Skip to main content

Mechanical Transmission of Disease Agents by Arthropods

  • Chapter
Medical Entomology

Abstract

Mechanical transmission means the transfer of pathogens from an infected host or a contaminated substrate to a susceptible host, where a biological association between the pathogen and the vector is not necessary. The vectors in this case are not restricted to arthropods. Birds, rats, mice, other animals and even humans can serve as mechanical vectors; thus, vector ecologists must know about non-arthropod taxa and their roles in transmitting disease agents.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this chapter

Chapter
USD 29.95
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Available as PDF
  • Read on any device
  • Instant download
  • Own it forever
eBook
USD 469.00
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Available as PDF
  • Read on any device
  • Instant download
  • Own it forever
Softcover Book
USD 599.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Compact, lightweight edition
  • Dispatched in 3 to 5 business days
  • Free shipping worldwide - see info
Hardcover Book
USD 599.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Durable hardcover edition
  • Dispatched in 3 to 5 business days
  • Free shipping worldwide - see info

Tax calculation will be finalised at checkout

Purchases are for personal use only

Institutional subscriptions

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  • Addo, P.B. 1983. Role of the common house fly (Musca domestica) in the spread of ulcerative lymphangitis. Vet. Rec. 113:496–497.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Akkerman, K. 1933. Researches on the behaviour of some pathogenic organisms in the intestinal canal of Periplaneta americana with reference to the possible epidemiological importance of this insect. Acta Leidensia 8:80–120.

    Google Scholar 

  • Al-Janabi, B.M., Branagan, D. and Danskin, D. 1975. The trans-stadial transmission of the bovine farcy organisms, Nocardia farcinica, by the ixodid Amblyomma variegatum (Fabricius, 1794). Trop. Anim. Hlth. Prod. 7:205–209.

    Google Scholar 

  • Anonymous. 1996. Morbidity and mortality surveillance in Rwandan refugees—Burundi and Zaire, 1994. Morbid. Mortal. Weekly Rpt. 45:104–107.

    Google Scholar 

  • Ansari, S.A., Sattar, S.A., Springthorpe, V.S., Wells, G.A. and Tostowaryk, W. 1988. Rotavirus survival on human hands and transfer of infectious virus to animate and nonporous inanimate surfaces. J. Clin. Microbiol. 26:1513–1518.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Baker-Jones, E. 1941. A fly-borne epidemic of enteric fever. The Medical Officer 65:65–67.

    Google Scholar 

  • Barber, M.A. 1914. Cockroaches and ants as carriers of the vibrios of Asiatic cholera. Philipp. J. Sci. 9A:1–4.

    Google Scholar 

  • Barnett, H.C. 1960. The incrimination of arthropods as vectors of disease. Proc. 11 th Intern. Congr. Entomol 2:341–345.

    Google Scholar 

  • Bassett, D.C.J. 1970. Hippelates flies and streptococcal skin infection in Trinidad. Trans. Royal Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. 64:138–147.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Beatson, S.H. 1972. Pharaoh’s ants as pathogen vectors in hospitals. Lancet 1:425–427.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Bech-Nielsen, S., Piper, C.E. and Ferrer, J.F. 1978. Natural mode of transmission of the bovine leukemia virus: role of bloodsucking insects. Am. J. Vet. Res. 39:1089–1092.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Becker, J.-L., Hazan, U., Nugeyre, M.-T., Rey, F., Spire, B., Barré-Sinoussi, F., Georges, A., Teuliéres, L. and Chermann, J.-C. 1986. Infection de cellules d’insectes en culture par le virus HIV, agent du SIDA, et mise en évidence d’insectes d’origine africaine contaminés par ce virus. C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris 303:303–306.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Bernton, H.S. and Brown, H. 1969. Insect allergy: the allergenic potentials of the cockroach. Southern Med. J. 62:1207–1210.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Bigalke, R.D. 1968. New concepts on the epidemiological features of bovine besnoitiosis as determined by laboratory and field investigations. Onderstepoort J. Vet. Res. 35:3–138.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Blaser, M.J., Hardesty, H.L., Powers, B. and Wang, W.L. 1980. Survival of Campylobacter fetus subsp. jejuni in biological milieus. J. Clin. Microbiol. 11:309–313.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Blumberg, B.S. 1977. Australia antigen and the biology of hepatitis B. Science 198:17–25.

    Google Scholar 

  • Blumberg, B.S., Wills, W., London, W.T. and Millman, I. 1973. Australia antigen in mosquitoes. Feeding experiments and field studies. Res. Comm. Chem. Pathol. Pharmacol. 6:719–732.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Bolton, H.T. and Hansens, E.J. 1970. Ability of the house fly, Musca domestica, to ingest and transmit viable spores of selected fungi. Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 63:98–100.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Briegel, H. and Horler, E. 1993. Multiple blood meals as a reproductive strategy in Anopheles (Diptera: Culicidae). J. Med. Entomol. 30:975–985.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Buehler, J.W., Holloway, J.T., Goodman, R.A. and Sikes, R.K. 1983. Gnat sore eyes: seasonal, acute conjunctivitis in a southern state. Southern Med. J. 76:587–589.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Bull, L.B., Ratcliffe, F.N. and Edgar, G. 1954. Myxomatosis: its use in the control of rabbit populations in Australia. Vet. Rec. 66:61–62.

    Google Scholar 

  • Burkot, T.R., Graves, P.M., Paru, R. and Lagog, M. 1988. Mixed blood feeding by the malaria vectors in the Anopheles punctulatus complex (Diptera: Culicidae). J. Med. Entomol. 25:205–213.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Butler, J.F., Kloft, W.J., DuBose, L.A. and Kloft, E.S. 1977. Recontamination of food after feeding a 32P food source to biting Muscidae. J. Med. Entomol. 13:567–571.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Castro, K.G., Lieb, S., Jaffe, H.W., Narkunas, J.P., Calisher, C.H., Bush, T.J. and Witte, J.J. 1988. Transmission of HIV in Belle Glade, Florida: lessons for other communities in the United States. Science 239:193–197.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Chamberlain, R.W. and Sudia, W.D. 1961. Mechanism of transmission of viruses by mosquitoes. Annu. Rev. Entomol. 6:371–390.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Chappie, P.J. and Lewis, N.D. 1965. Myxomatosis and the rabbit flea. Nature 207:388–389.

    Google Scholar 

  • Cheville, N.F., Rogers, D.G., Deyoe, W.L., Krafsur, E.S. and Cheville, J.C. 1989. Uptake and excretion of Brucella abortus in tissues of the face fly (Musca autumnalis). Am. J. Vet. Res. 50:1302–1306.

    Google Scholar 

  • Chinchilla, M. and Ruiz, A. 1976. Cockroaches as possible transport hosts of Toxoplasma gondii in Costa Rica. J. Parasitol. 62:140–142.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Chomel, B.B., Kasten, R.W., Floyd-Hawkins, K., Chi, B., Yamamoto, K., Roberts-Wilson, J., Gurfield, A.N., Abbott, R.C., Pedersen, N.C. and Koehler, J.E. 1996. Experimental transmission of Bartonella henselae by the cat flea. J. Clin. Microbiol. 34:1952–1956.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Coggins, L. and Norcross, N.L. 1970. Immunodiffusion reaction in equine infectious anemia. Cornell Vet. 60:330–335.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Cohen, D., Green, M., Block, C., Slepon, R., Ambar, R., Wasserman, S.S. and Levine, M.M. 1991. Reduction of transmission of shigellosis by control of houseflies (Musca domestica). Lancet 337:993–997.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Conner, R.J. and Mukangi, D.J.A. 1986. Concurrent outbreak of pseudo-lumpy skin disease and acute Trypanosoma vivax infection in cattle. Trop. Anim. Hlth. Prod. 18:127–132.

    Google Scholar 

  • Cravedi, P. and Quaroni, S. 1983. Modi e mezzi di diffusione dei microrganismi negli alimenti ad opera degli insetti. Proc. Dif. Antiparassit. Industr. Aliment. Protez. 3:167–172.

    Google Scholar 

  • Daddow, K.N. 1980. Culex annulirostris as a vector of Eperythrozoon ovis infection in sheep. Vet. Parasitol. 7:313–317.

    Google Scholar 

  • Dalldorf, G. 1950. The coxsackie viruses. Bull. N.Y. Acad. Med. 26:329–335.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Dalldorf, G., Sickles, G.M., Plager, H. and Gifford, R. 1949. A virus recovered from the feces of “poliomyelitis” patients pathogenic for suckling mice. J. Exp. Med. 89:567–582.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Dalmat, H.T. 1957. Arthropod transmission of rabbit papillomatosis. J. Exp. Med. 108:9–20.

    Google Scholar 

  • Daniel, M., Srámová, H., Absolonová, V., Dedicová, D., Lhotová, H., Masková, L. and Petrás, P. 1992. Arthropods in a hospital and their potential significance in the epidemiology of hospital infections. Folia Parasitol. 39:159–170.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Davies, C.R. 1990. Interrupted feeding of blood-sucking insects: causes and effects. Parasitol. Today 6:19–22.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Davis, H.E., Dimopoullos, G.T. and Roby, T.O. 1970. Anaplasmosis transmission: inoculation by the ocular route. Res. Vet. Sci. 11:594–595.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Dikmans, G. 1950. The transmission of anaplasmosis. Am. J. Vet. Res. 11:5–16.

    Google Scholar 

  • Dipeolu, O.O. 1982. Laboratory investigations into the role of Musca vicina and Musca domestica in the transmission of parasitic helminth eggs and larvae. Internat. J. Zoonoses 9:57–61.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Dow, R.P. 1954. A note on domestic cockroaches in South Texas. J. Econ. Entomol. 48:106–107.

    Google Scholar 

  • Duncan, J.T. 1926. On a bactericidal principle present in the alimentary canal of insects and arachnids. Parasitol. 18:238–252.

    Google Scholar 

  • Durden, L.A., Linthkum, K.J. and Turell, M.J. 1992. Mechanical transmission of Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis virus by hematophagous mites (Acari). J. Med. Entomol. 29:118–121.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Echeverria, P., Harrison, B.A., Tirapat, C. and McFarland, A. 1983. Flies as a source of enteric pathogens in a rural village in Thailand. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 46:32–36.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Eddy, G.A., Marin, D.H. and Johnson, K.M. 1972. Epidemiology of the Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis virus complex. Proc. 3rd Intern. Conf. Equine Infect. Dis. (Paris), pp. 26–145.

    Google Scholar 

  • Edman, J.D. and Spielman, A. 1988. Blood-feeding by vectors: physiology, behavior, and vertebrate defense. Pp. 153–189 in T.P. Monath (ed.), The arboviruses: epidemiology and ecology, Vol. 1. CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida.

    Google Scholar 

  • Eidson, C.S., Schmittle, S.C., Goode, R.B. and Lal, J.B. 1966. Induction of leukosis tumors with the beetle Alphitobius diaperinus. Am. J. Vet. Res. 27:1053–1057.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Enright, M.R., Alexander, T.J.L. and Clifton-Hadley, F.A. 1987. Role of houseflies (Musca domestica) in the epidemiology of Streptococcus suis type 2. Vet. Rec. 121:132–133.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Evermann, J.F., DiGiacomo, R.F. and Hopkins, S.G. 1987. Bovine leukosis virus: understanding viral transmission and the methods of control. Vet. Med. 82:1051–1058.

    Google Scholar 

  • Ewing, S.A. 1981. Transmission of Anaplasma marginaleby arthropods. Proc. 7th Nat. Anaplasmosis Conf., pp. 395–423.

    Google Scholar 

  • Fairley, N.H. and Boyd, J.S.K. 1943. Dysentery in the Middle East with special reference to sulphaguanidine treatment. Trans. Royal Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. 36:253–286.

    Google Scholar 

  • Fenner, F. and Ratcliffe, F.N. 1965. Myxomatosis. Cambridge University Press, New York. 379 pp.

    Google Scholar 

  • Ferrer, J.F. 1980. Bovine lymphosarcoma. Adv. Vet. Sci. Comp. Med. 24:2–68.

    Google Scholar 

  • Ferris, D.H., Hanson, R.P., Dicke, R.J. and Roberts, R.H. 1955. Experimental transmission of vesicular stomatitis virus by Diptera. J. Infect. Dis. 96:184–192.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Fischer, R.G., Luecke, D.H. and Rehacek, J. 1973. Friend leukemia virus (FLV) activity in certain arthropods. III. Transmission studies. Neoplasma 20:255–260.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Foil, L.D. 1989. Tabanids as vectors of disease agents. Parasitol. Today 5:88–96.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Foil, L.D., Adams, W.V., Jr., Issel, C.J. and Pierce, R. 1984. Tabanid (Diptera) populations associated with an equine infectious anemia outbreak in an inapparently infected herd of horses. J. Med. Entomol. 21:28–30.

    Google Scholar 

  • Foil, L.D., Adams, W.V., McManus, J.M. and Issel, C.J. 1987. Bloodmeal residues on mouthparts of Tabanus fuscicostatus (Diptera: Tabanidae) and the potential for mechanical transmission of pathogens. J. Med. Entomol. 24:613–616.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Foil, L.D., Adams, W.V., Jr., McManus, J.M. and Issel, C.J. 1988. Quantifying the role of horse flies as vectors of equine infectious anemia. Pp. 189–195 in D.G. Powell (ed.), Equine infectious diseases. Proc. Fifth Intern. Conf. University Press, Lexington, Kentucky.

    Google Scholar 

  • Foil, L., Andress, E., Freeland, R.L., Roy, A.F., Rutledge, R., Triche, P.C. and O’Reilly, K.I. 1998. Experimental infection of domestic cats with Bartonella henselae by inoculations of Ctenocephalides felis (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae) feces. J. Med. Entomol. 35:625–628.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Foil, L.D., French, D.D., Hoyt, P.G., Issel, C.J., Leprince, D.J., McManus, J.M. and Seger, C.L. 1989. Transmission of bovine leukemia virus by Tabanus fuscicostatus. Am. J. Vet. Res. 50:1771–1773.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Foil, L.D. and Issel, C.J. 1991. Transmission of retroviruses by arthropods. Annu. Rev. Entomol. 36:355–381.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Foil, L.D., Issel, C.J., Adams, W.V. and Meek, C.L. 1983. Mechanical transmission of equine infectious anemia by deer flies (Chrysops flavidus) and stable flies (Stomoxys calcitrans). Am. J. Vet. Res. 44:155–156.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Fotedar, R. and Banerjee, U. 1992. Nosocomial fungal infections—study of the possible role of cockroaches (Blattella germanica) as vectors. Acta Trop. 50:339–343.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Fotedar, R., Banerjee, U. and Shriniwas. 1993. Vector potential of the German cockroach in dissemination of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. J. Hospit. Infect. 23:55–59.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Fotedar, R., Banerjee, U., Shriniwas and Verma, A. 1991a. Cockroaches (Blattella germanica) as carriers of microorganisms of medical importance in hospitals. Epidemiol. Infect. 107:181–187.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Fotedar, R., Shriniwas, Banerjee, U., Samantray, J.C., Nayar, E. and Verma, A. 1991b. Nosocomial infections: cockroaches as possible vectors of drug-resistant Klebsiella. J. Hospit. Infect. 18:155–159.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Fowler, H.G., Bueno, O.C., Sadatsune, T. and Montelli, A.C. 1993. Ants as potential vectors of pathogens in hospitals in the state of Sào Paulo, Brazil. Insect Sci. Appl. 14:367–370.

    Google Scholar 

  • Francis, E. and Mayne, B. 1921. Experimental transmission of tularemia by flies of the species Chrysops discalis. Publ. Hlth. Rep. 36:1738–1746.

    Google Scholar 

  • Francis Jr., T., Brown, G.C. and Penner, L.R. 1948. Search for extrahuman sources of poliomyelitis virus. J. Am. Med. Assoc. 136:1088–1093.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Friedland, G.H. and Klein, R.S. 1987. Transmission of the human immunodeficiency virus. New England J. Med. 317:1125–1134.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Fukuda, T., Goto, T., Kitaoka, S., Fujisaki, K. and Takamatsu, H. 1979. Experimental transmission of fowl pox by Culicoides arakawae. Nat. Inst. Anim. Hlth. Quart. 19:104–105.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Gaud, J. and Faure, P. 1951. Effet de la lutte antimouches sur l’incidence des maladies oculaires dans le Sud marocain. Bull. Soc. Pathol. Exot. 44:446–448.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Gazivoda, P. and Fish, D. 1985. Scanning electron microscopic demonstration of bacteria on tarsi of Blattella germanica. J. New York Entomol. Soc. 93:1064–1067.

    Google Scholar 

  • Gerhardt, R.R., Parrish, G., Snyder, R.Q. and Freeland, R.D. 1976. Incidence of pinkeye in relation to face fly control. Tennessee Farm & Home Sci. 97:14–15.

    Google Scholar 

  • Gibbs, E.P.J., Johnson, R.H. and Osborne, A.D. 1973. Experimental studies of the epidemiology of bovine herpes mammillitis. Res. Vet. Sci. 14:139–144.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Gip, L. and Svensson, S.A. 1968. Can flies cause the spread of dermatophytosis? Acta Dermat.-Venereol. 48:26–29.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Glass, H.W., Jr. and Gerhardt, R.R. 1984. Transmission of Moraxella bovis by regurgitation from the crop of the face fly (Diptera: Muscidae). J. Econ. Entomol. 77:399–401.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Goddeeris, B. 1980. The role of insects in dispersing eggs of tapeworms, in particular Taeniarhynchus saginatum. I. Review of the literature. Ann. Soc. Belge Méd. Trop. 60:195–201.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Gorham, J.R. 1994. Food, filth and disease: a review. Pp. 627–638 in Y.H. Hui, J.R. Gorham, K.D. Murrell and D.O. Cliver (eds.), Foodborne disease handbook, Vol. 3. Marcel Dekker, New York.

    Google Scholar 

  • Graham-Smith, G.S. 1914. Flies in relation to disease: non-bloodsucking flies. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, England. 389 pp.

    Google Scholar 

  • Greenberg, B. 1965. Flies and disease. Sci. Am. 213:92–99.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Greenberg, B. 1968. Model for destruction of bacteria in the midgut of blow fly maggots. J. Med. Entomol. 5:31–38.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Greenberg, B. 1971. Flies and disease. Vol. 1, Ecology, classification and biotic associations. Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey. 856 pp.

    Google Scholar 

  • Greenberg, B. 1973. Flies and disease. Vol. 2, Biology and disease transmission. Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey. 447 pp.

    Google Scholar 

  • Greenberg, B. and Bornstein, A.A. 1964. Fly dispersion from a rural Mexican slaughterhouse. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 13:881–886.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Greenberg, B., Kowalski, J.A. and Klowden, M.J. 1970. Factors affecting the transmission of Salmonella by flies: natural resistance to colonization and bacterial interference. Infect. Immun. 2:800–809.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Gunn, H.M. 1993. Role of fomites and flies in the transmission of bovine viral diarrhoea virus. Vet. Rec. 132:584–585.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Gupta, S.R., Rao, C.K., Biswas, H., Krishnaswami, A.K., Wattal, B.L. and Raghavan, G.S. 1972. Role of the housefly in the transmission of intestinal parasitic cysts /ova. Indian J. Med. Res. 60:1120–1125.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Harris, A.H. and Down, H.A. 1946. Studies of the dissemination of cysts and ova of human intestinal parasites by flies in various localities on Guam. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 26:789–800.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Harrison, L.H., Silva, G.A., Pittman, M., Fleming, D.W., Vranjac, A. and Broome, C.V. 1989. Epidemiology and clinical spectrum of Brazilian purpuric fever. J. Clin. Microbiol. 27:599–604.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Harwood, R.F. and James, M.T. 1979. Entomology in human and animal health, 7th ed. Macmillan, New York. 548 pp.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hawkins, J.A., Adams, W.V., Wilson, B.H., Issel, C.J. and Roth, E.E. 1976. Transmission of equine infectious anemia virus by Tabanus fuscicostatus. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 168:63–64.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Heinz, H.J. and Brauns, W. 1955. The ability of flies to transmit ova of Echinococcus granulosus to human foods. South African J. Med. Sci. 20:131–132.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Henry, E.T., Levine, J.F. and Coggins, L. 1987. Rectal transmission of bovine leukemia virus in cattle and sheep. Am. J. Vet. Res. 48:634–636.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Hewitt, C.G. 1914. The housefly, Musca domestica Linn.; its structure, habits, development, relation to disease, and control. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, England. 382 pp.

    Google Scholar 

  • Higgins, J.A., Radulovic, S., Jaworski, D.C. and Azad, A.F. 1996. Acquisition of the cat scratch disease agent Bartonella henselae by cat fleas (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae). J. Med. Entomol. 33:490–495.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Ho, D.D., Moudgil, T. and Alam, M. 1989. Quantitation of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in the blood of infected persons. New England J. Med. 321:1621–1625.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Hoare, C.A. 1972. The trypanosomes of mammals: a zoological monograph. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford, England. 749 pp.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hoch, A.L., Gargan, T.P., II and Bailey, C.L. 1985. Mechanical transmission of Rift Valley fever virus by hematophagous Diptera. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 34:188–193.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Hopla, C.E. 1980. A study of the host associations and zoogeography of Pulex. Pp. 185–207 in R. Traub and H. Starcke (eds.), Fleas: Proceedings of the International Conference on Fleas, Ashton Wold, Peterborough, UK, 21-25 June, 1977. A.A. Balkema, Rotterdam.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hopla, C.E. and Hopla, A.K. 1994. Tularemia. Pp. 113–126 in G.W. Beran and J.H. Steele (eds.), Bacterial, rickettsial, chlamydial, and mycotic diseases, 2nd ed. CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hornby, H.E. 1926. Studies in rinderpest immunity. 2. Methods of infection. Vet. J. 82:348–355.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hornick, R.B. 1977. Bacillary dysentery. Pp. 562–569 in P.D. Hoeprich (ed.), Infectious diseases, 2nd ed. Harper & Row, Hagerstown, Maryland.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hoskins, M. 1934. An attempt to transmit yellow fever virus by dog fleas. J. Parasitol. 20:299–303.

    Google Scholar 

  • Howard, L.O. 1911. House flies. Farmers’ Bulletin No. 459. US Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC. 16 pp.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hughes, D.E., Kassim, O.O., Gregory, J., Stupart, M., Austin, L. and Duffield, R. 1989. Spectrum of bacterial pathogens transmitted by Pharaoh’s ants. Lab. Anim. Sci. 39:167–168.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Humphries, F.A. and Gibbons, R.J. 1942. Some observations on corynebacterial infections. Canad. J. Compar. Med. Vet. Sci. 6:35–45.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hurst, V. and Sutter, V.L. 1966. Survival of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the hospital environment. J. Infect. Dis. 116:151–154.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Hyslop, N.S.G. 1970. The epizootiology and epidemiology of foot and mouth disease. Adv. Vet. Sci. Comp. Med. 14:261–307.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Issel, C.J. and Foil, L.D. 1984. Studies on equine infectious anemia virus transmission by insects. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 184:293–297.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Issel, C.J., Rushlow, K., Foil, L.D. and Montelaro, R.C. 1988. A perspective on equine infectious anemia with an emphasis on vector transmission and genetic analysis. Vet. Microbiol. 17:251–286.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Iwasa, M., Makino, S.-I., Asakura, H., Kobori, H. and Morimoto, Y. 1999. Detection of Escherichia coli 0157:H7 from Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae) at a cattle farm in Japan. J. Med. Entomol. 36:108–112.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Janisiewicz, W.J., Conway, W.S., Brown, M.W., Sapers, G.M., Fratamico, P. and Buchanan, R.L. 1999. Fate of Escherichia coli 0157:H7 on fresh-cut apple tissue and its potential for transmission by fruit flies. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 65:1–5.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Jobling, B. 1927. The structure of the head and mouthparts in Culicoides pulicaris L. (Diptera Nematocera). Bull. Entomol. Res. 18:211–236.

    Google Scholar 

  • Johnson, G.D., Campbell, J.B., Minocha, H.C. and Broce, A.B. 1991. Ability of Musca aututnnalis (Diptera: Muscidae) to acquire and transmit bovine herpesvirus-1. J. Med. Entomol. 28:841–846.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Jones, E.W. and Brock, W.E. 1966. Bovine anaplasmosis: its diagnosis, treatment, and control. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 149:1624–1633.

    Google Scholar 

  • Jones, F.T., Axtell, R.C., Rives, D.V., Schneider, S.E., Tarver, S.E., Walker, R.L. and Wineland, M.J. 1991. A survey of salmonella contamination in modem broiler production. J. Food Protec. 54:502–507.

    Google Scholar 

  • Jupp, P.G. and Lyons, S.F. 1987. Experimental assessment of bedbugs (Cimex lectularius and Cimex hetnipterus) and mosquitoes (Aedes aegypti formosus) as vectors of human immunodeficiency virus. AIDS 1:171–174.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Jupp, P.G. and McElligott, S.E. 1979. Transmission experiments with hepatitis B surface antigen and the common bedbug (Cimex lectularius L.). South African Med. J. 56:54–57.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Jupp, P.G., Purcell, R.H., Phillips, J.M., Shapiro, M. and Gerin, J.L. 1991. Attempts to transmit hepatitis B virus to chimpanzees by arthropods. South African Med. J. 79:320–322.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Kamyszek, F. 1969. The viability of spores of Trychophyton meniagrophytes in the alimentary tract of the housefly (Musca domestica L.). Med. Weteryn. 25:163–165.

    Google Scholar 

  • Kay, B.H. 1982. Three modes of transmission of Ross River virus by Aedes vigilax (Skuse). Aust. J. Exp. Biol. Med. Sci. 60:339–344.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Kieser, S.T., Eriks, I.S. and Palmer, G.H. 1990. Cyclic rickettsemia during persistent Anaplasma marginale infection of cattle. Infect. Immunol. 58:1117–1119.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Kligler, I.J. 1929. Transmission of fowl pox by mosquitoes. J. Exp. Med. 49:649–660.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Klowden, M.J. and Greenberg, B. 1977. Effects of antibiotics on the survival of Salmonella in the American cockroach. J. Hyg. (Cambridge) 79:339–345.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Knaus, R.M., Foil, L.D., Issel, C.J. and Leprince, D.J. 1993. Insect blood meal studies using radiosodium 24Na and 22Na. J. Am. Mosq. Contr. Assoc. 9:264–268.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Knight, S.M., Toodayan, W., Caique, W.C., Kyi, W., Barnes, A. and Desmarchelier, P. 1992. Risk factors for the transmission of diarrhoea in children: a case-control study in rural Malaysia. Intern. J. Epidemiol. 21:812–818.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Kopanic Jr., R.J., Sheldon, B.W. and Wright, CG. 1994. Cockroaches as vectors of Salmonella: Laboratory and field trials. J. Food Protec. 57:125–132.

    Google Scholar 

  • Krinsky, W.L. 1976. Animal disease agents transmitted by horse flies and deer flies (Diptera: Tabanidae). J. Med. Entomol. 13:225–275.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Lawson, J.R. and Gemmell, M.A. 1990. Transmission of taeniid tapeworm eggs via blowflies to intermediate hosts. Parasitol. 100:143–146.

    Google Scholar 

  • Leclercq, M. 1969. Entomological parasitology; the relations between entomology and medical sciences, 1st ed. Pergamon Press, Oxford, England. 158 pp.

    Google Scholar 

  • Lee, D.J., Fenner, F. and Lawrence, J.J. 1958. Mosquitoes and fowl pox in the Sydney area. Aust. Vet. 34:230–237.

    Google Scholar 

  • LeGuyader, A., Rivault, C. and Chaperon, J. 1989. Microbial organisms carried by brown-banded cockroaches in relation to their spatial distribution in a hospital. Epidemiol. Infect. 102:485–492.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Levine, B. and Griffin, D.E. 1992. Persistence of viral RNA in mouse brains after recovery from acute alphaviral encephalitis. J. Virol. 66:6429–6435.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Levine, O.S. and Levine, M.M. 1991. Houseflies (Musca domestica) as mechanical vectors of shigellosis. Rev. Infect. Dis. 13:688–696.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Lightner, L. and Roberts, L.W. 1984. Mechanical transmission of Leishmania major by Glossina morsitans (Diptera Glossinidae). J. Med. Entomol. 21:243.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Linhares, A.X. 1981.Synanthropyof Muscidae, Fanniidae and Anthomyiidae (Diptera) in the city of Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil. Rev. Brasil. Entomol. 25:231–243.

    Google Scholar 

  • Luger, S.W. 1990. Lyme disease transmitted by a biting fly. New England J. Med. 322:1752.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Macadam, I. 1962. Bovine streptothricosis: production of lesions by the bites of the tick Amblyomma variegatum. Vet. Rec. 74:643–645.

    Google Scholar 

  • MacWilliams, P.S. 1987. Erythrocytic rickettsia and protozoa of the dog and cat. Vet. Clin. N. Am. Small Anim. Prac. 17:1443–1461.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Madsen, M., Sorensen, G.H. and Aalbaek, B. 1990. Summer mastitis in heifers: a bacteriological examination of secretions from clinical cases of summer mastitis in Denmark. Vet. Microbiol. 22:319–328.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Magnarelli, L.A., Anderson, J.F. and Barbour, A.G. 1986. The etiologic agent of Lyme disease in deer flies, horse flies, and mosquitoes. J. Infect. Dis. 154:355–358.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Main, A.J., Brown, S.E., Wallis, R.C. and Elston, J. 1979. Arbovirus surveillance in Connecticut. II. California serogroup. Mosq. News 39:552–559.

    Google Scholar 

  • Manet, G., Guilbert, X., Roux, A., Vuillaume, A. and Parodi, A.L. 1989. Natural mode of horizontal transmission of bovine leukemia virus (BLV): the potential role of tabanids (Tabanus spp.). Vet. Immunol. Immunopathol. 22:255–263.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Manson-Bahr, P.E.C. and Downie, A.W. 1973. Persistence of tanapox in Tana River Valley. Brit. Med. J. 2:151–153.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Markus, M.B. 1980. Flies as natural transport hosts of Sarcocystis and other Coccidia. J. Parasitol. 66: 361–362.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Mason, R.W. and Statham, P. 1991. The determination of the level of Eperythrozoon ovis parasitemia in chronically infected sheep and its significance to the spread of infection. Aust. Vet. J. 68:115–116.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • McAllister, J.C., Steelman, C.D., Newberry, L.A. and Skeeles, J.K. 1995. Isolation of bursal disease virus from the lesser mealworm, Alphitobius diaperinus (Panzer). Poult. Sci. 74:45–49.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • McAllister, J.C., Steelman, C.D., Skeeles, J.K., Newberry, L.A. and Gbur, E.E. 1996. Reservoir competence of Alphitobius diaperinus (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) for Escherichia coli (Eubacteriales: Enterobacteriaceae). J. Med. Entomol. 33:983–987.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • McAllister, J.C., Steelman, C.D. and Skeeles, J.K. 1994. Reservoir competence of lesser mealworm (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) for Salmonella typhimurium (Eubacteriales: Enterobacteriaceae). J. Med. Entomol. 31:369–372.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Medveczky, I., Kovács, L., Kovács Sz., F. and Papp, L. 1988. The role of the housefly, Musca domestica, in the spread of Aujeszky’s disease (pseudorabies). Med. Vet. Entomol. 2:81–86.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Mellor, P.S., Kitching, R.P. and Wilkinson, P.J. 1987. Mechanical transmission of capripox virus and African swine fever virus by Stomoxys calcitmns. Res. Vet. Sci. 43:109–112.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Melnick, J.L. and Dow, R.P. 1948. Poliomyelitis in Hidalgo County, Texas, 1948. Poliomyelitis and coxsackie viruses from flies. Am. J. Hyg. 58:288–309.

    Google Scholar 

  • Melnick, J.L., Emmons, J., Coffey, J.H. and Schoof, H. 1954. Seasonal distribution of coxsackie viruses in urban sewage and flies. Am. J. Hyg. 59:164–184.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Melnick, J.L. and Penner, L.R. 1947. Experimental infection of flies with human poliomyelitis virus. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 65:342–346.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Mihok, S., Maramba, O., Munyoki, E. and Kagoiya, J. 1995. Mechanical transmission of Trypanosoma spp. by African Stomoxyinae (Diptera: Muscidae). Trop. Med. Parasitol. 46:103–105.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Miike, L. 1987. Do insects transmit AIDS? Staff Paper 1. Office of Technology Assessment, US Congress, Washington, DC. 43 pp.

    Google Scholar 

  • Miller, G.J., Pegram, S.M., Kirkwood, B.R., Beckles, G.L.A., Byam, N.T.A., Clayden, S.A., Kinlen, L.J., Chan, L.C., Carson, D.C. and Greaves, M.F. 1986. Ethnic composition, age and sex, together with location and standard of housing as determinants of HLTV-I infection in an urban Trinidadian community. Intern. J. Cancer 38:801–808.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Mlodecki, H. and Burzynska, H. 1956. Materials for the hygenic evaluation of foodstuffs contaminated by storage mites. I. Bacteriologie investigations of foodstuffs contaminated by storage mites. Ann. Polish Inst. Hyg. 7:419–123.

    Google Scholar 

  • Monzon, R.B., Sanchez, A.R., Tadiaman, B.M., Najos, O.A., Valencia, E.G., de Rueda, R.R. and Ventura, J.V.M. 1991. A comparison of the role of Musca domestica (Linnaeus) and Chrysomya megacephalala (Fabricius) as mechanical vectors of helminthic parasites in a typical slum area of metropolitan Manila. S.E. Asian J. Trop. Med. Publ. Hlth. 22:222–228.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Morgan, N.O. and Miller, L.D. 1976. Muscidae (Diptera): experimental vectors of hog cholera virus. J. Med. Entomol. 36:657–660.

    Google Scholar 

  • Motha, M.X.J., Egerton, J.R. and Sweeney, A.W. 1984. Some evidence of mechanical transmission of reticuloendotheliosis virus by mosquitoes. Avian Dis. 28:858–867.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Moutia, A. 1928. Surra in Mauritius and its principal vector Stomoxys nigra. Bull. Entomol. Res. 19:211–216.

    Google Scholar 

  • Murphy, E.L., Calisher, C.H., Figueroa, J.P., Gibbs, W.N. and Blattner, W.A. 1989. HTLV-I infection and arthropod vectors. New England J. Med. 321:1146.

    Google Scholar 

  • Napoli, V.M. and McGowan, J.E., Jr. 1987. How much blood is in a needlestick? J. Infect. Dis. 155:828.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Nieschulz, O. and Kraneveld, F.C. 1929. Experimentelle Untersuchungen über die Übertragung der Buffelseuche durch Insekten. Zentrbl. Bakteriol. Parasitenk. 113:403–417.

    Google Scholar 

  • Ogston, C.W. 1981. Transfer of radioactive tracer by the bedbug Cimex hemipterus (Hemiptera: Cimicidae): a model for mechanical transmission of hepatitis B virus. J. Med. Entomol. 18:107–111.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Olsen, R.A. 1998. Regulatory action criteria for filth and other extraneous materials. III. Review of flies and foodborne enteric disease. Regulatory Toxicol. Pharmacol. 28:199–211.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Olssufiev, N.G. 1941. The role of mosquitoes in transmitting the tularemia infection to wild rodents, birds and domestic animals (In Russian with English summary). Tr. Mil. Med. Acad. Red Army S.M. Kyrova 25:190–197.

    Google Scholar 

  • Oo, K.N., Sebastian, A.A. and Aye, T. 1989. Carriage of enteric bacterial pathogens by house flies in Yangon, Myanmar. J. Diarrhoeal Dis. Res. 7:81–84.

    Google Scholar 

  • Ostrolenk, M. and Welch, H. 1942. The common house fly (Musca domestica) as a source of pollution in food establishments. Food Research 7:192–200.

    Google Scholar 

  • Otte, M.J. and Abuabara, J.Y. 1991. Transmission of South American Trypanosoma vivax by the neotropical horsefly Tabanus nebulosus. Acta Trop. 49:73–76.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Owens, W.E., Oliver, S.P., Gillespie, B.E., Ray, C.H. and Nickerson, C. 1998. Role of horn flies (Haematobia irritans) in Staphylococcus aureus-induced mastitis in dairy heifers. Am. J. Vet. Res. 59:1122–1124.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Paffenbarger, Jr., R.S. and Watt, J. 1953. Poliomyelitis in Hidalgo County, Texas, 1948. Epidemiologic observations. J. Hyg. (Cambridge) 58:269–287.

    Google Scholar 

  • Paganelli, C.H. and Sabrosky, C.W. 1993. Hippelates flies (Diptera: Chloropidae) possibly associated with Brazilian purpuric fever. Proc. Entomol. Soc. Wash. 95:165–174.

    Google Scholar 

  • Paul, J.R., Horstmann, D.M., Riordan, J.T., Opton, E.M., Neiderman, J.C., Isacson, P. and Green, R.A. 1962. An oral poliovirus vaccine trial in Costa Rica. Bull. Wld. Hlth. Organiz. 26:311–329.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Payne, R.C. and Osorio, O. 1990. Tick-borne diseases of cattle in Paraguay. I. Seroepidemiological studies on anaplasmosis and babesiosis. Trop. Anim. Hlth. Prod. 22:53–60.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Plowright, W. 1956. Cutaneous stretothricosis of cattle: introduction and epizootiological features in Nigeria. Vet. Rec. 68:350–355.

    Google Scholar 

  • Pugh, G.W., Hughes, D.E. and Mcdonald, T.J. 1966. The isolation and characterization of Moraxella bovis. Am. J. Vet. Res. 27:957–962.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Quinn, T.C., Zacarias, F.R.K. and St. John, R.K. 1989. HIV and HTLV-I infectious in the Americas: a regional perspective. Medicine 68:189–209.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Rao, T.R., Paul, S.D. and Singh, K.R.P. 1968. Experimental studies on the mechanical transmission of chikungunya virus by Aedes aegypti. Mosq. News 28:406–408.

    Google Scholar 

  • Raymond, H.L. 1990. Tabanus importunus, vecteur mecanique experimental de Trypanosoma vivax en Guyane Francaise. Ann Parasitiol. Hum. and Comp. 65:44–46.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Reeves, J.D., HI and Swift, B.L. 1977. Iatrogenic transmission of Anaplasma marginale in beef cattle. Vet. Med. Small Anim. Clin. 72:5, 911–912, 914.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Rementsova, M.M. 1987. Brucellosis in wild animals. Amerind Publishing Company, New Delhi, India. 323 pp.

    Google Scholar 

  • Richard, J.L. and Pier, A.C. 1966. Transmission of Dermatophilus congolensis by Stomoxys calcitrans and Musca domestica. Am. J. Vet. Res. 27:419–423.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Riordan, J.T., Paul, A., Yoshioka, I. and Horstmann, D.M. 1961. The detection of poliovirus and other enteric viruses in flies. Am. J. Hyg. 74:119–136.

    Google Scholar 

  • Rippon, J.W. 1988. Medical mycology, 3rd ed. W.B. Saunders Company, Philadelphia. 797 pp.

    Google Scholar 

  • Rivault, C., Cloarec, A. and Le Guyader, A. 1993. Bacterial contamination of food by cockroaches. J. Environ. Hlth. 55:21–22.

    Google Scholar 

  • Roberts, R.H. and Love, J.N. 1973. The potential of Hippelates pusio Loew (Diptera: Chloropidae) as a vector of anaplasmosis. Proc. 6th Nat. Anaplasmosis Conf., pp. 21–122.

    Google Scholar 

  • Rogers, N. 1989. Dirt, flies, and immigrants: explaining the epidemiology of poliomyelitis, 1900-1916. J. Hist. Med. Allied Sci. 44:486–505.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Rogoff, W.M., Carbrey, E.C., Bram, R.A., Clark, T.B. and Gretz, G.H. 1975. Transmission of Newcastle disease virus by insects: detection in wild Fannia spp. (Diptera: Muscidae). J. Med. Entomol. 12:225–227.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Root, P.M. 1921. Experiments on the carriage of intestinal Protozoa of man by flies. Am. J. Hyg. 1:131–153.

    Google Scholar 

  • Rosamond, C.H., Shepherd, C.H. and Edmonds, J.W. 1977. Myxomatosis: the transmission of highly virulent strain of myxoma virus by the European rabbit flea Spilopsyllus cuniculi (Dale) in the Mallee region of Victoria. J. Hyg. (Cambridge) 79:405–409.

    Google Scholar 

  • Ross, J. and Sanders, M.F. 1984. The development of genetic resistance to myxomatosis in wild rabbits in Britain. J. Hyg. (Cambridge) 92:255–261.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Roth, L.M. and Willis, E.R. 1957. The medical and veterinary importance of cockroaches. Smithsonian Misc. Coll. 134:1–147.

    Google Scholar 

  • Roth, L.M. and Willis, E.R. 1960. The biotic associations of cockroaches. Smithsonian Misc. Coll. 141:1–470.

    Google Scholar 

  • Reubel, G.H., Barough, J.E. and Madigan, J.E. 1998. Production and characterization of Ehrlichia risticii, the agent of Potomac horse fever, from snails (Pleuroceridae: Juga spp.) in aquarium culture and genetic comparison to equine strains. J. Clin. Microbiol. 36:1501–1511.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Rueger, M.E. and Olson, T.A. 1969. Cockroaches (Blattaria) as vectors of food poisoning and food infection organisms. J. Med. Entomol. 6:185–189.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Scherer, W.F. and Hurlbut, H.S. 1967. Nodamura virus from Japan: a new and unusual arbovirus resistant to diethyl ether and chloroform. Am. J. Epidemiol. 86:271–285.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Schmidtmann, E.T., Robl, M.G. and Carroll, J.F. 1988. Attempted transmission of Ehriichia risticii by field-captured Dermacentorvariabilis (Acari: Ixodidae). Am. J. Vet. Res. 47:2393–2395.

    Google Scholar 

  • Schuster, D.J., Mills, R.B. and Crumrine, M.H. 1972. Dissemination of Salmonella montevideo through wheat by the rice weevil. Environ. Entomol. 1:111–115.

    Google Scholar 

  • Schwarte, L.H. and Biester, H.E. 1941. Pox in swine. Am. J. Vet. Res. 2:136–140.

    Google Scholar 

  • Scott, D.W. 1988. Large animal dermatology. W.B. Saunders Co., Philadelphia. 487 pp.

    Google Scholar 

  • Scott, T.W., Clark, G.G., Lorenz, L.H., Amerasinghe, P.H., Reiter, P. and Edman, J.D. 1993. Detection of multiple feeding in Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) during a single gonotrophic cycle using a histologic technique. J. Med. Entomol. 30:94–99.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Sellers, R.F., Pedgley, D.E. and Tucker, M.R. 1982. Rift Valley fever, Egypt 1977: disease spread by windborne insect vectors? Vet. Rec. 110:73–77.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Shane, S.M., Montrose, M.S. and Harrington, K.S. 1985. Transmission of Campylobacter jejuni by the housefly (Musca domestica). Avian Dis. 29:384–391.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Sheremetiev, N.N. 1964. Dynamics of isolation of poliomyelitis vaccinal strains from flies after vaccination. J. Microbiol. Epidemiol. Immunol. 41:102–106.

    Google Scholar 

  • Shugart, J.I., Campbell, J.B., Hudson, D.B., Hibbs, C.M., White, R.G. and Clanton, D.C. 1979. Ability of the face fly to cause damage to eyes of cattle. J. Econ. Entomol. 72:633–635.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Silverman, A.L., McCray, D.G., Gordon, S.C., Morgan, W.T. and Walker, E.D. 1996. Experimental evidence against replication or dissemination of hepatitis C virus in mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) using detection by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. J. Med. Entomol. 33:398–101.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Simmons, P. 1923. A house fly plague in the American expeditionary force. J. Econ. Entomol. 16:357–363.

    Google Scholar 

  • Smith, C.E.G. 1987. Factors influencing the transmission of western equine encephalomyelitis virus between its vertebrate maintenance hosts and from them to humans. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 37:33S–39S.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Srámová, H., Daniel, M., Absolonová, V., Dedicová, D., Jedlicková, Z., Lhotová, H., Petrás, P. and Subertová, V. 1992. Epidemiological role of arthropods detectable in health facilities. J. Hospit. Infect. 20:281–292.

    Google Scholar 

  • Srinivasan, A., York, D. and Bohan, C. 1987. Lack of HIV replication in arthropod cells. Lancet I:1094–1095.

    Google Scholar 

  • Steelman, C.D., Foote, L.E., Roby, T.O. and Hollon, B.F. 1968. Seasonal occurrence of moquitoes feeding on dairy cattle and the incidence of anaplasmosis in southern Louisiana. Proc. 5th Nat. Anaplasmosis Conf., pp. 178–182.

    Google Scholar 

  • Stewart, W.C., Carbrey, E.A., Jenny, E.W., Kresse, J.I., Snyder, M.L. and Wessman, S.J. 1975. Transmission of hog cholera virus by mosquitoes. Am. J. Vet. Res. 36:611–614.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Sturtevant, A.H. 1918. Flies of the genus Drosophila as possible disease carriers. J. Parasitol. 5:84–85.

    Google Scholar 

  • Sulaiman, S., Sohadi, A.R. and Jeffrey, J. 1989. Human helminth parasite burdens on cyclorrhaphan flies (Diptera) trapped at an aboriginal settlement in Malaysia. Bull. Entomol. Res. 79:625–629.

    Google Scholar 

  • Tadros, W. and Laarman, J.J. 1982. Current concepts on the biology, evolution and taxonomy of tissue cyst-forming eimeriid coccidia. Adv. Parasitol. 20:293–468.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Takahashi, K., Wada, A., Kawai, S., Yokota, H., Kurosawa, T. and Sonoda, M. 1984. Investigations of isolation, transmission and virulence of bovine Babesia sp. in Hokkaido (Abstract). Rev. Appl. Entomol. 72:179.

    Google Scholar 

  • Tarry, D.W., Bernai, L. and Edwards, S. 1991. Transmission of bovine virus diarrhoea virus by blood feeding flies. Vet. Rec. 128:82–84.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Taylor, H.R. 1988. A simple method for assessment of association between synanthropic flies and trachoma. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 38:623–637.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Taylor, J.P., Istre, G.R., McChesney, T.C., Satalowich, F.T., Parker, R.L. and McFarland, L.M. 1991. Epidemiologic characteristics of human tularemia in the Southwestcentral states, 1981-1987. Am. J. Epidemiol. 133:1032–1038.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Thomas, G., Prijs, H.J. and Trapman, J.J. 1987. Factors contributing to differential risk between heifers in contracting summer mastitis. Pp. 30–35 in G.T. Over, H.J. Over, U. Vecht and P. Nansen (eds.), Summer mastitis. Martinus Nijhoff, Dordrecht, Germany.

    Google Scholar 

  • Tidwell, M.A., Dean, W.D., Tidwell, M., Combs, G.P., Anderson, D.W., Cowart, W.O. and Axtell, R.C. 1972. Transmission of hog cholera virus by horseflies (Tabanidae: Diptera). Vet. Res. 33:615–622.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Tod, M.E., Jacobs, D.E. and Dunn, A.M. 1971. Mechanisms for the dispersal of parasitic nematode larvae. 1. Psychodid flies as transport hosts. J. Helminthol. 45:133–137.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Tompkins, L.S. 1997. Of cats, humans, and Bartonella. New England J. Med. 337:1916–1917.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Turell, M.J. and Knudson, G.B. 1987. Mechanical transmission of Bacillus anthracis by stable flies (Stomoxy cakitrans) and mosquitoes (Aedes aegypti and Aedes taeniorhynchus). Infection and Immunity 55:1859–1861.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Umeche, N. and Mandah, L.E. 1989. Musca domestica as a carrier of intestinal helminths in Calabar, Nigeria. East African Med. J. 66:349–352.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Umunnabuike, A.C. and Irokanulo, E.A. 1986. Isolation of Campylobacter subsp. jejuni from oriental and American cockroaches caught in kitchens and poultry houses in Vom, Nigeria. Internat. J. Zoonoses 13:180–186.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Van der Maaten, M.J., Miller, J.M. and Schmerr, M.J.F. 1981. In utero transmission of bovine leukemia virus. Am. J. Vet. Res. 42:1052–1054.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Vaughan, V.C. 1899. Some remarks on typhoid fever among our soldiers during the late war with Spain. Am. J. Med. Sci. 118:10–24.

    Google Scholar 

  • Walker, E.D. and Edman, J.D. 1985. The influence of host defensive behavior on mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) biting persistence. J. Med. Entomol. 22:370–372.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Ward, R., Melnick, J.L. and Horstmann, D. 1945. Poliomyelitis virus in fly-contaminated food collected at epidemic. Science 101:491–493.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Watt, J. and Hardy, A.V. 1945. Studies of the acute diar-rheal diseases. XIII. Cultural surveys of normal populations. Publ. Hlth. Rep. 60:261–273.

    Google Scholar 

  • Watt, J. and Lindsay, J.R. 1948. Diarrheal disease control studies. I. Effect of fly control in a high morbidity area. Publ. Hlth. Rep. 63:1319–1334.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Webb, P.A., Happ, C.M., Maupin, C.O., Johnson, B.J.B., Ou, C.Y. and Monath, T.P. 1989. Potential for insect transmission of HIV: experimental exposure of Cimex hemipterus and Toxorhynchites amboinensis to human immunodeficiency virus. J. Infect. Dis. 160:970–977.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Weber, A.F., Moon, R.D., Sorensen, D.K., Bates, D.W., Meiske, J.C., Brown, C.A., Rohland, N.L., Hooker, E.C. and Strand, W.O. 1988. Evaluation of the stable fly (Stotmoxys calcitmns) as a vector of enzootic bovine leukosis. Am. J. Vet. Res. 49:1543–1549.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Weil, A.J. 1943. Progress in the study of bacillary dysentery. J. Immunol. 46:13–46.

    Google Scholar 

  • Wellman, G. 1950. Rotlaufübertragung durch Verschiedene blutsaugende Insektenarten auf Tauben. Zentrbl. Bakteriol. Parasitenk. 155:109–115.

    Google Scholar 

  • West, L.S. 1951. The housefly, its natural history, medical importance, and control. Comstock, Ithaca, New York. 584 pp.

    Google Scholar 

  • West, L.S. and Peters, O.B. 1973. An annotated bibliography of Musca domestica Linnaeus. Dawsons, Folkestone, UK 743 pp.

    Google Scholar 

  • Wiesenhutter, E. 1975. Research into the relative importance of Tabanidae (Diptera) in mechanical disease transmission. I. The seasonal occurrence and relative abundance of Tabanidae in a Dar es Salaam dairy farm. J. Nat. Hist. 9:377–384.

    Google Scholar 

  • Wilesmith, J.W., Straub, O.C. and Lorenz, R.J. 1980. Some observations on the epidemiology of bovine leukosis virus infection in a large dairy herd. Res. Vet. Sci. 28: 10–16.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Williams, D.L., Issel, C.J., Steelman, C.D., Adams, W.V., Jr. and Benton, C.V. 1981. Studies with equine infectious anemia virus: transmission attempts by mosquitoes and survival of virus on vector mouthparts and hypodermic needles, and in mosquito tissue culture. Am. J. Vet. Res. 42:1469–1473.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Wilson, B.H. 1968. Observations on horse fly abundance and the incidence of anaplasmosis in a herd of dairy cattle in southern Louisiana. Proc. 5th Nat. Anaplasmosis Conf., p. 173.

    Google Scholar 

  • Wilton, D.P. 1963. Dog excrement as a factor in community fly problems. Proc. Hawaiian Entomol. Soc. 18:311–317.

    Google Scholar 

  • Wollman, E. 1921. Le rôle des mouches dans le transport des germes pathogènes étudié par la méthode des élevages aseptiques. Ann. Inst. Pasteur 35:431–449.

    Google Scholar 

  • Woodall, J.P. and Bertram, D.S. 1959. The transmission of Semliki Forest virus by Aedes aegypti L. Trans. Royal Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. 53:440–444.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Woods, J.A. 1988. Lumpy skin disease—a review. Trop. Anim. Hlth. Prod. 20:11–17.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Yao, H.Y., Yuan, I.C. and Huie, D. 1929. The relation of flies, beverages and well water to gastro-intestinal diseases in Peiping. Nat. Med. J. China 15:410–418.

    Google Scholar 

  • Young, P.L. and Babero, B.B. 1975. Studies on the transmission of helminth ova by cockroaches. Proc. Okla. Acad. Sci. 55:169–174.

    Google Scholar 

  • Zahari, P., Hirst, R.G., Shipton, W.A. and Campbell, R.S.F. 1990. The origin and pathogenicity of Basidiobolus species in northern Australia. J. Med. Vet. Mycol. 28:461–468.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Zhang Ran, Chien Lien-sheng and Chang, J.T. 1990. Induction and isolation of an antibacterial peptide in Periplaneta americana. Acta Entomol. Sinica 33:7–13.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Editor information

Editors and Affiliations

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

Copyright information

© 2004 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht

About this chapter

Cite this chapter

Foil, L.D., Gorham, J.R. (2004). Mechanical Transmission of Disease Agents by Arthropods. In: Eldridge, B.F., Edman, J.D. (eds) Medical Entomology. Springer, Dordrecht. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-007-1009-2_12

Download citation

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-007-1009-2_12

  • Publisher Name: Springer, Dordrecht

  • Print ISBN: 978-1-4020-1794-0

  • Online ISBN: 978-94-007-1009-2

  • eBook Packages: Springer Book Archive

Publish with us

Policies and ethics