Helioseismic Observations of Plasma Motions in the Solar Convection Zone
Helioseismology provides unique information about the global dynamics of the Sun and local flows in active regions in the upper convection zone. We present a brief review of the current knowledge of plasma flows in convection zone. Methods of global helioseismology based on inversion of normal mode frequencies and frequency splitting are used to infer properties of the differential rotation, zonal and meridional flows, and the upper turbulent boundary layer. Time-distance helioseismology provides threedimensional maps of sound-speed perturbations and flow velocities for supergranulation, sunspots, emerging magnetic flux events and evolving active regions. The results reveal complex and often counter-intuitive dynamics of solar plasma and its interaction with magnetic fields. We discuss implications of these results for understanding the structure of turbulent convection, physics of sunspots and active regions, and also perspectives and challenges.
KeywordsSolar Cycle Solar Phys Convection Zone Inversion Result Surface Gravity Wave
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