The Detection of Explosives in Airport Luggage Using the Direct Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance Method

  • J. H. Flexman
  • T. N. Rudakov
  • P. A. Hayes
  • N. Shanks
  • V. T. Mikhaltsevitch
  • W. P. Chisholm
Part of the NATO Science Series book series (NAII, volume 138)


Pure Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance (NQR) is a very promising method for the detection and identification of illicit materials such as explosives and narcotics. NQR based machines are able to test closed luggage for illicit materials not readily identifiable by other methods. The application of the pure NQR method for screening of airport luggage is discussed. An advanced NQR machine which is a mid-sized luggage scanner has been developed by QRSciences Limited for use primarily in airports. The basic design, performance and some characteristics of this machine are reported.


Nuclear Quadruple Resonance Nuclear Quadruple Resonance Frequency Coherent Noise Nuclear Quadruple Resonance Signal Amine Nitrogen Atom 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Rudakov T. N. 1999 Magnetic Resonance: Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance, Instrumentation. In: Encyclopedia of spectroscopy and spectrometry, ed J. C. Lindon, G. E. Tranter and J. L. Holmes, Academic Press, London., vol.2,, pp.1663–1671.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Marino R A and Klainer S M 1977 Multiple spin echoes in pure quadrupole resonance J. Chem. Phys. 67 3388–89. Hirshfeld T and Klainer S M 1980 Short range remote NQR measurements J. Molec. Struct. 58 63–77. Klainer S M, Hirschfeld T B and Marino R A 1982 Fourier transform NQR spectroscopy. Fourier, Hadamard and Hilbert transforms in chemistry (A G Marshal ed.) Plenum NY pp 147–181Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Harding J C, Wade D A, Marino R A, Sauer E G and Klainer S M 1979 A pulsed NQR-FTT spectrometer for nitrogen-14 J. Magn. Reson. 36 21–33.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Bradford R, Clay C and Stick E 1951 A steady-state transient technique in nuclear induction Phys. Rev. 84 157–58.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Carr H Y 1958 Steady-state free precession in nuclear magnetic resonance Phys. Rev. 112 1693–1701.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Ernst R R and Anderson W A 1966 Applications of Fourier transform spectroscopy to magnetic resonance Rev. Sci. Instrum. 37 93–102.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Freeman R and Hill H D W 1971 Phase and intensity anomalies in Fourier transform NMR J. Magn. Reson. 4 366–83.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Buess M L, Garroway A N and Miller J B 1991 NQR detection using a meanderline surface coil J. Magn. Reson. 92 348–62.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Rudakov T N and Belyakov A V 1998 Modifications of the steady-state free- precession sequences for the detection of pure nuclear quadrupole resonance J. Phys.D: Appl.Phys. 31 1251–56.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Rudakov T N and Mikhaltsevich V T 2000 Steady-state free-precession in nitrogen-14 quadrupolar spin-system with axially symmetric electric field gradient tensor. Chem. Phys. Lett, 324, pp. 69–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Ostroff E D and Waugh J S 1966 Multiple spin echoes and spin locking in solids Phys. Rev. Lett. 16 1097.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Gerothanassis I P., 1987 Methods of Avoiding the Effects of Acoustic Ringing in Pulsed Fourier Transform Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy, Progress in NMR Srectroscoov, 19,267–329.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Fukushima E. and Roeder S. B. W. 1981 Experimental pulse NMR: A nuts and bolts approach., Perseus Books Publishing, Reading, Massachusetts.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Garroway A N, Buess M L, Yesinowski J P and Miller J B 1994 Narcotics and explosives detection by 14N pure NQR. Substance detection Systems (1993), SPIE Proceedings 2092 318–27.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Abe Y. 1967 Nuclear quadrupole relaxation of nitrogen in hydrazine. J. Phys. Soc. Japan. 23, 51–69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Petersen G. and Bray P.J. 1976 14N nuclear quadrupole resonance and relaxation measurements of sodium nitrite. J. Chem. Phys. 64 522–30.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. H. Flexman
    • 1
  • T. N. Rudakov
    • 1
  • P. A. Hayes
    • 1
  • N. Shanks
    • 1
  • V. T. Mikhaltsevitch
    • 1
  • W. P. Chisholm
    • 1
  1. 1.Research DivisionQRSciences LimitedCanningtonAustralia

Personalised recommendations