Oxygen Consumption: Photorespiration and Chlororespiration

Part of the Advances in Photosynthesis and Respiration book series (AIPH, volume 14)


This chapter discusses two of the processes, namely photorespiration and chlororespiration, in algae that run counter to the oxygen-yielding reactions of photosynthesis and which involve the oxidation of carbohydrate and/or the consumption of oxygen. Photorespiration is associated with the oxygenase activity of Rubisco and the mechanisms by which cells recoup carbon and energy that would otherwise be lost from the system. The degree to which algal cells will carry out photorespiration depends on the specificity of the enzyme Rubisco for the two competing substrates O2 and CO2, whether or not the cells possess an active CO2 concentrating mechanism (CCM), and a number of environmental factors such as temperature and photon flux. Photorespiration, where it occurs, is believed to fulfill, together with a CCM, a role in avoiding the inefficiencies of carbon acquisition via Rubisco and in recovering some of the carbon and energy that could potentially be lost to the cell as excreted glycolate. In some circumstances photorespiration could also act as a mechanism of energy dissipation under conditions of high light and/or low CO2 when assimilatory processes are insufficient to dissipate absorbed light energy.

Chlororespiration, in contrast to photorespiration, is only operative in the dark and at very low light, when the photosynthetic machinery is inoperative. Chlororespiration involves the oxidation of eat rbon reserves, with O2 as terminal electron acceptor using NAD(P)H delnydrogenase, plastoquinone, the cytochrome b6 fcomplex and a terminal oxidase. Electron transport is potentially coupled to active H+ transport into the lumen and ADP phosphorylation. A number of roles have been proposed for chlororespiration, including maintenance of the ATP synth- in an active state in the dark and acting as a sink for photosyntnetically-generated reducing equivalents (NAD(P)H) thereby attenuating the generation of damaging superoxide and hydroxyl radicals. These roles, and indeed the process of chlororespiration, are still hotly debated.


Thylakoid Membrane Terminal Oxidase Plastoquinone Pool Oxygenase Activity Glycolate Oxidase 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Abell LM and Schloss JV (1991) Oxygenase side reactions of acetolactate synthase and other carbanion-forming enzymes. Biochemistry 30: 7883–7887PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Allen JF and Raven JA (1996) Free radical-induced mutation vs redox regulation: Costs and benefits of genes in organelles. J Molec Evol 45: 482–492CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Atteia A, de Vitry C, Pierre Y and Popot JL (1992) Identification of mitochondrial proteins in membrane preparations from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. J Biol Chem 267: 226–234PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Badger MR, Andrews TJ, Whitney SM, Ludwig M, Yellowlees DC, Leggat W and Price GD (1998) The diversity and coevolution of Rubisco, plastids, pyrenoids, and chloroplastbased CC2-concentrating mechanisms. Can J Bot 76: 1052–1071Google Scholar
  5. Badger MR, von Caemmerer S, Ruuska S and Nakano H (2000) Electron flow to oxygen in higher plants and algae: Rates and control of direct photoreduction (Mehler reaction) and Rubisco oxygenase. Phil Trans Roy Soc Lon B 355: 1433–1446CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Badger MR, Hanson D and Price GD (2002) Evolution and diversity of CO2 concentration mechanisms in cyanobacteria. Funct Plant Biol 29: 161–173CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Badour SS and Waygood ER (1971) Glyoxylate carboligase activity in the unicellular green alga Gloeomonas sp. Biochim Biophys Acta 242: 493–499.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Beardall J (1989) Photosynthesis and photorespiration in marine phytoplankton. Aq Bot 34: 105–130CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Beardall J and Raven JA (1990) Pathways and mechanisms of respiration in microalgae. Mar Microb Foodwebs 4: 7–30Google Scholar
  10. Bennoun P (1982) Evidence for a respiratory chain in the chloroplast. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 79: 4352–4356PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bennoun P (1983) Effects of mutations and of ionophore on chlororespiration in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. FEBS Lett 156: 363–365CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bennoun P (1994) Chlororespiration revisited: Mitochondrialplastid interactions in Chlamydomonas. Biochim Biophys Acta 1186: 59–66CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Betsche T (1983) Aminotransfer from alanine and glutamate to glycine and serine during photorespiration in oat leaves. Plant Physiol 71: 961–965PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Brooks A and Farquhar GD (1985) Effect of temperature on the CO2/O2 specificity of ribulose-l,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/ oxygenase and the rate of respiration in the light. Estimates from gas-exchange measurements on spinach. Planta 165: 397–406CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Brown AH and Webster GC (1953) The influence of light on the rate of respiration in the blue-green alga Anabaena. Am J Bot 40: 753–758CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Buchanan BB, Gruissen W and Jones RL (2000) Biochemistry and Molecular Biology of Plants. American Society of Plant Physiologists, Rockville, MdGoogle Scholar
  17. Büchel C and Garab G (1995) Evidence for the operation of a cyanide-sensitive oxidase in chlororespiration in the thylakoids of the chlorophyll c-containing alga Pleurochloris meiringensis (Xanthophyceae). Planta 197: 69–75CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Büchel C and Wilhelm C (1990) Wavelength independent state transitions and light regulated chlororespiration as mechanisms to control the energy status in the chloroplast of Pleurochloris meiringensis. Plant Physiol and Biochem 28: 307–314Google Scholar
  19. Bulté L, Gans P, Rebéillé F and Wollman FA (1990) ATP control on state transitions in vivo in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Biochim Biophys Acta 1020: 72–80CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Carol P, Stevenson D, Bianz C, Breitenbach J, Sandmann G, Mache R, Coupland G and Kuntz M (1999) Mutations in the Arabidopsis gene immutans cause a variegated phenotype by inactivating a chloroplast terminal oxidase associated with phytoene desaturation. Plant Cell 11: 57–68PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Caron L, Berkaloff C, Duval J-C and Jupin H (1987) Chlorophyll fluorescence transients from the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum: Relative rates of cyclic phosphorylation and chlororespiration. Photosynth Res 11: 131–139CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Casano LM, Zapata JM, Martin M and Sabater B (2000) Chlororespiration and poising of cyclic electron transport: Plastoquinone as electron transporter between thylakoid NADH dehydrogenase and peroxidase. J Biol Chem 275: 942–948PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Chen Z-Y, Burow MD, Mason CB and Moroney JV (1996) A low-CO2-inducible gene encoding an alanine: α-ketoglutarate aminotransferase in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Plant Physiol 112: 677–684PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Codd GA and Sellai AKL (1978) Glycolate oxidation by thylakoids of the cyanobacteria Anabaena cylindrica, Nostoc muscorum and Chlorogloea fritchii. Planta 139: 177–182CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Codd GA and Stewart WDP (1973) Glycolate oxidation and utilization by Anabaena cylindrica. Plant Sci Lett 3: 199–205Google Scholar
  26. Colman B and Norman EG (1997) Serine biosynthesis in cyanobacteria by a non-photorespiratory pathway. Plant Physiol 100: 315–328Google Scholar
  27. Corneille S, Cournac L, Guedeney G, Havaux M and Peltier G (1998) Reduction of the plastoquinone pool by exogenous NADH and NADPH in higher plant chloroplasts: Characterization of a NAD(P)-plastoquinone oxidoreductase activity. Biochim Biophys Acta 1363: 59–69PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Cournac L, Redding K, Ravenel J, Rumeau D, Josse E-M, Kuntz M and Peltier G (2000a) Electron flow between photosystem II and oxygen in chloroplasts of photosystem I-deficient algae is mediated by a quinol oxidase involved in chlororespiration. J Biol Chem 275: 17256–17262PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Cournac L, Josse E-M, Joët T, Rumeau D, Redding K, Kuntz M and Peltier G (2000b) Flexibility in photosynthetic electron transport: A newly identified chloroplast oxidase involved in chlororespiration. Phil Trans Roy Soc Lon B 355: 1447–1454CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Diner B and Mauzerall D (1973) Feedback controlling oxygen production in a cross-reaction between two photosystems in photosynthesis. Biochim Biophys Acta 305: 329–352PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Doege M, Ohmann E and Tschiersch H (2000) Chlorophyll fluorescence quenching in the alga Euglena gracilis. Photosynth Res 63: 159–170PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Dominy PJ and Williams WP (1987) The role of respiratory electron flow in the control of excitation energy distribution in blue-green algae. Biochim Biophys Acta 892: 264–274CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Falkowski PG and Raven JA (1997) Aquatic Photosynthesis. Blackwell Science, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  34. Field TS, Nedbal L and Ort DR (1998) Nonphotochemcial reduction of the plastoquinone pool in sunflower leaves originates from chlororespiration. Plant Physiol 116: 1209–1218CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Fork DC and Herbert SAK (1993) Electron transport and photophosphorylation by Photosystem I in vivo in plants and cyanobacteria. Photosynth Res 36: 149–168CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Gans P and Rebéillé F (1990) Control in the dark of the plastoquinone redox state by mitochondrial activity in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Biochim Biophys Acta 1015: 150–155CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Garab G, Lajko F, Mustardy L and Marton L (1989) Respiratory control over photosynthetic electron transport in chloroplasts of higher plant cells. Evidence for chlororespiration. Planta. 179: 349–358Google Scholar
  38. Geel C (1997) Photosystem II electron flow as a measure for phytoplankton gross primary production. PhD thesis, University of WageningenGoogle Scholar
  39. Genty B, Briantais J-M and Baker NR (1989) The relationship between the quantum yield of photosynthetic electron transport and quenching of chlorophyll fluorescence. Biochim Biophys Acta 990: 87–92CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Godde, D (1982) Evidence for a membrane bound NADHplastoquinone oxidoreductase in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Arch Microbiol 127: 245–252CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Godde D and Trebst A (1980) NADH as electron donor for the photosynthetic membrane of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii CW-15. Arch Microbiol 127: 245–252CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Goedheer JC (1963) A cooperation of two pigment systems and respiration in photosynthetic luminescence. Biochim Biophys Acta 66: 61–67PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Hartman FC and Harpel MR (1994) Structure, function, regulation and assembly of D-ribulose-l,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/ oxygenase. Annu Rev Biochem, 63: 197–234PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Hirano M, Satoh K and Katoh S (1980) Plastoquinone as a common link between photosynthesis and respiration in a blue-green alga. Photosynth Res 1: 149–162CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Howitt CA and Vermaas WFJ 1998 Quinol and cytochrome oxidases in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. Biochemistry 37: 17944–17951Google Scholar
  46. Iwamoto, K and Ikawa, T (2000) A novel glycolate oxidase requiring flavin mononucleotide as the cofactor in the prasinophycean alga Mesostigma viride. Plant Cell Physiol 41: 988–991PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Iwamoto K, Suzuki K and Ikawa I (1996) Purification and characterization of glycolate oxidase from the brown alga Spatoglossum pacificum (Phaeophyta). J Phycol 32: 790–798CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Jakob T, Goss R and Wilhelm C (1999) Activation of diadinoxanthin de-epoxidase due to a chlororespiratory proton gradient in the dark in the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum. Plant Biol 1: 76–82CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Jakob T, Goss R and Wilhelm C (2001) Unusual pH-dependence of diadinoxanthin de-epoxidase activation causes chlororespiratory induced accumulation of diatoxanthin in the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum. J Plant Physiol 158: 383–390CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Kaneko T, Sata S, Kotani H, Tanaka A, Saqmizu E, Nakamura Y, Miyajima N, Hirosawa M, Sugiura M, Sasamoto S, Kimura T, Hosouchi T, Matsuno A, Muraki A, Nakazaki N, Naruo K, Okumura S, Shimpo S, Takeuchi C, Wada T, Watanabe A, Yamada M, Yasuda M and Tabata S (1996) Sequence analysis of the genome of the unicellular cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. starin PCC 6803. II Sequence determination of the entire genome and assignment of potential protein-coding regions. DNA Research 3: 109–136PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Kofer W, Koop H-U, Wanner G. and Steinmueller K (1998) Mutagenesis of the genes encoding subunits A, C, H, I, J and K of the plastid NAD(P)H-plastoquinone-oxidoreductase in tobacco by polyethylene glycol-mediated plastome transformation. Molec Gen Genet 258: 166–173PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Kok B (1949) On the interrelation between respiration and photosynthesis in green plants. Biochim Biophys Acta 3: 625–631CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Kruk J and Strzalka K (1999) Dark reoxidation of the plastoquinone-pool is mediated by the low-potential form of cytochrome b 559 in spinach thylakoids. Photosynth Res 62: 273–279CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Lajko F, Kadioglu A, Borbely G and Garab G (1997) Competition between the photosynthetic and the (chloro)rcspiratory electron transport chains in cyanobacteria, green algae and higher plants. Effect of heat stress. Photosynthetica 33: 217–226CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. LeboulangerC, Martin-Jézéquel V, Descolas-Gros C, Sciandra A and Jupin HJ (1998) Photorespiration in continuous culture of Dunalielia tertiolecta (Chlorophyta): Relationships between serine, glycine, and extracellular glycolate. J Phycol 34: 651–54CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Lewitus AJ and Kana TM (1995) Light respiration in six estuarine phytoplankton species: Contrasts under photoautotrophic and mixotrophic growth conditions. J Phycol 31: 754–761CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Lockhart PJ, Howe CJ, Barbrook AC, Larkum AWD and Perry D (1999) Spectral analysis, systematic bias and the evolution of chloroplasts. Molec Biol Evol 16: 573–576CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Maison-Peteri B and Etienne A-L (1977) Effects of sodium azide on Photosystem II of Chlorella pyrenoidosa. Biochim Biophys Acta 459: 10–19PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Marin B and Melkonian M (1999) Mesostigmatophyceae, a new class of streptophyte green algae revealed by SSU rRNA sequence comparisons. Protist 150: 399–417.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Meunier PC and Popovic R (1990) Control of misses in oxygen evolution by the oxido-reduction state of plastoquinone in Dunalielia tertiolecta. Photosynth Res 23: 213–222CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Moreira D, Le Guyador H and Philippe H (2000) The origin of red algae and the evolution of chloroplasts. Nature 405: 69–72PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Moroney JV and Chen Z (1998) The role of the chloroplast in inorganic carbon uptake by eucaryotic algae. Can J Bot 76: 1025–1034Google Scholar
  63. Moroney JV, Wilson, BJ and Tolbert NE (1986) Glycolate metabolism and excretion by Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Plant Physiol 82: 821–826PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Myers, J (1986) Photosynthetic and respiratory electron transport in a cyanobacterium. Photosynth Res 9: 135–147CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Nixon PJ (2000) Chlororespiration. Phil Trans Roy Soc Lon B 355: 1541–1547CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Osmond, B and Grace SC (1995) Perspectives on photoinhibition and photorespiration in the field: Quintessential inefficiencies of the light and dark reactions of photosynthesis? J Exptl Bot 46: 1351–1362CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Qiu YL and Lee J (2000) Transition to a land flora: A molecular phylogenetic perspective. J Phycol 36: 799–802CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Parker MS and Armbrust EV (2002) Photorespiratory gene expression under changing light conditions in the centric diatom Thalassiosira weisflogii. Eos Trans. AGU 83 (4) Ocean Sciences Meeting Supplement Abstract OS42A-97Google Scholar
  69. Paul JS and Volcani BE (1976) A mitochondrial glycolate: Cytochrome c reductase in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Planta 129: 59–61CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Paul JS, Sullivan CW and Volcani BE (1975) Photorespiration in diatoms. II. Mitochondrial glycolate dehydrogenase in Cylindrotheca fusiformis and Nitzchia alba. Arch Biochem Biophys 169: 153–159CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Peltier G and Sarrey F (1988) The Kok effect and the lightinhibition of chlororespiration in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. FEBS Lett 228: 259–262CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Peltier G and Schmidt GW (1991) Chlororespiration. An adaptation to nitrogen deficiency in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 88: 4791–4795PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Peltier G, Ravenel J and Vermeglio A (1987) Inhibition of a respiratory activity by short saturating flashes in Chlamydomonas. Evidence for chlororespiration. Biochim Biophys Acta 893: 83–90CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Race HL, Hermann RG and Martin W (1999) Why have organelles retained genomes? Trends Genet 15: 364–370PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Rappaport F, Finazzi G, Pierre Y and Bennoun P (1999) A new electrochemical gradient generator in thylakoid membranes of green algae. Biochemistry 38: 2040–2047PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Raven JA (1984) Energetics and Transport in Aquatic Plants. A. R. Liss, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  77. Raven, JA (1997a) Putting the C in phycology. Eur J Phycol 32: 319–333CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Raven JA (1997b) Inorganic carbon acquisition by marine autotrophs. Adv Bot Res 27: 85–209CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Raven JA and Beardall J (1981) Respiration and photorespiration. Can Bulletin of Fisheries and Aquatic Science 210: 55–82Google Scholar
  80. Raven JA and Geider RJ (1988) Temperature and algal growth. New Phytol 110: 441–461CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Raven JA, Kubier JE and Beardall J (2000) Put out the light, and then put out the light. J Mar Biol Assoc UK 80: 1–25CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Raven, JA, Johnston AM, Kübier JE, Korb R, Meinroy SG, Handley LL, Scrimgeour CM, Walker DI, Beardall J, Vanderklift M, Fredricksen S and Dunton KH (2002a) Mechanistic interpretation of carbon isotope discrimination by marine macroalgae and seagrasses. Funct Plant Biol 29: 355–378CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Raven JA, Johnston AM, Kübier JE, Korb R, Mclnroy S, Handley LL, Scrimgeour CM, Walker DI, Beardall J, Clayton MN, Chudek JA, Vanderklift M, Fredricksen S and Dunton KH (2002b) Seaweeds in cold seas: Evolution and carbon acquisition. Ann Bot 90: 525–536PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Ravenel J and Peltier G (1991) Inhibition of chlororespiration by myxothiazol and antimycin A in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Photosynth Res 28: 141–148CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Ravenel J and Peltier G (1992) Stimulation of the chlororespiratory electron flow by Photosystem II activity in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Biochim Biophys Acta 1101: 57–63CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Rich PR, Hocfnagel MHN and Wiskich JT (1998) Possible chlororespiratory reactions of thylakoid membranes. In: Moeller IM, Gardeström P, Glimelius K and Glaser E (eds) Plant Mitochondria From Gene to Function, pp 17-23. Backhuys Publishers, LeidenGoogle Scholar
  87. Rujan T and Martin W (2001) How many genes in Arabidopsis come from cyanobacteria? An estimate from 386 protein phylogenies. Trends Genet 17: 113–120PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Scherer S (1990) Do photosynthetic and respiratory electron transport chains share redox proteins? Trends Biochem Sci 15: 458–462PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Scherer S, Almon H and Böger P (1988) Interaction of photosynthesis, respiration and nitrogen fixation in cyanobacteria. Photosynth Res 15: 95–114CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Schmetterer G (1994) Cyanobacterial respiration. In: Bryant DA (ed) The Molecular Biology of Cyanobacteria, pp 409-435. Kluwer Academic Publishers, DordrechtGoogle Scholar
  91. Shahak Y, Crowther D and Hind G (1981) The involvement of ferredoxin-NADP+ reductase in cyclic electron transport in chloroplasts. Biochim Biophys Acta 636: 234–243PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Sherlock DJ and Raven JA (2001) Interactions between carbon dioxide and oxygen in the photosynthesis of marine red macroalgae. Botan J Scot 53: 33–43CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Spalding MH, Winder TL, Anderson JC, Geraghty AM and Marek LF (1991) Changes in protein and gene expression during induction of the CO2-concentrating mechanism in wildtype and mutant Chlamydomonas. Can J Bot 69: 1008–1016CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Stabenau H (1992) Phylogenetic Changes in Peroxisomes of Algae. Phylogeny of Plant Peroxisomes. University of OldenburgGoogle Scholar
  95. Ta TC and Joy KW (1986) Metabolism of some amino acids in relation to the photorespiratory nitrogen cycle of pea leaves. Planta 169: 117–122CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Tabita R (1999) Microbial ribulose 1,5 bisphosphate carboxylase/ oxygenase. A different perspective. Photosynth Res 60: 1–28CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Ting CS and Owens TG (1993) Photochemical and nonphotochemical fluorescence quenching processes in the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum. Plant Physiol 101: 1323–1330PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Uemura K, Anwarazzaman, Miyachi S and Yokota A (1997) Ribulose-l,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase from thermophilic red algae with a strong specificity for CO2 fixation. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 233: 568–571PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Wieckowski S and Bojko M (1997) The NADPH-dependent electron flow in chloroplasts of higher plants. Photosynthetica 34: 481–496CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Wilhelm C and Duval J-C (1990) Fluorescence induction kinetics as a tool to detect a chlororespiratory activity in the prasinophycean alga, Mantoniella squamata. Biochim Biophys Acta 1016: 197–202CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Wilhelm C, Krämer P and Lenartz-Weiler I (1990) The influence of photoadaptation of the absorption cross section and the energy distribution in Mantoniella squamata (Prasionphyceae). Cryptogamic Bot 1: 355–359.Google Scholar
  102. Williams WP and Allen JF (1987) State I/State 2 changes in higher plants and algae. Photosynth Res 13: 19–45CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Wingler A, Lea PJ, Quick WPP and Leegood RC (2000) Photorespiration: Metabolic pathways and their role in stress protection. Phil Trans Roy Soc Lon B 355: 1517–1529CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Wu DY, Wright DA, Wetzel C, Voytas DF, Rodermel S (1999) The immutans variegation locus of Arabidopsis defines a mitochondrial alternative oxidase homolog that functions during early chloroplast biogenesis. Plant Cell 11: 43–55PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Yamane Y, Shikanai T, Kashino Y, Koike H and Satoh K (2000) Reduction of QA in the dark: Another cause of fluorescence Fo increases by high temperatures in higher plants. Photosynth Res 63: 23–34PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Yokota A, Iwaki T, Miura K, Wadano A and Kitaoka S (1987) Model for the relationships between CO2-concentrating mechanism, CO2 fixation, and glycolate synthesis during photosynthesis in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Plant Cell Physiol 28: 1363–1376Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Biological SciencesMonash UniversityClaytonAustralia
  2. 2.Division of Environmental and Applied Biology, School of Life SciencesUniversity of DundeeDundeeUK

Personalised recommendations