Long term trends and source regions, Atmospheric Environment 33, 2441–2458.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Stohl, A. (1998) Computation, accuracy and application of trajectories-a review and bibliography, Atmospheric Environment 32, 947–966.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Stohl, A. (1996) Trajectory statistics-a new method to establish source receptor relationships of air pollutants and its application to the transport of particulate sulfate in Europe, Atmospheric Environment 30, 579–587.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • G. C. Günaydin
    • 1
  • G. Tuncel
    • 1
  1. 1.Dept of Environmental EngineeringMiddle East Technical UniversityAnkaraTurkey

Personalised recommendations