Two- and Three-Fluid Retention in a Porous Medium for Toluene by Gamma-Ray Attenuation
Part of the
NATO Science Series
book series (NAII, volume 134)
Ground water contamination non-aqueous phase liquids (NAPLs) have become a major environmental problem. NAPLs have low miscibility with water and therefore migrate through the subsurface as a separate liquid phase. A smaller part of these liquids may dissolve in water, and small concentrations can be hazardous for humans, see Scroth et al. . LNAPLs (light non-aqueous phase liquids), which are the NAPL lighter than water, include hydrocarbon fuels such as gasoline, heating oil, kerosene, jet fuel and aviation gas. When the LNAPL has been released from the storage tanks and pipelines, and waste disposal facilities into the subsurface, it moves through the pores and fractures of the soil due to the gravitational and capillary forces, see Cheng and Wang .
KeywordsPorous Medium Liquid Content Spreading Coefficient Liquid Reservoir Emerge Technology
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.
Bear, J. and Bachmat, Y. (1990). Introduction to modeling of transport phenomena in porous media
. Kluwer, Dordrecht.Google Scholar
Bradford, S. A. and Leij, F. J. (1995). Wettability effects on scaling two-and three-fluid capillary pressure-saturation relations. Environ. Sci. Tech.
, 1446–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cheng, P. and Wang, C. Y. (1996). A multiphase mixture model for multiphase, multicomponent transport in capillary porous media. II. Numerical simulation of the transport of organic compounds in the subsurface. Transport in Porous Media
, 3619–32.Google Scholar
Hofstee, C., Dane, J. H. and Hill, W. E. (1997). Three-fluid retention in porous media involving water, PCE and air. J. Contam. Hydrol.
, 25, 235-47.Google Scholar
Hubbell, J. H. (1982). Photon mass attenuation and energy-absorption coefficients from 1 ke V to 20 MeV. Int. J. Appl. Radiation Isotopes
, 1269–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hudak, P. F. (2000). Principles of hydrogeology
(2nd edn). Lewis Publishers, Boca Raton.Google Scholar
Imhoff, P. T., Jaffé, P. R. and Pinder, G. F. (1993). An experimental study of complete dissolution of a nonaqueous phase liquid in saturated porous media. Water Resources Res.
, 307–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ishakoglu, A. and Baytas, A. F. (2002). Measurement and evaluation of saturations for water, ethanol and a light non-aqueous phase liquid in a porous medium by gamma attenuation. Appl. Radiation Isotopes
, 601–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lenhard, R. J., Dane, J. H., Parker, J. C. and Kaluarachchi, J. J. (1988). Measurement and simulation of one-dimensional transient three-phase flow for monotonie liquid drainage. Water Resources Res.
, 853–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Oostrom, M., Hofstee, C, Dane, J. H. and Lenhard, R. J. (1998). Single-source gamma radiation procedures for improved calibration and measurements in porous media. Soil Sci.
, 646–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Scroth, M. H., Istok, J. D. and Selker, T. S. (1998). Three-phase immiscible fluid movement in the vicinity of textural interfaces. J. Contam. Hydrol.
, 1–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Walker, R. C., Hofstee, C., Dane, J. H. and Hill, W. E. (1998). Surfactant enhanced removal of PCE in a nominally two-dimensional, saturated, stratified porous medium. J. Contam. Hydrol.
, 17–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Zhou, D. and Blunt, M. (1997). Effect of spreading coefficient on the distribution of light non-aqueous phase liquid in the subsurface. J. Contam. Hydrol.
, 1–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2004