Engineering Considerations Regarding Withdrawal, Testing, Treatment, Distribution, and Reuse of Water
The supply and management of water resources throughout the world has gained considerable attention over the last century. Concerns for sufficient supplies of potable water are not new, however large-scale shortages of usable water are a growing concern in many countries. During the twentieth century, industrialization has generated waste streams that threaten virtually all drinking water resources on earth with long-lived contaminants. These contaminants have caused and continue to cause significant damage to human health and the environment. A general understanding of the engineering considerations regarding the withdrawal, testing, treatment, distribution, and reuse of water is important, particularly for nations that are just beginning to develop such systems. The need to fund the development of advanced water supply technology and reliable infrastructure compounds these issues. It is important to consider each issue independently and to develop a broad understanding of the interactions among them in order to establish a system of sustainable water use and reuse. This paper explores those issues and identifies some key components that can assist the Central Asian region in developing and managing water systems. The information presented is not intended to provide an exhaustive analysis of each component but rather to present examples that can be used as starting points for more detailed evaluation.
KeywordsChemical Oxygen Demand Coliform Bacterium Drinking Water Standard Salt Water Intrusion Wastewater Reuse
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- 1.Zonn, LS., 2000, Ecological Consequences of Oil and Gas Development, in: W. Ascher and N. Morovitskaya (eds), 2000, The Caspian Sea: A Quest for Environmental Security, Kluwer Academic Publishers, pp 65–77.Google Scholar
- 2.Groundwater: A Primer, 1995, J Moore, A Zaporozec, J Mercer, American Geological Institute, ISBN 0-922152-28-4.Google Scholar
- 3.Groundwater Drought, Pollution, & Management, 1994, C Reeves, J Watts, A.A. Balkema/Torrerdam/Brookfield.Google Scholar
- 4.Global Water Supply and Sanitation Assessment 2000 Report, 2000, World Health Organization.Google Scholar
- 5.Residential End Uses of Water, 1999, American Water Works Association Research Foundation.Google Scholar
- 6.Introduction to Environmental Engineering, Second Edition, 1991, M.L. Davis, D.A. Cornwell.Google Scholar
- 7.Handbook of Groundwater Development, 1990, New York John Riley and Sons, Roscoe Moss Company, Los Angeles, CA.Google Scholar
- 8.A primer on Groundwater, 1963, H Baldwin, C McGuiness, U.S. Geological Survey.Google Scholar
- 9.Water Supply Management, 1998, D Stephenson, Klumer Academic Publishers.Google Scholar
- 10.The Changing Water Paradigm; A Look at Twenty-first Century Water Resources Development, Water International, Volume 25, Number 1, Pages 127–138, March 2000, P. H. Gleick.Google Scholar
- 11.Water Reuse, 1982, E J Middlebrooks, Ann Arbor Science Publishers, Inc.Google Scholar
- 12.Handbook of Wastewater Reclamation and Reuse, 1995, D R Rowe, I M Abdel-Magid, CRC Press, Inc.Google Scholar