Multi Level Concept for the Detection of Explosives

  • Hermann Ries
Conference paper
Part of the NATO Science Series book series (NAII, volume 138)


Due to the type of terrorist attacks on airplanes detection of explosives is the important topic in air traffic security. 100% screening of bags has been introduced and a lot of experience has been collected with the first generation of machines in the field. Multi level systems have proven to be the appropriate tool in this environment. A new concept is presented in this paper, consisting of a new and fast level 1 machine evaluating both, Zeff and density. For level 2 an analysis via x-ray diffraction is proposed which uses information on the bags provided by level 1. Level 3, usually strongly dependent on local regulations, is provided with images from the previous levels. Special x-ray equipment is available for a detailed search at this level where most time per bag is available. Finally, the integration into baggage handling systems of airports needs consideration to cope with the requirements.


False Alarm Rate Effective Atomic Number Multilevel System Mean Time Between Failure Multi Level System 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hermann Ries
    • 1
  1. 1.Smiths Heimann GmbHWiesbadenGermany

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